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Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The academic and usually ethnographic study of folklore is sometimes called folkloristics. Folklore is the second album by Canadian singer-songwriter Nelly Furtado, released by DreamWorks Records in the United States on November 25, 2003 (see 2003 in music). ... Folklore, or FolksSoul in Japan (formerly Monster Kingdom: Unknown Realms, Unknown Realms) is a video game for the PlayStation 3 announced at E3 2006 which is told to be The next generation of dark fantasy. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) generally refers to movement used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. ... Look up Legend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... For the music piece by Steve Reich see Proverb (Reich) Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A joke is a short story or series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of causing laughter or being found humorous by either listener/reader or performer/writer. ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ... The word tradition comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... Folkloristics is the formal academic study of folklore such as fairy tales and folk mythology in oral or non-literary traditions. ...

Contents

History

The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological goals; only in the 20th century did ethnographers begin to attempt to record folklore without overt political goals. The Brothers Grimm, Wilhelm and Jakob Grimm, collected orally transmitted German tales and published the first series as Kinder- und Hausmärchen ("Children's and Household Tales") in 1812. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... For information about the other uses of the name, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... The Brothers Grimm on a 1000DM banknote. ... Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863), German philologist and mythologist, was born at Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...


The term was coined in 1846 by an Englishman, William Thoms, who wanted to use an Anglo-Saxon term for what was then called "popular antiquities." Johann Gottfried von Herder first advocated the deliberate recording and preservation of folklore to document the authentic spirit, tradition, and identity of the German people; the belief that there can be such authenticity is one of the tenets of the romantic nationalism which Herder developed. The definition most widely accepted[citation needed] by current scholars of the field is "artistic communication in small groups," coined by Dan Ben-Amos a scholar at the University of Pennsylvania, and the term, and the associated field of study, now include non-verbal art forms and customary practices. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Some factual claims in this article or section need to be verified. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


While folklore can contain religious or mythic elements, it equally concerns itself with the sometimes mundane traditions of everyday life. Folklore frequently ties the practical and the esoteric into one narrative package. It has often been conflated with mythology, and vice versa, because it has been assumed that any figurative story that does not pertain to the dominant beliefs of the time is not of the same status as those dominant beliefs. Thus, Roman religion is called "myth" by Christians. In that way, both myth and folklore have become catch-all terms for all figurative narratives which do not correspond with the dominant belief structure. Sometimes "folklore" is religious in nature, like the tales of the Welsh Mabinogion or those found in Icelandic skaldic poetry. Many of the tales in the Golden Legend of Jacob de Voragine also embody folklore elements in a Christian context: examples of such Christian mythology are the themes woven round Saint George or Saint Christopher. In this case, the term "folklore" is being used in a pejorative sense. That is, while the tales of Odin the Wanderer have a religious value to the Norse who composed the stories, because it does not fit into a Christian configuration it is not considered "religious" by Christians who may instead refer to it as "folklore." The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about the country. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with skaldic poetry. ... The Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine is a collection of fanciful hagiographies, lives of the saints, that became a late mediæval best seller. ... Jacobus de Voragine (c. ... Christian mythology is the body of traditional narratives, that would be viewed as sacred stories by Christians, which would often serve to explain or symbolize Christianity and Christian cultures. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Saint Christopher (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...


Folk tales are general term for different varieties of traditional narrative. The telling of stories appears to be a cultural universal, common to basic and complex societies alike. Even the forms folktales take are certainly similar from culture to culture, and comparative studies of themes and narrative ways have been successful in showing these relationships. Also it is considered to be an oral tale to be told for everybody.


On the other hand, folklore can be used to accurately describe a figurative narrative, which has no sacred or religious content. In the Jungian view, which is but one method of analysis, it may instead pertain to unconscious psychological patterns, instincts or archetypes of the mind. This lore may or may not have components of the fantastic (such as magic, ethereal beings or the personification of inanimate objects). These folktales may or may not emerge from a religious tradition, but nevertheless speak to deep psychological issues. The familiar folklore, "Hansel and Gretel," is an example of this fine line. The manifest purpose of the tale may primarily be one of mundane instruction regarding forest safety or secondarily a cautionary tale about the dangers of famine to large families, but its latent meaning may evoke a strong emotional response due to the widely understood themes and motifs such as “The Terrible Mother”, “Death,” and “Atonement with the Father.” There can be both a moral and psychological scope to the work, as well as entertainment value, depending upon the nature of the teller, the style of the telling, the ages of the audience members, and the overall context of the performance. Folklorists generally resist universal interpretations of narratives and, wherever possible, analyze oral versions of tellings in specific contexts, rather than print sources, which often show the work or bias of the writer or editor. Jungian psychology refers to a school of psychology originating in the ideas of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and advanced by many other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Artwork by Arthur Rackham, 1909. ... A cautionary tale is a traditional story told in folklore, to warn its hearer of a danger. ... In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... In literature, a motif is a recurring element or theme that has symbolic significance in the story. ... ConTeXt is a document preparation system based on the TeX typesetting system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Editing may also refer to audio or film editing. ...


