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Encyclopedia > Folk music

Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Folk song may refer to: a song in the folk music genre Folk Song, a song by The Sundays from their 1997 album Static and Silence Category: ...

  • Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous with the term "Traditional music", also often including World Music and Roots music; the term "Traditional music" was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the other definitions that "Folk music" is now considered to encompass.
  • Folk music can also describe a particular kind of popular music which is based on traditional music. In contemporary times, this kind of folk music is often performed by professional musicians. Related genres include Folk rock and Progressive folk music.
  • In American culture, folk music refers to the American folk music revival, music exemplified by such musicians as Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, who popularized and encouraged the lyrical style in the 1950s and 1960s.

Contents

Traditional Music is a quasi-synonym for folk music. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. ... Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912–October 3, 1967) was a prolific American songwriter and folk musician. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ...

Traditional music

Main article: Traditional music

Folk music, in the most basic sense of the term, is music by and for the common people.[1] The Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary defines it as "music of the common people that has been passed on by memorization or repetition rather than by writing, and has deep roots in its own culture."[2] It is still being passed on in this way today. Traditional Music is a quasi-synonym for folk music. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


According to Webster's dictionary, folk music is the "traditional and typically anonymous music that is an expression of the life of the people in a community". People play and sing together rather than watching others perform.


Folk music is somewhat synonymous with traditional music. Both terms are used semi-interchangeably amongst the general population; however, some musical communities that actively play living folkloric musics (see Irish traditional music and Traditional Filipino music for specific examples), have adopted the term traditional music as a means of distinguishing their music from the popular music called "folk music," especially the post-1960s "singer-songwriter" genre.[citation needed] Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Traditional Music in the Philippines, like the traditional music of other countries, reflects the life of common folk, mainly living in rural areas rather than urban ones. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ...


Defining folk song

Folk songs are commonly seen as songs that express something about a way of life that exists now or in the past or is about to disappear (or in some cases, to be preserved or somehow revived). However, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what folk music (or folklore, or the folk) is.[3]


Gene Shay, co-founder and host of the Philadelphia Folk Festival, defined folk music in an April 2003 interview by saying: "In the strictest sense, it's music that is rarely written for profit. It's music that has endured and been passed down by oral tradition. [...] Also, what distinguishes folk music is that it is participatory—you don't have to be a great musician to be a folk singer. [...] And finally, it brings a sense of community. It's the people's music." Gene Shay is a representative of Philadelphias folk music scene. ... The Philadelphia Folk Festival is a three-day festival of folk music that has been held annually in Schwenksville, Pennsylvania in the vicinity of Philadelphia by the non-profit Philadelphia Folksong Society since 1957. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Recent research has suggested that the "folk process" may not be so simple to distinguish from other popular music processes. Early folk music was often written down and transformed by experts, even though they may have been amateurs.


The English term folk, which gained usage in the 19th century (during the Romantic period) to refer to peasants or non-literate peoples, is related to the German word Volk (meaning people or nation). The term is used to emphasize that folk music emerges spontaneously from communities of ordinary people. "As the complexity of social stratification and interaction became clearer and increased, various conditioning criteria, such as 'continuity', 'tradition', 'oral transmission', 'anonymity' and uncommercial origins, became more important than simple social categories themselves." For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


Charles Seeger (1980) describes three contemporary defining criteria of folk music:[4]

  1. A "schema comprising four musical types: 'primitive' or 'tribal'; 'elite' or 'art'; 'folk'; and 'popular'. Usually...folk music is associated with a lower class in societies which are culturally and socially stratified, that is, which have developed an elite, and possibly also a popular, musical culture." Cecil Sharp (1907)?, A.L. Lloyd (1972).
  2. "Cultural processes rather than abstract musical types...continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of which is found not only in the lower layers of feudal, capitalist and some oriental societies but also in 'primitive' societies and in parts of 'popular cultures'." Redfield (1947) and Dundes (1965).
  3. Less prominent, "a rejection of rigid boundaries, preferring a conception, simply of varying practice within one field, that of 'music'."

Some consider "folk music" simply music that a (usually) local population can - and does - sing along to. Much modern popular music over the past few decades falls into this category. Jack Knight, a modern songwriter, defines a "folk song" as any song that when played or performed gets people's lips moving in unison. Jazz musician Louis Armstrong and blues musician Big Bill Broonzy have both been attributed with the remark, "All music is folk music. I ain't never heard a horse sing a song." Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ... Big Bill Broonzy (1893 or 1898-1958) was a prolific United States composer, recorder and performer of blues songs. ...


Classical and folk

There was a vogue for folk music during the start of the Romantic period. One of the first to use it was Josef Haydn (see Haydn and folk music). Beethoven made arrangements of Irish, Welsh and Scottish folk songs (over 150 settings) (see List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven). Later composers used the material more liberally. Liszt, Brahms, Bruch, Tchaikovsky and Dvorak wrote folk dances that are often indistinguishable from tunes that come from the authentic tradition. Percy Grainger particularly enjoyed Morris dance tunes, and made many keyboard settings of them. Ralph Vaughan Williams made choral arrangement of English folk songs. Holst composed pseudo-folk dance tunes, as did Malcolm Arnold. Benjamin Britten made voice-and-piano arrangements of folk songs, though the chromatic harmonisation he did probably makes them hard for a folk enthusiast to enjoy. Using early types of recording equipment Bartok and Grainger made field recordings of folk singers and musicians. Bartok also arranged Magyar dances for keyboard, though they tend to be remote from the originals. This article discusses the influence of folk music on the work of the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn (1732-1809). ... Beethoven, caricatured by J. P. Lyser The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827) are known by various designations, including: by the opus numbers assigned by Beethovens publishers during his lifetime, e. ...


