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Encyclopedia > Foibe massacres

Coordinates: 45°37′54″N, 13°51′45″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Location of some of the foibe where killings took place
Location of some of the foibe where killings took place

Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. The name derives from the local geological feature, foiba (a type of deep karst sinkhole). This term indicates, by extension, the killings involving also other formations, such as the Basovizza foiba, which is actually a mining pit. Image File history File links Foibe_seats. ... Image File history File links Foibe_seats. ... A mass murder (massacre) involves the murder of large numbers of people either by a state or an individual. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Simple scheme of a foiba. ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ... Devils Hole near Hawthorne, Florida, USA. A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water. ...


Some claim the events and the Istrian exodus were an ethnic cleansing of civilians. Others assert that the number of victims was too small for this to be true, and that the killings were mostly restricted to fascists, both military and civilians, who might have had committed war crimes during World War II in Yugoslavia. A joint team of historians from Slovenia and Italy presented a view of the complex social and political relations in the turbulent history[1]. Italians in Istria in 1910. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Fascist redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

Contents

Slavs under Italian Fascist rule

After World War I, under the Treaty of Rapallo between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia) and the Kingdom of Italy (12 November 1920), Italy obtained almost all of Istria with Trieste, the exception being the island of Krk (Veglia) and part of Kastav commune, which went to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. By the Treaty of Rome (27 January 1924) Italy took Rijeka as well, which had been planned to become an independent state. The Treaty of Rapallo was a treaty between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes by which the latter was forced to give up parts of its Slovenian and Croatian territory. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Location of Krk in Croatia Krk (Italian Veglia, Latin Curicta) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of the Primorje-Gorski Kotar county. ... Kastav is little historical town near Rijeka and under Opatija (touristic centre of region). ... The Treaty of Rome of January 27, 1924 was an agreement by which Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the later Yugoslavia) assigned the city of Fiume (now Rijeka in Croatia) to Italian and its eastern neighbour Sušak to Yugoslav administration, with joint port administration, superseding...


In these areas, there was a forced policy of italianization of the population in the 1920s and 1930s [2]. Even during the brief preliminary period of occupation (1918-1920) Italy had begun a policy of assimilation of Croats and Slovenes. This resulted in the closure of the classical lyceum in Pazin, of the high school in Voloska (1918), the closure of the Slovenian and Croatian primary schools and the exile of some distinguished Croats and Slovenians to Sardinia and to other places in Italy. In addition, there were acts of fascist violence not hampered by the authorities, such as the torching of the Narodni dom (National House) in Pula and Trieste carried out at night by Fascists with the connivence of the police (July 13, 1920). The situation deteriorated further after the annexation of the Julian March, especially after Mussolini came to power (1922). The official policy of cleansing other nationalities was under no international restraint, as Italy had not given any undertaking about the rights of minorities in either the peace treaties or the Rapallo treaty. The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Venezia Giulia, also known as Julijska krajina in Slovenian, Vignesie Julie in Friulian Carsia Iulia in Latin, Julisch Venetien in German and Julian March, is a geographical, political and cultural region of Southeastern Europe, nestled on what is now the border between Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


In Istria the use of Croatian and Slovene languages in the administration and in the courts had already been restricted during the occupation (1918-1920). In March 1923 the prefect of the Julian March (Venezia Giulia) prohibited the use of Croatian and Slovene in the administration, whilst their use in law courts was forbidden by Royal decree on 15 October 1925. The deathblow to the Slovenian and Croatian school system in Istria was delivered on 1 October 1923 with the scholastic reform of minister Giovanni Gentile. The activities of Croatian and Slovenian societies and associations (Sokol, reading rooms, etc) had already been forbidden during the occupation, but specifically so later with the Law on Associations (1925), the Law on Public Demonstrations (1926) and the Law on Public Order (1926). All Slovenian and Croatian societies and sporting and cultural associations had to cease every activity in line with a decision of provincial fascist secretaries dated 12 June 1927. On a specific order from the prefect of Trieste on 19 November 1928 the Edinost political society was also dissolved. Croatian and Slovenian co-operatives in Istria, which at first were absorbed by the Pula or Trieste Savings Banks, were gradually liquidated [3]. After this complete dissolution of all Slav political, cultural and economic organizations, armed resistance was organized against Italian rule (see TIGR), followed by new repression, which further embittered relations between the two communities. Venezia Giulia, also known as Julijska krajina in Slovenian, Vignesie Julie in Friulian Carsia Iulia in Latin, Julisch Venetien in German and Julian March, is a geographical, political and cultural region of Southeastern Europe, nestled on what is now the border between Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. ... Giovanni Gentile (IPA:) (May 30, 1875 - April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian Idealist philosopher, a peer of Benedetto Croce. ... TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was the first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe, consisting of Slovenians in Slovenian region of Primorje (Primorski Slovenci). ...