Contemporary narratives common in the Western world include the urban legend. There are many forms of folklore that are so common, however, that most people do not realize they are folklore, such as riddles, children's rhymes and ghost stories, rumors (including conspiracy theories), gossip, ethnic stereotypes, and holiday customs and life-cycle rituals. UFO abduction narratives can be seen, in some sense, to refigure the tales of pre-Christian Europe, or even such tales in the Bible as the Ascent of Elijah to heaven. Adrienne Mayor, in introducing a bibliography on the topic, noted that most modern folklorists are largely unaware of classical parallels and precedents, in materials that are only partly represented by the familiar designation Aesopica: "Ancient Greek and Roman literature contains rich troves of folklore and popular beliefs, many of which have counterparts in modern contemporary legends" (Mayor, 2000). An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ... This article is about the poetic technique. ... Ghost Stories (Japanese: 学校の怪談, Gakkō no Kaidan, School Ghost Stories) is a twenty-one-episode anime series created in 2000 by animation studio Aniplex for Fuji Television, based on a manga series by Yosuke Takahashi. ... Look up rumour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... Neighborly gossips in the Altstadt in Sindelfingen, Germany Gossip consists of casual or idle talk of any sort, sometimes (but not always) slanderous and/or devoted to discussing others. ... An ethnic stereotype is a generalized representation of an ethnic group, composed of what are thought to be typical characteristics of members of the group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The Abduction Phenomenon is as umbrella term used to describe a number of hypotheses, claims or assertions stating that extraterrestrial creatures kidnap individuals--sometimes called abductees--usually for medical testing or for sexual reproduction procedures. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Adrienne Mayor is a classical folklorist whose main interests have been pre-Darwinian interpretations of paleontological remains (in The First Fossil Hunters) and the use of biochemical weapons in the ancient world (in Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs). ... Aesops Fables or Aesopica refers to a collection of fables credited to Aesop (circa 620 BC – 560 BC), a slave and story-teller living in Ancient Greece. ...


