FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Food chain

Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. Organisms are connected to the organisms they consume by arrows representing the direction of biomass transfer. Typically a food chain or food web refers to a graph where only connections are recorded, and a food network or ecosystem network refers to a network where the connections are given weights representing the quantity of nutrients or energy being transferred. Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... In ecology, trophic dynamics is the system of trophic levels (Greek trophē, food) that describe the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats and what eats it. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...

Contents

Organisms represented in food chains

Primary producers, or autotrophs, are species capable of producing complex organic substances (essentially "food") from an energy source and inorganic materials. These organisms are typically photosynthetic plants, bacteria or algae, but in rare cases, like those organisms forming the base of deep-sea vent food webs, can be chemotrophic. Organisms that get their energy by consuming organic substances are called heterotrophs. Heterotrophs include herbivores, which obtain their energy by consuming live plants; carnivores, which obtain energy from consuming live animals; as well as detritivores, scavengers and decomposers, which all consume dead biomass. Energy enters the food chain from the sun. some energy and/or biomass is lost at each stage of the food chain as; faeces (solid waste), movement energy and heat energy (especially by birds and mammals). Therefore, only a a small amount of energy and biamass is incorporated into consumer's body and transferred to the next feeding level, thus showing a Pyramid of Biomass. Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donating molecules in their environments. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... u fuck in ua ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... A dung beetle rolling a ball of dung Detritivores (also known as saprophages, detrivores or detritus feeders) are organisms that recycle detritus (decomposing organic material), returning it into the food chain. ... Categories: Stub ... Decomposers (also called reducers) are organisms (often fungi or bacteria) that break down organic materials to gain nutrients and energy. ...

Example of a food chain in a Swedish lake
Example of a food chain in a Swedish lake

A food chain is the flow of energy from one organism to the next. Organisms in a food chain are grouped into trophic levels — from the Greek word for nourishment, trophikos — based on how many links they are removed from the primary producers. Trophic levels may consist of either a single species or a group of species that are presumed to share both predators and prey. They usually start with a primary producer and end with a carnivore. The diagram at right is a food chain from a Swedish lake. It can be described as follows: osprey feed on northern pike, that feed on perch, that eat bleak, that feed on freshwater shrimp. Although they are not shown in this diagram, the base of this food chain is likely phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are autotrophs, and are the base of the food chain by virtue of their ability to photosynthesize. Phytoplankton, as well as attached algae form the base of most freshwater food chains. It is often the case that biomass of each trophic level decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy is lost to the environment with each transfer. On average, only 10% of the organism's energy is passed on to its predator. The other 90% is used for the organisms life processes or is lost as heat to the environment. Graphic representations of the biomass or productivity at each trophic level are called trophic pyramids. In this food chain for example, the biomass of osprey is smaller than the biomass of pike, which is smaller than the biomass of perch. Some producers, especially phytoplankton, are so productive and have such a high turnover rate that they can actually support a larger biomass of grazers. This is called an inverted pyramid, and can occur when consumers live longer and grow more slowly than the organisms they consume. In this food chain, the productivity of phytoplankton is much greater than that of the zooplankton consuming them. The biomass of the phytoplankton, however, may actually be less than that of the copepods. Directly linked to this are pyramids of numbers, which show that as the chain is travelled along, the number of consumers at each level drops very significantly, so that a single top consumer (e.g. a Polar Bear) will be supported by literally millions of separate producers (e.g. Phytoplankton). Food chains are overly simplistic as representatives of what typically happens in nature. The food chain shows only one pathway of energy and material transfer. Most consumers feed on multiple species and are, in turn, fed upon by multiple other species. The relations of detritivores and parasites are seldom adequately characterized in such chains as well.The food chain has a producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, decomposer. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 207 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (393 × 1137 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source:Swedish Wikipedia made by user OlofE using images from Nordisk familjebok 5 juli 2004 kl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 207 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (393 × 1137 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source:Swedish Wikipedia made by user OlofE using images from Nordisk familjebok 5 juli 2004 kl. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophÄ“, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... The term primary producer (or autotroph) describes a trophic level in an ecosystem that includes all organisms which make their own food. ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophÄ“, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758 Northern pike The northern pike, Esox lucius, is a carnivorous fish of brackish and freshwaters of the northern hemisphere. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) The bleak is a small pelagic fish of the Cyprinid family. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... In ecology, the trophic level (Greek trophÄ“, food) is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. ... An ecological pyramid. ... A pyramid of numbers shows graphically the population of each level in a food chain. ... This article is about the animal. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ...


Food web

A food web extends the food chain concept from a simple linear pathway to a complex network of interactions. The earliest food webs were published by Victor Summerhayes and Charles Elton in 1923 and Hardy in 1924. Summerhayes and Elton's (right) depicted the interactions of plants, animals and bacteria on Bear Island, Norway,[1] while Hardy's food web showed the interactions of herring and plankton in the North Sea. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles Sutherland Elton (29 March 1900 – 1 May 1991) was an English biologist. ... Charles Sutherland Elton (29 March 1900 – 1 May 1991) was an English biologist. ... u fuck in ua ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Bjørnøya is located north of mainland Norway and south of Spitsbergen. ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


The direct steps as shown in the food chain example above seldom reflect reality. This web makes it possible to show much bigger animals (like a seal) eating very small organisms (like plankton). Food sources of most species in an ecosystem are much more diverse, resulting in a complex web of relationships as shown in the figure on the right. In this figure, the grouping of AlgaeProtozoaOligochaetaNorthern EiderArctic Fox is a food chain; the whole complex network is a food web.
Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Species Eiders are large seaducks in the genus Somateria. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Sheena Paredes

Sheena paredes is a type of organism belongs to the eves family which is known as "family of birds". http://img256.imageshack.us/img256/7571/1266258489lsq2.jpg


References

{{ "food chain" A Dictionary of Zoology. Ed. Michael Allaby. Oxford University Press, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. University of Utah. 22 November 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t8.e3348> }}


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Food Chain Centre - Best practise for you business (1772 words)
The Food Chain Centre is part of a national strategy to improve the competitiveness and profitability of farming.
The Food Chain Centre is part of the national strategy to improve the competitiveness and profitability of farming as set out in the Curry Report.
The Food Chain Centre is one part of a national strategy that is being monitored by Defra.
Food Chain Centre - Best practise for you business (296 words)
The Food Chain Centre is conducting a wide range of pilot programmes in the fresh produce sector aimed at improving business competitiveness.
The Food Chain Centre is running a programme of dairy value chain analysis to help identify improvements in supply chains and strengthen Collaboration.
The Food Chain Centre’s programme of 9 red meat value chain analyses has been completed and all the results are now published.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m