Folk revivals

Main article: Roots revival
See also: American folk music revival

As folk traditions decline, there is often a conscious effort to resuscitate them. Such efforts are often exerted by bridge figures such as Jean Ritchie, described above. Folk revivals also involve collaboration between traditional folk musicians and other participants (often of urban background) who come to the tradition as adults. A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... The American folk music revival was a phenomenon in the United States in the 1950s to mid-1960s. ...


The folk revival of the 1950s in Britain and America had something of this character. In 1950 Alan Lomax came to Britain, where at a Working Men's Club in the remote County Durham mining village of Tow Law he met two other seminal figures: A.L.'Bert' Lloyd and Ewan MacColl, who were performing folk music to the locals there. Lloyd was a colourful figure who had travelled the world and worked at such varied occupations as sheep-shearer in Australia and shanty-man on a whaling ship. MacColl, born in Salford of Scottish parents, was a brilliant playwright and songwriter who had been strongly politicised by his earlier life. MacColl had also learned a large body of Scottish traditional songs from his mother. The meeting of MacColl and Lloyd with Lomax is credited with being the point at which the British roots revival began. The two colleagues went back to London where they formed the Ballads and Blues Club which eventually became renamed the Singers' Club and was possibly the first of what became known as folk clubs. It closed in 1991. As the 1950s progressed into the 1960s, the folk revival movement built up in both Britain and America. It is sometimes claimed that the earliest folk festival was the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, 1928, in Asheville, Carolina, founded by Bascom Lamar Lunsford. Sidmouth Festival began in 1954, and Cambridge Folk Festival began in 1965. A. L. Bert Lloyd (1908-1982) was a British folksinger and collector of folk songs, and as such was a key figure in the folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Ewan MacColl (25 January 1915 - 22 October 1989) was a British folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright, and record producer. ... Sea shanties (singular shanty, also spelled chantey; derived from the French word chanter, to sing) were shipboard working songs. ... A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. ... Folk clubs (as distinct from American folk-music nightclubs) were primarily an urban phenomenon of 1960s and 1970s Britain. ... Bascom Lamar Lunsford (March 21, 1882 - September 4, 1972) was a lawyer, folklorist, and performer of traditional (folk and country) music from western North Carolina. ...


We must mention too Brittany's Folk revival beginning in the 1950s with the "bagadoù" and the "kan-ha-diskan" before growing to world fame through Alan Stivell 's work since the mid-1960s. Alan Stivell at Lorient Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou January 6, 1944) is a Breton musician from the town of Gourin. ...


Eastern Europe

During the Communist era national folk dancing was actively promoted by the state. Dance troupes from Russia and Poland toured Western Europe many times from about 1937 to 1990, and less frequently thereafter. The best known were the Red Army Choir and dancers. They recorded many albums. From Bulgaria, an all-female choir from Bulgarian State Radio sold albums around Europe. The first and most famous was "Le Mystere des Voix Bulgares" which even gained a certain chic after being promoted by British DJ John Peel. In Hungary, the group Muzsikás and the singer Márta Sebestyén became known throughout the world due to their numerous American tours and their participation in the Hollywood movie The English Patient and Sebestyén's work with the Deep Forest band. Categories: Eastern European music | Music stubs ... The Red Army Choir (Choir Aleksandrov) is a performing ensemble that served as the official army choir of the former Soviet Unions Red Army. ... The Bulgarian State Television Female Vocal Choir is a musical ensemble, created in Bulgaria in 1951 by Philip Koutev, the father of Bulgarian concert folk music. ... Muzsikás is a Hungarian musical group playing mainly folk music of Hungary and other countries and peoples of the region. ... Márta Sebestyén (born August 19, 1957, Budapest) is a Hungarian Folk vocalist. ... This article is about the book. ... Deep Forest is a musical group consisting of two French musicians, Eric Mouquet and Michel Sanchez. ...


Another example is the Hungarian model, the táncház movement. This model involves strong cooperation between musicology experts and enthusiastic amateurs, resulting in a strong vocational foundation and a very high professional level. They also had the advantage that rich, living traditions of Hungarian folk music and folk culture still survived in rural areas, especially in Transylvania. The involvement of experts meant an effort to understand and revive folk traditions in their full complexity. Music, dance, and costumes remained together as they once had been in the rural communities: rather than merely reviving folk music, the movement revived broader folk traditions. Started in the 1970s, tanchaz soon became a massive movement creating an alternative leisure activity for youths apart from discos and music clubs—or one could say that it created a new kind of music club. The tanchaz movement spread to ethnic Hungarian communities around the world. Today, almost every major city in the U.S. and Australia has its own Hungarian folk music and folk dance group; there are also groups in Japan, Hong Kong, Argentina and Western Europe. Táncház is an aspect of the Hungarian roots revival of traditional culture which began in the early 1970s, and remains an active part of the national culture across the country, especially in cities like Budapest. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ...


