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Encyclopedia > Folic acid
Folic acid
IUPAC name N-[4(2-Amino-4-hydroxy
benzoyl]-L(+)-glutamic acid.
Other names pteroyl-L-glutamic acid; Vitamin B9, Vitamin M; Folacin
CAS number 59-30-3
RTECS number LP5425000
Molecular formula C19H19N7O6
Molar mass 441.403 g/mol
Appearance yellow-orange crystalline powder
Melting point

250 °C (523 K), decomp. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ...

Solubility in water 8.5 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 1st: 2.3, 2nd: 8.3
Main hazards non-toxic, non-flammable
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. These occur naturally in food and can also be taken as supplements. Folate gets its name from the Latin word folium ("leaf"). Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Folate in foods

Leafy vegetables such as spinach and turnip greens, dried beans and peas, fortified cereal products, sunflower seeds and certain other fruits and vegetables are rich sources of folate, as is polar bear liver. Some breakfast cereals (ready-to-eat and others) are fortified with 25% to 100% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for folic acid. A table of selected food sources of folate and folic acid can be found at the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Chinese cabbage Swiss chard Leaf vegetables, also called greens or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Grain redirects here. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ...


A key observation by researcher Lucy Wills in 1931 led to the identification of folate as the nutrient needed to prevent anemia during pregnancy. Dr. Wills demonstrated that anemia could be reversed with brewer's yeast. Folate was identified as the corrective substance in brewer's yeast in the late 1930s and was extracted from spinach leaves in 1941. It was first synthesised in 1946. Dr.Lucy Wills 1888-1964 Lucy Wills key observations 70 years ago led to the identification of folate as the nutrient needed to prevent anemia and other defects during pregnancy. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Brewers yeast (also known as brewers yeast or brewing yeast) can mean any live yeast used in brewing. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

Biological roles

Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells.[1] This is especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy. Folate is needed to replicate DNA. Thus folate deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting most clinically the bone marrow, a site of rapid cell turnover. Because RNA and protein synthesis are not hindered, large red blood cells called megaloblasts are produced, resulting in megaloblastic anemia.[2] Both adults and children need folate to make normal red blood cells and prevent anemia.[3] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Megaloblastic anemia is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) which results from a deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ...


In the form of a series of tetrahydrofolate compounds, folate derivatives are substrates in a number of single-carbon-transfer reactions, and also are involved in the synthesis of dTMP (2'-deoxythymidine-5'-phosphate) from dUMP (2'-deoxyuridine-5'-phosphate). It helps convert vitamin B12 to one of its coenzyme forms and helps synthesize the DNA required for all rapidly growing cells. For other uses, see Substrate. ... Thymidine monophosphate, also known as 5-thymidylic acid and abbreviated TMP, is a nucleotide that is found in DNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside thymidine. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coenzyme A Coenzymes are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ...

The pathway leading to the formation of tetrahydrofolate (FH4) begins when folate (F) is reduced to dihydrofolate (FH2), which is then reduced to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). Dihydrofolate reductase catalyses both steps.[4] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this articles references may require cleanup. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Dihydrofolic acid is a folic acid derivative acted upon by dihydrofolate reductase. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs | EC 1. ...

Methylene tetrahydrofolate (CH2FH4) is formed from tetrahydrofolate by the addition of methylene groups from one of three carbon donors: formaldehyde, serine, or glycine. Methyl tetrahydrofolate (CH3–FH4) can be made from methylene tetrahydrofolate by reduction of the methylene group; formyl tetrahydrofolate (CHO-FH4, folinic acid) results from oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate is the substrate used by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase to generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. ... In chemistry, methylene is a divalent functional group CH2 derived formally from methane. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... Serine (IPA ), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate is a methylated derivate of tetrahydrofolate. ... Folinic acid (INN) or leucovorin (USAN), generally administered as calcium folinate (or leucovorin calcium), is an adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving the drug methotrexate. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...

In other words:

F → FH2 → FH4 → CH2=FH4 → 1-carbon chemistry

A number of drugs interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and tetrahydrofolate. Among them are the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors (such as trimethoprim and pyrimethamine), the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of para-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase), and the anticancer drug methotrexate (inhibits both folate reductase and dihydrofolate reductase). Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim®) is a medication used for protozoal infections. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Para-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a chemical used in sunscreen that is an essential nutrient for some bacteria. ... Dihydropteroate synthetase is an enzyme classified under EC 2. ... Amethopterin redirects here. ...