Categories of folklore

A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... For other senses of this word, see archetype (disambiguation). ... For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... Blason Populaire is an umbrella genre in the field of folkloristics used to designate any item of any genre which makes use of stereotypes (usually, but not always, negative stereotypes) of a particular group. ... Childlore is the folklore or folk culture of children and young people. ... Childrens street culture refers to the cumulative culture of rhymes, songs, jokes, taboos, games, folklore, and places (e. ... A counting-out game is a simple game intended to select a person to be it, often for the purpose of playing another game. ... Aranda JJ: An Incident at the Bullring (1870) Costumbrismo refers to the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene. ... A craft is a skill, especially involving practical arts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Folk plays such as Hoodening, Guising and Mumming are generally verse sketches performed in countryside pubs, private houses or the open air, at set times of the year such as the Winter or Summer solstices. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Mount Isa, Australia, is often incorrectly referred to as the largest city in the world by area Toronto, Canada, was never designated by UNESCO as the worlds most multicultural city Factoid can refer to a spurious (unverified, incorrect, or invented) fact intended to create or prolong public exposure or... A festival is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some unique aspect of that community. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and cultural practices transmitted from generation to generation, in addition to the formally stated creeds and beliefs of a codified major religion. ... Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnopoetics refers to poetic traditions which are typically seen as tribal or otherwise ethnic by the West (or indeed between any ethnoculturally different peoples). ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ... A simile is a comparison of two unlike things, typically marked by use of like, as or than. Examples may include the snow was as thick as a blanket, or she was as smart as a crow. // Similes are widely used in literature, both modern and ancient. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or simply takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or the belief of some character(s) in them. ... A joke is a short story or series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of causing laughter or being found humorous by either listener/reader or performer/writer. ... Look up Legend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Tall Tale, also known as Tall Tale: The Unbelievable Adventures of Pecos Bill is a 1995 family Western movie starring Patrick Swayze, Nick Stahl, Oliver Platt, Roger Aaron Brown, Scott Glenn, Catherine OHara, and Jared Harris. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... GAMES Magazine is a United States based magazine devoted to games published by GAMES Publications, a division of Kappa Publishing Group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... A riddle is a statement or question having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. ... Look up saying in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For the music piece by Steve Reich see Proverb (Reich) Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ... A taunt is a sarcastic challenge or insult. ... Cumulus humilis indicates a good day ahead. ... Faxlore is a sort of folklore: an urban legend that is circulated, not by word of mouth, but by fax machine. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Arabian folklore has a long and colourful history. ... Procession in Klagenfurt The eastern and central Alpine region is rich in traditions dating back to pagan times, the pre-Christian Germanic (1st millennium), or even the Celtic (1st millennium BC) period. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is the folk tradition which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... Australian folklore refers to the folklore and urban legends of Australia. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... The tradition of storytelling is common throughout the Caribbean, and its tales are often African in origin. ... Chinese folktales have a long history, going back several thousand years. ... English folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in England over a number of centuries. ... // Estonian Mythology is a complex of myths belonging to the folk heritage of Estonians. ... Dutch Proverbs, by artist Pieter Brueghel the Elder 1559, with peasant scenes illustrating over 100 proverbs Dutch folklore, also known as folklore of the Low Countries includes the epics, legends, fairy tales and oral traditions of the people of the Netherlands, including to an extent the Germanic tribes and Belgic... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... French folklore encompasses the fables, folklore and fairy tales and legends of the Gauls, Franks, Normans, Bretons, and other peoples living in France. ... ... German folklore shares many characteristics with Scandinavian folklore due to origins in a common Germanic mythology. ... Hungarian mythology includes the myths, legends, folk tales, fairy tales and gods of the Hungarians. ... Folklore in India paints pictures of piety, valour, gods and goddesses. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jewish mythology is the body of mythology of the Jewish people and Judaism as understood by some people. ... Aggadah (Aramaic אגדה: tales, lore; pl. ... Japanese folklore is the folklore of Japan. ... Korean Folklore Korean folktales have a long history, going back several thousand years. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Categories G Germakoçi References Özhan Öztürk(2005). ... Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Pakistan has a wide variety of folklore,mostly regional based. ... ... Russian mythical heros See Ilya Muromets, Dobrynya Nikitich, Alyosha Popovich, Svyatogor, Nightingale the Robber, Bogatyr, Bylina Spirits See Koschei, Baba Yaga, Leshiy, Domovoi Categories: Russia-related stubs ... Scandinavian folklore is the folklore of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... Swiss mythology, before Christianity, was a mix of Celtic mythology and Germanic mythology. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (Çarşıbaşi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... Wales has a long and rich folklore tradition which has its roots in the wider Celtic and Indo-European cultural heritage but is nevertheless unique and distinctive. ...

See also

Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... Applied folklore is the branch of folkloristics concerned with the study and use of folklore and traditional cultural materials to address or solve real social problems. ... Public folklore is the term for the work done by folklorists in public settings in the United States and Canada outside of universities and colleges, such as arts councils, museums, folklife festivals, radio stations, etc. ... Image:Shitnook wind. ... This footprint carved into the rock on Dunadd, in Argyll, is linked to the crowning of the Scots kings of Dál Riata. ... Reputed ghost of a monk. ...

Other usages

Main article: Mathematical folklore

Folklore similar to many other kinds of folk stories. In mathematics and some related disciplines, the term folklore is used to refer to any result in a field of study which is widely known by practitioners of that field, but considered too trivial or unoriginal to be worth publishing by itself in the research literature. Such results often have to wait for a new textbook on the subject, or a survey article, before they appear in print. As the term is understood by mathematicians, folk mathematics or mathematical folklore means theorems, definitions, proofs, or mathematical facts or techniques that circulate among mathematicians by word-of-mouth but have not appeared in print, either in books or in scholarly journals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... In academia, a survey article is a paper that is a work of synthesis, published through the usual channels (a learned journal or collective volume, such as conference proceedings or collection of essays). ...


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For further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
What is Folklore? (1814 words)
In all cases, folklore and folklife are learned and perpetuated within the context of the "group,"; for it is the shared experience which shapes and gives meaning to the exchange.
While folklore is private and intimately shared by groups in informal settings, it is also the most public of activities when used by groups to symbolize their identity to themselves and others.
Actually, folklore is a word very much like culture; it represents a tremendous spectrum of human expression that can be studied in a number of ways and for a number of reasons.
IU Folklore and Ethnomusicology (115 words)
The Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology consists of two institutes -- theEthnomusicology Instituteand theFolklore Institute.
The nexus of Ethnomusicology and Folklore in one department fosters the integration of common interests, while department resources and faculty specializations allow for concentrated exploration of interests particular to each area.
Concentrations in both Ethnomusicology and Folklore focus on the cultural contexts as well as the experiential and cognitive aspects of:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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