Balkans

Main article: Balkan music

The Balkan folk music is a type of folk music distinct from others in Europe. This is mainly because it was influenced by traditional music of the Balkan ethnic groups and mutual music influences of this ethnic groups in the period of Ottoman Empire. The music is sometimes characterised by complex rhythm. It comprises the music of: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and other countries including the historical states such as the Ottoman Empire, Yugoslavia or the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and the geographical regions such as Macedonia and Thrace. An important part of the whole Balkan folk music is the music of the local Romani ethnic minority. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (845 × 634 pixels, file size: 480 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tanec (Танец) the award winning folklore ensemble from Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (845 × 634 pixels, file size: 480 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tanec (Танец) the award winning folklore ensemble from Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. ... Tanec (in Macedonian language: Танец) is an eminent professional large folklore musical ensemble from Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The music of Southeastern Europe, sometimes characterised by complex rhythm, is a type of music distinct from others in Europe. ... The music of Southeastern Europe, sometimes characterised by complex rhythm, is a type of music distinct from others in Europe. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Music of Montenegro represents a mix of the countrys unique musical tradition and Western musical influences. ... Serbia and Montenegro is a Balkan country, recently ravaged by war that has caused widespread migration and cultural oppression. ... The Republic of Macedonia is a diverse country, with a Macedonian majority (65%) and a large Albanian minority (25%), and Turks, Cincars, Gypsies, Greeks and Serbs. ... Music of Yugoslavia can mean: Music of Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1941). ... Serbia and Montenegro is a Balkan country, recently ravaged by war that has caused widespread migration and cultural oppression. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Classical music -Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Rock Regional styles Aegean Islands - Arcadia - Argos - Athens - Crete - Cyclades - Dodecanese Islands - Epirus - Ionian Islands - Lesbos - Macedonia - Peloponnesos - Thessaloniki - Thessaly - Thrace - Cyprus Thrace is a historical region of Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. ... 19th century print of Romani musicians Roma musicians at a wedding in the Czech Republic in 2005 Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ...


The emergence of popular folk artists

During the twentieth century, a crucial change in the history of folk music began. Folk material came to be adopted by artists who marketed themselves more widely alongside other popular artists; they performed traditional music and songs in amplified concerts, and disseminated their work by recordings and broadcasting. In other words, a new genre of popular music had arisen. This genre was linked by nostalgia and imitation to the original traditions of folk music as it was sung by ordinary people. However, as a popular genre it quickly evolved to be quite different from its original roots. For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


The rise of folk music as a popular genre began with performers whose own lives were rooted in the authentic folk tradition. Thus, for example, Woody Guthrie began by singing songs he remembered his mother singing to him as a child. Later, in the 1930s and 1940s, Guthrie collected folk music and also composed his own songs, as did Pete Seeger, who was the son of a professional musicologist. Through dissemination on commercial recordings, this vein of music became popular in the United States during the 1930s (Jimmie Rodgers), the 1940s (Burl Ives), but more significantly, in the 1950s, through singers like the Weavers (Seeger's group), Harry Belafonte, The Kingston Trio, and The Limeliters, who tried to reproduce and honor the work that had been collected in preceding decades. The commercial popularity of such performers probably peaked in the U.S. with the Hootenanny television series[5] and the associated magazine ABC-TV Hootenanny in 1963–1964, which was cancelled after the arrival of the Beatles, the "British invasion" and the rise of folk rock. Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912–October 3, 1967) was a prolific American songwriter and folk musician. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... A musicologist is someone who studies musicology. ... Jimmie Rodgers was the name of two singers: Jimmie Rodgers (country singer) Jimmie Rodgers (pop singer) Jimmie Rodgers (SPC Deputy Director General) Note that there was also a Jimmy Rogers (note the spelling), a blues singer born in 1924. ... Burl Icle Ivanhoe Ives (14 June 1909 –14 April 1995) was an Academy Award winning American actor and acclaimed folk music singer and author. ... The Weavers were an immensely popular and influential folk music quartet from Greenwich Village, New York, United States. ... Harold George Belafonete, Jr. ... The Kingston Trios original lineup: Bob Shane, Dave Guard, Nick Reynolds The Kingston Trio is an American folk group. ... The Limeliters are a folk music group formed in July 1959 by Lou Gottlieb (bass), Alex Hassilev (baritone), and Glenn Yarbrough (tenor). ... Hootenanny was a musical variety television show broadcast in the United States on ABC from April, 1963 to September, 1964. ... In 1979, Linda Solomon surveys life in Greenwich Village from the roof of 95 Christopher Street. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ...


The itinerant folksinger lifestyle was exemplified by Ramblin' Jack Elliott, a disciple of Woody Guthrie who in turn influenced Bob Dylan. Sometimes these performers would locate scholarly work in libraries and revive the songs in their recordings, for example, in Joan Baez's rendition of "Henry Martin," which adds a guitar accompaniment to a version collected and edited by Cecil Sharp. Publications like Sing Out! magazine helped spread both traditional and composed songs, as did folk-revival-oriented record companies. Ramblin Jack Elliott Ramblin Jack Elliot (born Elliott Charles Adnopoz, August 1, 1931) is an American folk performer. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Sing Out! is a quarterly journal of folk music and folk songs that has been published since May 1950. ...