1998 RDAs for Folate
Men Women
(19+) (19+) Pregnancy Breast feeding
400 µg 400 µg 600 µg 500 µg
1 µg of food folate = 0.6 µg folic acid from supplements and fortified foods

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III 1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-96 CSFII) indicated that most adults did not consume adequate folate.[5][6] However, the folic acid fortification program in the United States has increased folic acid content of commonly eaten foods such as cereals and grains, and as a result diets of most adults now provide recommended amounts of folate equivalents.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain redirects here. ...

Folate deficiency

Signs of folic acid deficiency are often subtle. ...


Folic acid is very important for all women who may become pregnant. Adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period, the time just before and just after a woman becomes pregnant, helps protect against a number of congenital malformations including neural tube defects.[8] Neural tube defects result in malformations of the spine (spina bifida), skull, and brain (anencephaly). The risk of neural tube defects is significantly reduced when supplemental folic acid is consumed in addition to a healthy diet prior to and during the first month following conception.[9][10] Women who could become pregnant are advised to eat foods fortified with folic acid or take supplements in addition to eating folate-rich foods to reduce the risk of some serious birth defects. Taking 400 micrograms of synthetic folic acid daily from fortified foods and/or supplements has been suggested. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for folate equivalents for pregnant women is 600-800 micrograms, twice the normal RDA of 400 micrograms for women who are not pregnant.[11] This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... The neural tube is the embryonal structure that gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Folic acid supplements and masking of B12 deficiency

There has been concern about the interaction between vitamin B12 and folic acid.[12]Folic acid supplements can correct the anemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Unfortunately, folic acid will not correct changes in the nervous system that result from vitamin B12 deficiency. Permanent nerve damage could theoretically occur if vitamin B12 deficiency is not treated. Therefore, intake of supplemental folic acid should not exceed 1000 micrograms (1000 mcg or 1 mg) per day to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. In fact, to date the evidence that such masking actually occurs is scarce, and there is no evidence that folic acid fortification in Canada or the US has increased the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency or its consequences.[13] Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... “Kg” redirects here. ...

However one recent study has demonstrated that high folic or folate levels when combined with low B12 levels are associated with significant cognitive impairment among the elderly.[14] If the observed relationship for seniors between folic acid intake, B12 levels, and cognitive impairment is replicated and confirmed, this is likely to re-open the debate on folic acid fortification in food. While public health policies tend generally to support the developmental needs of infants and children over slight risks to other population groups, the ratio of benefit in this case is likely to be on the scale of one child's life saved versus impairment of hundreds or thousands of seniors.

In any case, it is important for older adults to be aware of the relationship between folic acid and vitamin B12 because they are at greater risk of having a vitamin B12 deficiency. If you are 50 years of age or older, ask your physician to check your B12 status before you take a supplement that contains folic acid.

Health risk of too much folic acid

The risk of toxicity from folic acid is low.[15] The Institute of Medicine has established a tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folate of 1 mg for adult men and women, and a UL of 800 µg for pregnant and lactating (breast-feeding) women less than 18 years of age. Supplemental folic acid should not exceed the UL to prevent folic acid from masking symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.[16] The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...

Research suggests high levels of folic acid can interfere with some antimalarial treatments.[17] Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...

Some current issues and controversies about folate

Dietary fortification of folic acid

Since the discovery of the link between insufficient folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs), governments and health organisations worldwide have made recommendations concerning folic acid supplementation for women intending to become pregnant. For example, the United States Public Health Service (see External links) recommends an extra 0.4 mg/day, which can be taken as a pill. However, many researchers believe that supplementation in this way can never work effectively enough since about half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unplanned and not all women will comply with the recommendation. The neural tube is the embryonal structure that gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Template:Higher standard // History of the United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams in 1798 as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ...

This has led to the introduction in many countries of fortification, where folic acid is added to flour with the intention of everyone benefiting from the associated rise in blood folate levels. This is not uncontroversial, with issues having been raised concerning individual liberty, and the masking effect of folate fortification on pernicious anaemia (vitamin B12 deficiency). However, most North and South American countries now fortify their flour, along with a number of Middle Eastern countries and Indonesia. Mongolia and a number of ex-Soviet republics are amongst those having widespread voluntary fortification; about five more countries (including Morocco, the first African country) have agreed but not yet implemented fortification. In the UK the Food Standards Agency has recommended fortification.[18][19][20] To date, no EU country has yet mandated fortification.[21] Australia is considering fortification, but a period for comments ending 2006-07-31 attracted strong opposition from industry as well as academia.[22] Pernicious anemia refers to a type of autoimmune anemia. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Recent debate has emerged in the United Kingdom[23] and Australia[24] regarding the inclusion of folic acid in products such as bread and flour. For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ...

In the USA many grain products are fortified with folic acid.
In the USA many grain products are fortified with folic acid.