Events

Foibe are often referred to in the context of mass killings in which the majority of victims were ethnic Italians, though many bodies found in the pits undoubtably belonged to Yugoslav Partisans.[citation needed] Such killings were committed after the capitulation of Italy[citation needed] on September 8, 1943 and in 1945, when the 8th Dalmatian Corps[4] of the Yugoslav partisans under Josip Broz Tito's command entered the Julian March, the Italian occupied western Slovenia as well as parts of Italian territory along the gulf of Trieste. Also, many dead Partisans were thrown into these pits during an Axis offensive in the area. The Yugoslav army (9th Corps) met with the British forces on the river Soča on May 3, 1945. In the aftermath, the city of Trieste and the surroundings came under Yugoslav administration. The Armistice with Italy is an armistice that occurred on September 8, 1943, during World War II. It was signed by Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were occupying the southern half of the country at the time. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tito redirects here. ... Venezia Giulia, also known as Julijska krajina in Slovenian, Vignesie Julie in Friulian Carsia Iulia in Latin, Julisch Venetien in German and Julian March, is a geographical, political and cultural region of Southeastern Europe, nestled on what is now the border between Italy, Slovenia and Croatia. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Soča River near Bovec The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy Trenta valley The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ...

Bodies of murdered Italian citizens recovered by firefighters and local civilians in 1943.
Bodies of murdered Italian citizens recovered by firefighters and local civilians in 1943.

The number of victims is still unknown, difficult to establish and a matter of much controversy. Estimates range from between 2,000 and 15,000. According to data gathered by a mixed Slovene-Italian historical commission established in 1993, the number of people missing in the present-day Slovenian Istria and Trieste (believed to have been thrown into the foibe) range from 1,300 to 1,600. This estimate does not include those killed in current Croatian territory. Some historians like Raoul Pupo or Roberto Spazzali estimated the total number of victims at about 5,000, but this is again contested by many. Image File history File links Foibe1. ... Image File history File links Foibe1. ...


The killings of 1943 are considered a reaction to the Italian pre-war and war crimes, such as concentration camps (among them the Rab and Gonars camps), political repression, forceful italianization and nationalistic repression of Slavs exercised by the Italian regime in the previous decades.[5] For several Italian historians these killings were the beginning of organized ethnic cleansing.[6] This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The Rab concentration camp was established during World War II in July 1942, when the Italians established a concentration camp near the village of Kampor on the island of Rab. ... The village of Sterzing, Italianized as Vipiteno. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