Folk music is easily identified with the ordinary working people who created it, and preserving treasured things against the claimed relentless encroachments of capitalism is likewise a goal of many politically progressive people. Thus, in the 1960s such singers as Joan Baez, Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, and Bob Dylan followed in Guthrie's footsteps and to begin writing "protest music" and topical songs, particularly against the Vietnam War, and likewise expressed in song their support for the American Civil Rights Movement. The influential Welsh-language singer-songwriter, Dafydd Iwan, may also be mentioned as a similar example operating in a different cultural context. Some critics, especially proponents of the ethnocentric Neofolk genre, claim that this type of American 'progressive' folk is not folk music at all, but 'anti-folk'. This is based on the idea that as liberal politics supposedly eschews the importance of ethnicity, it is incompatible with all folkish traditions. Proponents of this view often cite romantic nationalism as the only political tradition that 'fits' with folk music. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940–April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912–October 3, 1967) was a prolific American songwriter and folk musician. ... A protest song is a song which protests perceived problems in society. ... A topical song is a song that comments on current political and social events. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Dafydd Iwan (born August 24, 1943) is the president of Plaid Cymru -- The Party of Wales. ... Neofolk is a form of folk music that emerged from European ideals and post-industrial music circles. ... ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Simultaneous to the American folk movement was the Canadian folk movement, exemplified by artists Gordon Lightfoot, Leonard Cohen, and Joni Mitchell, all three of whom would become the only singers to receive an Order of Canada, and all of whom would achieve varying degrees of lasting international success. Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. ... Leonard Norman Cohen, CC (born September 21, 1934 in Westmount, Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ...


In Ireland, The Clancy Brothers & Tommy Makem (although the members were all Irish born, the group became famous while based in New York's Greenwich Village, it must be noted), The Dubliners, Clannad, Planxty, The Chieftains, The Pogues and a variety of other folk bands have done much over recent years to revitalise and re-popularise Irish traditional music. These bands were rooted, to a greater or lesser extent, in a living tradition of Irish music, and they benefited from collection efforts on the part of the likes of Seamus Ennis and Peter Kennedy, among others. The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem from left to right: Tom, Pat, Liam, and Tommy Makem The Clancy Brothers were an Irish folk music band, most popular in the 1960s, who are often credited with popularizing Irish traditional music in the United States. ... The Dubliners are an Irish folk band founded in 1962, making them one of the older bands still playing music today. ... This article is about the Irish musical group. ... Planxty was an Irish folk music band formed in the 1970s by Christy Moore, Donal Lunny, Andy Irvine (a founder of the Irish mid-sixties group Sweeneys Men), and Liam OFlynn (piper). ... The Chieftains are a Grammy-winning Irish musical group founded in 1963, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ... Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Séamus Ennis (1919 - 1982) was an Irish piper, singer and folk-song collector. ... Peter Douglas Kennedy (November 18, 1922 - June 10, 2006) was an English collector of folk songs in the 1950s. ...


In the United Kingdom, the folk revival didn’t create any popular stars (although Ewan MacColl’s “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” would eventually prove to be a hit for other artists), but it helped raise the profile of the music, and folk clubs sprang up all over, a boon to young artists like Martin Carthy and Roy Bailey who emerged. It also inspired a generation of singer-songwriters, such as Bert Jansch, Ralph McTell (whose “Streets Of London” would become a hit), Donovan, Roy Harper and many others. Bob Dylan came to London to check out the growing folk scene of the early 1960s, and Paul Simon spent several months there; his version of “Scarborough Fair” owed a lot to Carthy’s take on the song. Ewan MacColl (25 January 1915 - 22 October 1989) was a British folk singer, songwriter, socialist, actor, poet, playwright, and record producer. ... Martin Carthy (born May 21, 1941) is an English folk singer and guitarist who has remained one of the most influential figures in British traditional music, inspiring later artists such as Bob Dylan and Richard Thompson since he emerged as a young musician in the early days of the folk... Roy Bailey (born 20 October 1935, in London), is a British socialist folk singer. ... Herbert Jansch (born 3 November 1943[1]), known as Bert Jansch, is a Scottish folk musician and founding member of the band Pentangle. ... Ralph McTell (born Ralph May in Farnborough, England, 3 December 1944) is an English singer/songwriter and acoustic guitar player who has been an influential figure on the UK folk scene since the 1960s. ... For other uses, see Donovan (disambiguation). ... Roy Harper (born June 12, 1941), is an English rock singer-songwriter / guitarist who specialises in folk music. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Paul Frederic Simon (born October 13, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, half of the folk-singing duo Simon and Garfunkel who continues a successful solo career. ...


Folk didn’t hit any kind of mass popularity until the electric folk movement of Fairport Convention, The Byrds and Steeleye Span took old songs and mixed their tunes with rock. Both bands had hit singles and albums that sold well, bringing a new audience to traditional music. Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Byrds (formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1964) were an American rock band. ... Steeleye Span are a British folk-rock band, formed in 1969 and remaining active today. ... A song which has charted in one of the worlds music charts, or (if a specialist genre of music) had proven popularity. ...


