FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Food coloring
Food Portal
Food coloring spreading on a thin water film.
Food coloring spreading on a thin water film.

A food coloring is any substance that is added to food to change its color. It is sometimes used in cooking. Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x847, 84 KB) Summary An astronaut spreads food coloring in a thin water film. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x847, 84 KB) Summary An astronaut spreads food coloring in a thin water film. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...

Contents

Purpose of food coloring

People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the perceived flavor, in anything from candy to wine. [1] For this reason, food manufacturers add dyes to their products. Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 2000. Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... It has been suggested that Candy be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the condiment. ... H. J. Heinz Company (NYSE: HNZ), commonly known as Heinz, famous for its 57 Varieties slogan, is a processed food product company with its headquarters in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States of America. ...


While most consumers are aware that foods with bright or unnatural colors (such as the green ketchup mentioned above or children's cereals such as Froot Loops) likely contain food coloring, far fewer people know that seemingly "natural" foods such as oranges and salmon are sometimes also dyed to mask natural variations in color.[2] Color variation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of processing and storage often make color addition commercially advantageous to maintain the color expected or preferred by the consumer. Some of the primary reasons include: “Fruit Loops” redirects here. ...

  • Offsetting color loss due to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture, and storage conditions.
  • Masking natural variations in color.
  • Enhancing naturally occurring colors.
  • Providing identity to foods.
  • Protecting flavors and vitamins from damage by light.
  • Decorating purposes such as cake icing

Regulation

Food colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies have different views on food color safety. In the United States, FD&C (generally indicates that the FDA has approved the colorant for use in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics) numbers are given to approved synthetic food dyes that do not exist in nature, while in the European Union, E numbers are used for all additives approved in food applications. The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Many drugs are provided in tablet form. ... “Make-up” redirects here. ... For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ...


Most other countries have their own regulations and list of food colors which can be used in various applications, including maximum daily intake limits.


Natural food dyes

Caramel coloring is found in cola products. It is made from caramelized sugar. Annatto is a reddish-orange dye made from the seed of a tropical tree. Chlorella is green, and derived from algae. Cochineal is a red dye derived from cochineal insects. Beet juice, turmeric, saffron, paprika are also used as colorants. Titanium dioxide occurs naturally in minerals. Caramel coloring is caramel used as a food coloring; like caramel candy, it is made by controlled heating of sugar, generally in the presence of acids or alkalis and possibly other compounds, a process called caramelization. ... For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Bixin, the major apocarotinoid of annatto Annatto, sometimes called Roucou, is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloring. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species Chlorella vulgaris pyrenoidosa Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chlorella is a genus of single-celled green algae, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. ...


United States

Seven dyes were initially approved under the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, but several have been delisted and replacements have been found. [3] This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ...


Current seven

In the USA, the following seven artificial colorings are permitted in food (the most common in bold) as of 2007: 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Blue 1 redirects here. ... Brilliant Blue FCF (also known as FD&C Blue No. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Lump of Indian indigo dye Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... Fast Green FCF Fast Green FCF, also called Food green 3, FD&C Green No. ... Fast Green FCF Fast Green FCF, also called Food green 3, FD&C Green No. ... Allura Red AC Allura Red AC, also called Allura Red, Food Red 17, C.I. 16035, and FD&C Red 40, is a red azo dye. ... Allura Red AC Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names including: . It is used as a food dye and has the E number E129. ... Erythrosine (Tetraiodofluorescein) is a cherry-pink coal based fluorone food dye. ... Erythrosine (Tetraiodofluorescein) is a cherry-pink coal based fluorone food dye. ... Yellow 5 redirects here. ... Tartrazine (otherwise known as E102 or FD&C Yellow 5) is a synthetic yellow azo dye found in fruit squash, fruit cordial, coloured fizzy drinks, instant puddings, cake mixes, custard powder, soups, sauces, ice cream, ice lollies, sweets, chewing gum, marzipan, jam, jelly, marmalade, mustard, yogurt and many convenience foods... Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as Orange Yellow S, and FD&C Yellow 6) is a colourant that may be added to foods to induce a colour change. ... Sunset Yellow FCF (also known as Orange Yellow S, and FD&C Yellow 6) is a colourant that may be added to foods to induce a colour change. ...