In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published regulations requiring the addition of folic acid to enriched breads, cereals, flours, corn meals, pastas, rice, and other grain products.[25][26] This ruling took effect 1998-01-01, and was specifically targeted to reduce the risk of neural tube birth defects in newborns.[27] There are concerns that the amount of folate added is insufficient[2]. In October 2006, the Australian press claimed that U.S. regulations requiring fortification of grain products were being interpreted as disallowing fortification in non-grain products, specifically Vegemite (an Australian yeast extract containing folate). The FDA later said the report was inaccurate, and no ban or other action was being taken against Vegemite.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1867 × 2790 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 401 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1867 × 2790 pixel, file size: 1. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Vegemite on toast. ... Yeast extract is the common name for yeast autolysates, that is, concentrations of yeast cells that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts digestive enzymes break their proteins down into simpler compounds. ...

Since the folic acid fortification program took effect, fortified foods have become a major source of folic acid in the American diet. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries that cover about half of United States births and extrapolated their findings to the rest of the country. This data indicates that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States.[28] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...

Although folic acid does reduce the risk of birth defects, it is only one part of the picture and should not be considered a cure. Even women taking daily folic acid supplements have been known to have children with neural tube defects.

Heart disease

Adequate concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, or vitamin B6 may decrease the circulating level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in blood. There is evidence that an elevated homocysteine level is an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke.[29] The evidence suggests that high levels of homocysteine may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot.[30] However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering homocysteine with vitamins will reduce your risk of heart disease. Clinical intervention trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B12 or vitamin B6 can lower your risk of developing coronary heart disease. The NORVIT trial suggests that folic acid supplementation may do more harm than good.[31] Homocysteine is a chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CH2CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a homologue of the naturally-occurring amino acid cysteine, differing in that its side-chain contains an additional methylene (-CH2-) group before the thiol (-SH) group. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...

As of 2006, studies have shown that giving folic acid to reduce levels of homocysteine does not result in clinical benefit. One of these studies suggests that folic acid in combination with B12 may even increase some cardiovascular risks.[32][33][34] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Folic acid appears to reduce the risk of stroke. The reviews indicate only that in some individuals the risk of stroke appears to be reduced, but a definite recommendation regarding supplementation beyond the current recommended daily allowance has not been established for stroke prevention.[35] For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


Some evidence associates low blood levels of folate with a greater risk of cancer.[36] Folate is involved in the synthesis, repair, and functioning of DNA, our genetic map, and a deficiency of folate may result in damage to DNA that may lead to cancer.[37] Several studies have associated diets low in folate with increased risk of breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer.[38] Findings from a study of over 121,000 nurses suggested that long-term folic acid supplementation (for 15 years) was associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer in women 55 to 69 years of age.[39] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor within the pancreatic gland. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...

"Folate intake counteracts breast cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption"[40] and "women who drink alcohol and have a high folate intake are not at increased risk of cancer".[41] Those who have a high (200 micrograms or more per day) level of folate (folic acid or Vitamin B9) in their diet are not at increased risk of breast cancer compared to those who abstain from alcohol.[42] A prospective study of over 17,000 women for ten years found that among those who consumed 40 grams of alcohol (about 3-4 drinks) per day and took 200 micrograms of folic acid per day, the risk of breast cancer fell to below that of alcohol abstainers.[43] Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ...


Folate is important for cells and tissues that rapidly divide.[1] Cancer cells divide rapidly, and drugs that interfere with folate metabolism are used to treat cancer. The antifolate methotrexate is a drug often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form, tetrahydrofolate. Unfortunately, methotrexate can be toxic,[44][45][46] producing side effects such as inflammation in the digestive tract that make it difficult to eat normally. Amethopterin redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this articles references may require cleanup. ...

Folinic acid is a form of folate that can help "rescue" or reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate.[47] Folinic acid is not the same as folic acid. Folic acid supplements have little established role in cancer chemotherapy.[48][49] There have been cases of severe adverse effects of accidental substitution of folic acid for folinic acid in patients receiving methotrexate cancer chemotherapy. It is important for anyone receiving methotrexate to follow medical advice on the use of folic or folinic acid supplements. Folinic acid (INN) or leucovorin (USAN), generally administered as calcium folinate (or leucovorin calcium), is an adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy involving the drug methotrexate. ...