The revival of the fifties and sixties had mostly died out by 1975. There was another revival in the second half of the 1990s. Once more folk music made an impact on mainstream music. There was a younger generation of artists, in some cases children of revival-inspired artists; (Eliza Carthy, for example, is the daughter of Martin Carthy and Norma Waterson). This time, notably, the instrumentation was largely acoustic, rather than electric. The skill level of players and singers was as high as before. As the number of summer folk festivals increased, so more talented performers have come in, and folk music has found at least a toehold in the mainstream with artists like Kate Rusby and Spiers and Boden featured in the press. March 2005, at the Junction, Cambridge Eliza Carthy (born August 23, 1975) is an English folk musician known for both singing and playing fiddle. ... Norma Waterson is a British musician, best-known as one of the original members of The Watersons, a premier British traditional group. ... Kate Rusby (born December 4, 1973) is an English folk singer and songwriter from Barnsley, South Yorkshire sometimes known as The Barnsley Nightingale. ... John Spiers and Jon Boden are an English folk duo. ...


The blending of folk and popular genres

The experience of the 20th century suggests that as soon as a folk tradition comes to be marketed as popular music, its musical content will quickly be modified to become more like popular music. Such modified folk music often incorporates electric guitars, drum kit, or forms of rhythmic syncopation that are characteristic of popular music but were absent in the original. An electric guitar An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... In music, syncopation is when a stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or failure to sound a tone on an accented beat occurs. ...


One example of this sort is contemporary country music, which descends ultimately from a rural American folk tradition, but has evolved to become vastly different from its original model. Rap music evolved from an African-American inner-city folk tradition, but is likewise very different nowadays from its folk original. A third example is contemporary bluegrass, which is a professionalised development of American old time music, intermixed with blues and jazz. country music, see Country music (disambiguation) Country music, the first half of Billboards country and western music category, is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music. ... Old-time music, a traditional style of American music, has roots in Irish, Scottish and African folk music. ... Blues music redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Sometimes, however, the exponents of amplified music were bands such as Fairport Convention, Pentangle, Mr. Fox and Steeleye Span who saw the electrification of traditional musical forms as a means to reach a far wider audience, and their efforts have been largely recognised for what they were by even some of the most die-hard of purists. Traditional folk music forms also merged with rock and roll to form the hybrid generally known as folk rock which evolved through performers such as The Byrds, Simon and Garfunkel and The Mamas and the Papas. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pentangle is a British folk-rock band. ... Mr. ... Steeleye Span are a British folk-rock band, formed in 1969 and remaining active today. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... The Byrds (formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1964) were an American rock band. ... The duo of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel are American popular musicians known collectively as Simon and Garfunkel. ... The Mamas & the Papas were a leading vocal group of the 1960s, and one of the few American groups to maintain widespread success during the British Invasion, along with The Beach Boys. ...


Outside the English-speaking world, the Breton artist Alan Stivell (a Celtic harpist, multi-instrumentalist and singer) has also fused folk music with rock and other influences. His tours and records since the mid-1960s have also influenced the work of many musicians everywhere. Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany Author André Breton This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alan Stivell at Lorient Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou January 6, 1944) is a Breton musician from the town of Gourin. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ...


Since the 1970s a genre of "contemporary folk", fueled by new singer-songwriters, has continued to make the coffee-house circuit and keep the tradition of acoustic non-classical music alive in the United States. Such artists include Dawn Xiana Moon, Chris Castle, Steve Goodman, John Prine, Cheryl Wheeler, Bill Morrissey, and Christine Lavin. Lavin in particular has become prominent as a leading promoter of this musical genre in recent years. Some, such as Lavin and Wheeler, inject a great deal of humor in their songs and performances, although much of their music is also deeply personal and sometimes satirical. While from Ireland The Pogues and The Corrs brought traditional tunes back into the album charts. Dawn Xiana Moon (born August 27, 1981 in Singapore) is known both as a singer-songwriter and writer for publications such as Relevant Magazine. ... Steve Goodman (July 25, 1948 – September 20, 1984) was an American folk music singer-songwriter from Chicago, Illinois. ... John Prine (born October 10, 1946, in Maywood, Illinois) is an American country/folk singer-songwriter who has achieved widespread critical (and some commercial) success since the early 1970s. ... Cheryl Wheeler (born July 10, 1951) is a New England-based singer/songwriter of contemporary folk music. ... Image:Bill Morrissey. ... Christine Lavin is a New York City based singer, songwriter, and promoter of contemporary folk music. ... The Pogues are a band of mixed Irish and English background, playing traditional Irish folk with influences from the English punk rock movement. ... The Corrs are a multi-platinum, Grammy-nominated Celtic folk-rock and pop rock group from Dundalk, Republic of Ireland. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ...


In the 1980s a group of artists like Phranc and The Knitters propagated a form of folk music also called country punk, cowpunk or folk punk, which eventually evolved into Alt country. More recently the same spirit has been embraced and expanded on by performers such as Dave Alvin, Miranda Stone and Steve Earle. At the same time, a line of singers from Joan Baez to Tom Paxton have continued to use traditional forms for original material. Phranc Phranc (born Susan Gottlieb in 1958) is an influential singer-songwriter from California whose career has spanned several decades. ... The Knitters are a Los Angeles based band that play country and folk music. ... Cowpunk or Country Punk is a subgenre of punk rock that began in southern California in the 1980s, especially Los Angeles. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ... Alternative country can refer to several ideas. ... Dave Alvin (born November 11, 1955, in Downey, California, USA) is a guitarist, singer and songwriter. ... Miranda Stone is a Canadian singer-songwriter. ... Steve Earle (born Stephen Fain Earle January 17, 1955) is an American singer-songwriter, well known for his rock and country music, as well as for his political views. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ...