Delisted

  • FD&C Red No. 2 - Amaranth (dye)
  • FD&C Red No. 4 [5]
  • FD&C Red No. 32‎ was used to color Florida oranges. [3] [5]
  • FD&C Orange No. 1, was one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven original food dyes allowed under the Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906.[3] [5]
  • FD&C Orange No. 2‎ was used to color Florida oranges. [3]
  • FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4 [5]
  • FD&C Violet No. 1 [5]

The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... FD&C Orange Number 1 was one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven original food dyes allowed under the Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906. ... This is an article about the United States Food and Drug Act; for the Canadian version see Food and Drugs Act. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Criticism

  • Norway banned all products containing coal tar and coal tar derivatives in 1978. New legislation lifted this ban in 2001 after EU regulations. As such, many FD&C approved colorings have been banned.
  • Tartrazine is a coal-tar derivative, and causes hives in less than 0.01% of those exposed to it [2].
  • Erythrosine is linked to thyroid tumors in rats.[6]

Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of high viscosity, which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Urticaria or Hives is a relatively common form of allergic reaction that causes. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ...

Dyes and lakes

In the United States, certifiable color additives are available for use in food as either "dyes" or "lakes".


Dyes dissolve in water, but are not soluble in oil. Dyes are manufactured as powders, granules, liquids or other special purpose forms. They can be used in beverages, dry mixes, baked goods, confections, dairy products, pet foods and a variety of other products. Dyes also have side effects which lakes do not, including the fact that large amounts of dyes ingested can color stools. A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ...


Lakes are the combination of dyes and insoluble material. Lakes tint by dispersion. Lakes are not oil soluble, but are oil dispersible. Lakes are more stable than dyes and are ideal for coloring products containing fats and oils or items lacking sufficient moisture to dissolve dyes. Typical uses include coated tablets, cake and donut mixes, hard candies and chewing gums, lipsticks, soaps, shampoos, talc etc. Lake pigments are pigments made by precipitating a dye on an inert substance, such as calcium sulphate. ... Dispersion can mean any of several things: A phenomenon that causes the separation of a wave into components of varying frequency. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... Dispersion can mean any of several things: A phenomenon that causes the separation of a wave into components of varying frequency. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ... A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. ...


Other uses

Because they are generally safer to use than normal artistic dyes and pigments, some artists have used food coloring as a means of making pictures, especially in forms such as bodypainting. Food coloring can serve as a means of dyeing fabric, however it is not washfast when used on cotton, hemp and other plant fibres, although it can be fixed on Nylon and animal fibres.


References

  1. ^ Jeannine Delwiche (2004). "The impact of perceptual interactions on perceived flavor". Food Quality and Preference 15: 137–146. 
  2. ^ a b FDA/CFSAN Food Color Facts. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  3. ^ a b c d "News of Food; U. S. May Outlaw Dyes Used to Tint Oranges and Other Foods", New York Times, January 19, 1954, Tuesday. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. “The use of artificial colors to make foods more attractive to the eye may be sharply curtailed by action of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Three of the most extensively used coal tar dyes are being considered for removal from the Government's list of colors certified as safe for internal and external use and consumption.” 
  4. ^ Red No. 3 and Other Colorful Controversies. FDA. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. “FDA terminated the provisional listings for FD&C Red No. 3 on January 29, 1990, at the conclusion of its review of the 200 straight colors on the 1960 provisional list. Commonly called erythrosine, FD&C Red No. 3 is a tint that imparts a watermelon-red color and was one of the original seven colors on Hesse's list.”
  5. ^ a b c d e "Food coloring", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. “Among the colours that have been “delisted,” or disallowed, in the United States are FD&C Orange No. 1; FD&C Red No. 32; FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4; FD&C Violet No. 1; and FD&C Reds No. 2 and 4. Many countries with similar food colouring controls (including Canada and Great Britain) also ban the use of Red No. 40, and Yellow No. 5 is also undergoing testing.” 
  6. ^ Jpn J Cancer Res. 1988 Mar;79(3):314-9

“FDA” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
FDA/CFSAN Food Color Facts (1998 words)
Color additives that are exempt from certification include pigments derived from natural sources such as vegetables, minerals or animals, and man-made counterparts of natural derivatives.
Both types of color additives are subject to rigorous standards of safety prior to their approval for use in foods.
Color variation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of food processing and storage often require that manufacturers add color to certain foods to meet consumer expectations.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Food coloring (826 words)
Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé cherries (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimes it is for effect, like the green ketchup that Heinz launched in 2000.
Food colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies have different views on food color safety.
Food coloring can serve as a means of dyeing fabric, however it is not washfast when used on cotton, hemp and other plant fibres, although it can be fixed on Nylon and animal fibres.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m