Low dose methotrexate is used to treat a wide variety of non-cancerous diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, psoriasis, asthma, sarcoidoisis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.[50] Low doses of methotrexate can deplete folate stores and cause side effects that are similar to folate deficiency. Both high folate diets and supplemental folic acid may help reduce the toxic side effects of low dose methotrexate without decreasing its effectiveness.[51][52] Anyone taking low dose methotrexate for the health problems listed above should consult with a physician about the need for a folic acid supplement. Amethopterin redirects here. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. ... Sarcoidoisis Sarcoidosis (sar-kyo-dosis): A systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, expecially involving the lungs with resulting fibrosis, but also involving lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands; granulomas are composed of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little or no necrosis. Analysis of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ...


Some evidence links low levels of folate with depression.[53] There is some limited evidence from randomised controlled trials that using folic acid in addition to antidepressant medication may have benefits.[54] Researchers at the University of York and Hull York Medical School have confirmed a link between depression and low levels of folate in a research study involving 15,315 .[55] However, the evidence is probably too limited at present for this to be a routine treatment recommendation. On the Threshold of Eternity. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicine, used because of its record of reliability. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ...

Memory and mental agility

In a 3-year trial on 818 people over the age of 50, short-term memory, mental agility and verbal fluency were all found to be better among people who took 800 micrograms of folic acid daily—twice the current RDA—than those who took placebo. The study was reported in The Lancet on 19 January 2007.[56] The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Folate is necessary for fertility in both men and women. In men, it contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, on the other hand, it contributes to oocyte maturation, implantation, placentation, in addition to the general effects of folic acid and pregnancy. Therefore, it is necessary to receive sufficient amounts through the diet, in order to avoid subfertility.[57] Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ... Oogenesis or rarely oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). ... Implantation is a phenomenon in prenatal development, i. ... In biology, placentation refers to the formation, type and structure, or arrangement of placentas. ... A couple that has tried unsuccessfully to have a child for a year or more is said to be subfertile. ...

Induction of Acute Renal Failure

Folic acid is used in extremely high doses to induce Acute renal failure in murine models. It should be noted that the dose reported below represents about 120 years of the recommended daily intake [0.4 mg for adults] in one application, an experiment irrelevant to human nutrition. The exact method through which folic acid induces kidney injury in such massive dose is unknown, however it is characterized by the appearance of folic acid crystals in renal tubules and acute tubular necrosis. This method of renal injury is also linked to increased expression of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The dose of folic acid used to induce renal injury is usually around 250mg of folic acid per kg of body weight. The folic acid is usually administered in a vehicle of 0.3mmol/L of sodium bicarbonate.[58] Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... The kidney tubule, also renal tubule, is the portion of the kidney containing the fluid filtered through the glomerulus. ... Acute tubular necrosis may be toxic or ischemic. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ...


  • This article contains information from the public domain resource at http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/supplements/folate.html
  • Herbert V. (1999). Folic Acid. Shils M, Olson J, Shike M, Ross AC, (Eds.). Nutrition in Health and Disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (1998). Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline / a report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-06554-2. 
  • Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2000. http://www.ars.usda.gov/dgac

Shortcut: WP:PD There are many resources available on the net that are in the public domain, and therefore freely usable without restrictions for Wikipedia content. ...


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  17. ^ BBC Folic acid 'hinders malaria drug' 21 October 2006
  18. ^ FSA (17 May 2007). Board recommends mandatory fortification. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  19. ^ Backing for folic acid in bread. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
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  22. ^ The Sydney Morning Herald Bread fortification 'not justified' 2006-07-29
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  56. ^ Dr Jane Durga, Martin PJ van Boxtel, Prof Evert G Schouten, Prof Frans J Kok, Prof Jelle Jolles, Martijn B Katan, and Petra Verhoef Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial The Lancet 2007; 369:208-216 (free registration required)
  57. ^ The importance of folate, zinc and antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of subfertility. Ebisch IM, Thomas CM, Peters WH, Braat DD, Steegers-Theunissen RP
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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

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Biochemistry links

  Results from FactBites:
Folic Acid (15573 words)
Folic acid supplementation is known to lower homocysteine levels and laws have recently been passed in the United States mandating folic acid fortification of bread and cereal.
An inadequate intake of folic acid is firmly associated with an increased risk of vascular disease and, among women of childbearing age, with a significantly heightened risk of giving birth to a baby with neural tube defects.
Folic acid supplementation in women of childbearing age is becoming increasingly popular as an effective means of preventing neural tube defects in their offspring.
Vitamins : Folic acid, Folate (Vitamin M) (743 words)
Folic acid works closely with vitamins B6 and B12 as well as the nutrients betaine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to control blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine.
Folic acid is the synthetic form of this vitamin that is found in supplements and fortified foods.
Folic acid also works closely together with vitamin B12 to regulate the formation of red blood cells and to help iron function properly in the body.
  More results at FactBites »



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