The appropriation of folk has even continued into hard rock and heavy metal, with bands such as Skyclad, Waylander and Finntroll melding distinctive elements of folk styles from a wide variety of traditions, including in many cases traditional instruments such as fiddles, tin whistles and bagpipes as an element of their sound. Unlike other folk-related genres, folk metal shies away from monotheistic religion in favour of more ancient pagan inspired themes. Folk inspirations are a massive part of subgenres of black metal, with genres such as viking metal being defined on their folk stance, and many a band incorporating folk interludes into albums (eg, Bergtatt and Kveldssanger, the first two albums by once-black metal, now-experimental band Ulver). Hard Rock redirects here. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... The lineup at the time of the Folkémon album. ... Waylander is a Irish band influential in the realms of Celtic metal and folk metal. ... Finntroll is a folk metal band from Finland. ... // Jazz The earliest references to jazz performance using the violin as a solo instrument are documented during the first decades of the 20th century. ... The tin whistle, also called the tinwhistle, whistle, pennywhistle, or Irish whistle, is a simple six-holed woodwind instrument. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Folk metal is a diverse collection of music, encompassing a wide variety of different styles and approaches. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Viking metal is a term used in reference to heavy metal music with a dramatic emphasis on Norse mythology, Norse paganism, and the life and times of Northern and Central Europeans prior to the Christianization of Scandinavia. ... Bergtatt - Et Eeventyr i 5 Capitler (Spellbound - A faerietale in 5 chapters) is the debut album by Norwegian black metal band Ulver. ... Kveldssanger (Twilight Songs) is the Sophomore album by Norwegian post-black metal band Ulver. ... For experimental rock music, see experimental rock. ... Ulver (Norwegian for Wolves) is an experimental musical ensemble from Norway that started out making folk-inspired black metal and neo-classical folk music. ...


A similar stylistic shift, without using the "folk music" name, has occurred with the phenomenon of Celtic music, which in many cases is based on an amalgamation of Irish traditional music, Scottish traditional music, and other traditional musics associated with lands in which Celtic languages are or were spoken (a significant research showing that the musics have any genuine genetic relationship is still to be done - at this point, only a book in French written by Alan Stivell studies a bit the subject of Celtic Music-); so Breton music and Galician music are often included in the genre). Celtic music is a term utilized by artists, record companies, music stores and music magazines to describe a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Northern Europe. ... Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Tannahill Weavers Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which has remained vibrant throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Alan Stivell at Lorient Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou January 6, 1944) is a Breton musician from the town of Gourin. ... Brittany is on the northwest coast of France and is a region unique in that country in its Celtic cultural derivation. ... The Spanish regions of Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria are clustered together in the northern part of the country. ...


Most filk music can also be considered folk music both stylistically and culturally (though the 'community' it arose from, is an unusual and thoroughly modern one).[6] “Pegasus Award” redirects here. ...


Neofolk music is a modern form of music that began in the 1980s. Fusing traditional European folk music with post-industrial music forms, historical topics, philosophical commentary, traditional songs and paganism, the genre is largely European. Although it is not uncommon for neofolk artists to be entirely acoustic, playing with entirely traditional instruments. Neofolk is a form of folk music that emerged from European ideals and post-industrial music circles. ... Post-industrial is a term used to refer to a grouping of music genres related to the original usage of the term Industrial Music by Industrial Records through either influence or direct involvement, such as power noise, power electronics, technoid, types of experimental music and dark ambient. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


Another trend is "anti-folk," begun in New York City in the 1980s by Lach [1] in response to the "confined" traditional folk music. It now has a home at the Antihootenany in the East Village, where artists like Beck, the Moldy Peaches and Nellie McKay got their starts, and artists such as Robin Aigner, Roger Manning, Royal Pine[2], Matt Singer[3], Little Glitches [4], Phoebe Kreutz and Curtis Eller[5] continue to push the envelope of "folk." For other uses, see Lach (disambiguation). ... Roger Joseph Manning Jr. ... Matt Singer Matt Singer is the host and figurehead of IFC News. ... Little Glitches are a four piece folk/indie band from Sheffield, UK. The band formed in 2004 after all collibrating and writing together in previous bands. ...


The Contemporary Christian Music scene has also been emerging with its own form of folk singers, including David M. Bailey, the Smalltown Poets and others. Contemporary Christian Music (or CCM; also by its religious neutral term inspirational music) is a genre of popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... David M. Bailey is an American singer/songwriter who was born on February 26, 1966, and has released fourteen albums since 1997, primarily playing Contemporary Christian Music. ... Smalltown Poets is an alternative rock band formed in 1996. ...


Folk music is still popular among some audiences today, with folk music clubs meeting to share traditional-style songs, and there are major folk music festivals in many countries, eg the Port Fairy Folk Festival is a major annual event in Australia attracting top international folk performers as well as many local artists. Indeed, even for those who consider themselves hip, the arrival of Americana and the music of Bonnie "Prince" Billy, Devendra Banhart and Travis MacRae has shown that folk music can still be cutting edge. Port Fairy is a coastal town in Victoria, Australia, located on the Princes Highway, 28 kilometres west of the Warrnambool, 290 kilometres west of Melbourne. ... For other uses, see Americana (disambiguation). ... Will Oldham, a. ... Devendra Banhart (born May 30, 1981, in Houston, Texas, U.S.) is a folk rock singer-songwriter and musician. ... Travis MacRae is a Canadian singer/songwriter known for his folk (or folk blues) music, for his accomplished guitar and harmonica playing, and for his rough, somewhat Southern-styled vocals. ...


The Cambridge Folk Festival in Cambridge, England is always sold out within days, and is noted for having a very wide definition of who can be invited as folk musicians. The "club tents" allow attendees to discover large numbers of unknown artists, who, for ten or 15 minutes each, present their work to the festival audience. The Cambridge folk festival is renowned for its eclectic mix of music and a wide definition of what might be considered folk. ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Pastiche and parody

Popular culture sometimes creates pastiches of folk music for its own ends. One famous example is the pseudo-ballad sung about brave Sir Robin in the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Enthusiasts for folk music might properly consider this song to be pastiche and not parody, because the tune is pleasant and far from inept, and the topic being lampooned is not balladry but the medieval heroic tradition. The arch-shaped melodic form of this song (first and last lines low in pitch, middle lines high) is characteristic of traditional English folk music. A more recent similarly incisive send-up of folk music, this time American in origin, is the film A Mighty Wind by Christopher Guest and Eugene Levy. Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 film written and performed by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin), and directed by Gilliam and Jones. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... A Mighty Wind is a 2003 mockumentary about a folk music reunion concert and the three groups that must come together to perform on national television for the first time in years. ... For the Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, see Christopher Guest, Baron Guest. ... Eugene Levy (born 17 December 1946) is a Canadian Emmy and Grammy Award-winning actor, television director, producer and writer. ...


In the magazine fRoots there was a long-running parody of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (EFDSS). They were called "Dance Earnestly and Forget About Song Society" (DEAFASS). DEAFASS supporters favored the accordion over the melodeon and the string bass over the electric bass. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Cecil Sharp House in London is home to the English Folk Dance and Song Society The English Folk Dance and Song Society was formed in 1932 by the merger of two organisations, the Folk Song Society and the English Folk Dance Society formed by Cecil Sharp in 1911. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... The terms melodeon and melodion can refer to any of several related musical instruments of the free reed aerophone family: A type of 19th century reed organ with a foot-operated vacuum bellows, and a piano keyboard. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... A sunburst-colored Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ...


Another instance of pastiche is the notoriously well-known theme song for the television show Gilligan's Island (music by George Wyle, lyrics by Sherwood Schwartz). This tune is also folk-like in character, and in fact is written in a traditional folk mode (modes are a type of musical scale); the mode of "Gilligan's Island" is ambiguous between Dorian and Aeolian. The lyrics begin with the traditional folk device in which the singer invites his hearers to listen to the tale that follows. Moreover, two of the stanzas repeat the final short line, a common device in English folk stanzas. However, the raising of the key by a semitone with each new verse is an unmistakable trait of commercial music and never occurred in the original folk tradition. For the NES (Nintendo Entertainment System) video game, see The Adventures of Gilligans Island. ... George Wyle (22 March 1916 – 2 May 2003), born Bernard Weissman, was an American composer best known for having written the theme song to 1960s television sitcom Gilligans Island. ... Sherwood Charles Schwartz (b. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... In music, a scale is a collection of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... The Aeolian mode comprises a musical mode or diatonic scale. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ...


Folk music is easy to parody because it is, at present, a popular music genre that relies on a traditional music genre. As such, it is likely to lack the sophistication and glamour that attach to other forms of popular music. Folk music satire ranges from the worst excesses of Rambling Syd Rumpo and Bill Oddie to the deft and subtle artistry of Sid Kipper, Eric Idle and Tom Lehrer. Even "serious" folk musicians are not averse to poking fun at the form from time to time, for example Martin Carthy's devastating rendition of "All the Hard Cheese of Old England" (written by Les Barker), to the tune of "All the Hard Times of Old England", Robb Johnson's "Lack of Jolly Ploughboy," and more recently "I'm Sending an E-mail to Santa" by the Yorkshire-based harmony group Artisan. Other musicians have been known to take the tune of a traditional folk song and add their own words, often humorous, or on a similar-sounding yet different subject; these include The Wurzels, The Incredible Dr. Busker and The Mrs Ackroyd Band. In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... Rambling Syd Rumpo was a folk singer character played by English comedian Kenneth Williams in the radio comedy series Round the Horne. ... William Edgar (Bill) Oddie, OBE (born 7 July 1941 in Rochdale, Lancashire), is a British comedy writer and performer, author, composer and musician. ... Sid Kipper is the nom de plume of Chris Sugden, a Norfolk humorist. ... Eric Idle (born March 29, 1943) is an English comedian, actor, author and composer of comedic songs. ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... Martin Carthy (born May 21, 1941) is an English folk singer and guitarist who has remained one of the most influential figures in British traditional music, inspiring later artists such as Bob Dylan and Richard Thompson since he emerged as a young musician in the early days of the folk... Les Barker (born January 30, 1947) is an English poet. ... Robb Johnson is a musician and songwriter. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Artisan is an English vocal harmony trio, who sing acapella. ... The Wurzels perform at the University of Bath summer ball 2007. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Mrs. ...


Filk music originated in the 1950s as science fiction and fantasy oriented parodies of popular folk songs. While it eventually developed into a different style of folk music entirely, it still retains its fair share of parodies. “Pegasus Award” redirects here. ...


Folkies is the popular term for folk music enthusiasts. While the term itself is neutral and is used by some folk music enthusiasts in an informal and friendly manner, it has at times been used by the popular press at least since the late 1950s, as part of a light-hearted beatnik stereotype. Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Beatnik is a media stereotype that borrowed the most superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s to present a distorted (and sometimes violent), cartoon-like misrepresentation of the real-life people and the spirituality found in Jack Kerouacs autobiographical fiction. ...


Media

  • Barbara Allen
    Barbara Allen is a traditional folk ballad.
    Home on the Range
    A recording of the song from Raiford Penitentiary, Florida, 1939.
    O Sole Mio
    Sung by Enrico Caruso
    La Partida
    Sung by Enrico Caruso
    "Dixie"
    1916 rendition of Dixie by the Metropolitan Mixed Chorus, with Frank Stanley, Ada Jones, Billy Murray

    Songcatcher movie [6] Barbara Allen. ... The Ballad of Barbara Allen, also known as Barbara Ellen, Barbry Allen, Barbriallen, etc. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the common people. ... Image File history File links Home_on_the_range. ... Image File history File links O_Solo_Mio. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... Image File history File links La_Partida. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... Image File history File links Dixie_(1916). ... Sheet music cover, c. ... Ada Jones (June 1, 1873 – May 22, 1922) was a popular singer whose recordings ranged from 1905 to the early 1920s. ... Billy Murray (25 May 1877 - 17 August 1954) was one of the most popular singers in the United States in the early decades of the 20th century. ...

  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

See also

Folk music is one of the major divisions of music. ... Folk clubs (as distinct from American folk-music nightclubs) were primarily an urban phenomenon of 1960s and 1970s Britain. ... A music festival is a festival that presents a number of musical performances usually tied together through a theme or genre. ... A folk instrument is an instrument that developed among common people and usually doesnt have a known inventor. ... Folk metal is a diverse collection of music, encompassing a wide variety of different styles and approaches. ... The Anarchy Heart, a symbol popular in the young radical community, particularly with Folk Punks and Anarchists. ... Bob Dylans folk-rock album, Blonde on Blonde Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial folk music is a subgenre of folk music that focuses on the experiences of industrial workers. ... The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of 143,000 references to over 5,900 songs that have been collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. ...

Notes

  1. ^ *The Sally Bingham Center for Women's History and Culture (Duke University Libraries) defines it as "music of culturally homogeneous people without formal training, generally according to regional customs, and continued by oral traditions."Sally Bingham Center: Folk.
  2. ^ [http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/folkandblues/music_folk.htm
  3. ^ Middleton 1990, p.127
  4. ^ Quoted in Middleton 1990, p.127-8.
  5. ^ http://www.tvtome.com/Hootenanny/ TVtome.com Retrieved on 05-03-07
  6. ^ Hall of Fame acceptance speeches by Sally and Barry Childs-Helton

References

  • Harker, David (1985). Fakesong: The Manufacture of British 'Folksong', 1700 to the Present Day. Cited in van der Merwe (1989).
  • Lamentations chez les nomades bakhtiari d'Iran, Paris, 2003.
  • Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9.
  • Mills, Isabelle (1974). The Heart of the Folk Song, Canadian Journal for Traditional Music.
  • Seeger, Charles (1980). Cited in Middleton (2002)
  • van der Merwe, Peter (1989). Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-316121-4.

Further reading

  • Carson, Ciaran (1997). Last Night's Fun: In and Out of Time with Irish Music. North Point Press.
  • Bayard, Samuel Preston. "Prolegomena to a Study of the Principal Melodic Families of British-American Folksong," Journal of American Folklore (1950), 1-44.
  • Bevil, J. Marshall. Centonization and Concordance in the American Southern Uplands Folksong Melody: a Study of the Musical Generative and Transmittive Processes of an Oral Tradition (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, International, 1984).
  • Bevil, J. Marshall, "Scale in Southern Appalachian Folksong: a Reexamination," College Music Symposium (1986), 77-91.
  • Bevil, J. Marshall. "A Paradigm of Folktune Preservation and Change Within the Oral Tradition of a Southern Appalachian Community, 1916-1986." Read at the 1987 National Convention of the American Musicological Society, New Orleans.
  • Cowdery, James R. The Melodic Tradition of Ireland (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1990).
  • Jackson, George Pullen. White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands: The Story of the Fasola Folk, Their Songs, Singings, and "Buckwheat Notes" (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933).

External links

  • The World and Traditional Music section at the British Library Sound Archive
  • The Traditional Music in England project, World and Traditional Music section at the British Library Sound Archive

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