The episodes of 1945 occurred partly under conditions of guerrilla fighting of Croatian and Slovenian Yugoslav Partisans against the Germans, the Italian Social Republic and their Slavic collaborating allies (the Chetniks, the Ustaše and Domobranci) and partly after the securing of the territory by the army formations of Yugoslavia. Killings may have included war crimes as well as civilian crimes of private or political retaliation. For a point of view the main motive for the mass killings seems to have been a plan of political cleansing that is to say, elimination of potential enemies of the communist Yugoslav rule, including members of German and Italian fascist units, Italian officers and civil servants, parts of the Italian elite who opposed both communism and fascism (including the leadership of Italian anti-fascist partisan organizations) Slovenian and Croatian anti-communists collaborators and radical nationalists. For other point of view the main motive for the killings seems to have been retribution for the years of Italian repression, that is to say, forced Italianization, suppression of Slavic sentiments and, indeed, mass killings performed by Italian authorities during the war, not just in the concentration camps, but also in the punitary expeditions often undertaken by the fascists. Guerrilla redirects here. ... The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Narodno-oslobodilačka vojska i partizanski... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Head of State Benito Mussolini Historical era World War II  - Established September 23, 1943  - Disestablished April 25, 1945 ¹ External link The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Nazi puppet state led by... It has been suggested that Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland be merged into this article or section. ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ... Slovensko domobranstvo (German: Slowenische Landeswehr, English: Slovene Home Guard) or SD for short, was a collaborationist force, formed in September 1943 in the area of present day Slovenia (then a part of Yugoslavia). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Some Italian sources claim that ethnic cleansing was another motive, but many historians disagree with that statement because of low casualty numbers. However, others point out Tito's political aim of adding to the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia the Istrian territories as far as Trieste and including the city itself. The reason for this is the fact that these territories, according to both Italian and Yugoslav censi, had a Yugoslav majority. Since the Allied countries had different opinions on the redefinition of the eastern Italian border, it was preferable to reach Trieste before any other Allied forces and attempt to prove that the Slavic presence was a majority. Tito planned to use the city as a bargaining chip to add Istria to the SFRY. The ethnic map of the area could potentially be a decisive factor in the post-War conferences and for this reason, according to some Italian historians, the reduction of the ethnic Italian population was held desirable. However, the exodus, which reduced the Italian population of Istria and Dalmatia, started in before the killings were widely known and was motivated, for the most part, by the desire of the Italian people to live in their own country.[7] Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of peace with Italy is a treaty signed in Paris on February 10, 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of the World War II, formally ending the hostilities. ... Italians in Istria in 1910. ...


It should be noted, moreover, that a large part of the Italian population had a very negative opinion of the Slavs, whom they stereotyped as rural barbarians[citation needed], while a big part of the Slavic population had a negative attitude towards the Italians, stereotyped as murderous fascists and nationalists, so purely ethnic tensions could have played some role as far as individual motivations are concerned. For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ...


Quote from the report of the mixed Italian-Slovenian commission (referenced below) which succinctly describes the circumstances of the 1945 killings: Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ...

"14. These events were triggered by the atmosphere of settling accounts with the fascist violence; but, as it seems, they mostly proceeded from a preliminary plan which included several tendencies: endeavours to remove persons and structures who were in one way or another (regardless of their personal responsibility) linked with Fascism, with Nazi supremacy, with collaboration and with the Italian state, and endeavours to carry out preventive cleansing of real, potential or only alleged opponents of the communist regime, and the annexation of the Julian March to the new Yugoslavia. The initial impulse was instigated by the revolutionary movement which was changed into a political regime, and transformed the charge of national and ideological intolerance between the partisans into violence at national level."

Investigations of the Foibe

The first claims of people being thrown into foibe date back to 1943, when the Wehrmacht took back the area from the partisans. Thus, the first victims of the foibe appear to have been Partisans. The number of deaths herein has since come under certain suspicion, since they could have been exaggerated by Nazi Germany. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


No investigation of the crimes had been initiated either by Italy, Yugoslavia or any international bodies in the post-war period, until after Slovenia became an independent country in 1991. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


Italian-Slovenian relations in the relevant period (1880s to 1950s) have been under intensive study by historians since 1990. A joint report by a commission of historians from both countries was published under the auspices of the two governments in the year 2000 (referenced below). The report puts the Italian-Slovenian relations in a wider context, and touches the question of mass killings associated with the foibe. As no exact count was ascertained, the report includes a wording of "hundreds of victims," referring to the territory relevant for Italo-Slovenian relations, and thus excluding the Croatian territories. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ...


In March 2006, the border municipality of Nova Gorica in Slovenia finally released documents regarding 150 citizens of Gorizia (the twin town on the Italian part of the border) disappeared in 1945 after being deported by Tito's partizan of the IX corpus. The relatives had been requesting information from the Yugoslavian and then Slovenian authorities for years. The 150 individuals are supposed to be a fraction of those who were deported from the region and were killed later on inside Yugoslavia.[8] Area: 309. ... Gorizia (Slovenian: Gorica, German: Görz, Friulian: Gurize) is a small town at the foot of the Alps, in northeastern Italy, on the border with Slovenia. ...


Post War silence

The foibe have been a neglected subject in mainstream political debate, only recently garnering attention with the recent publication of several books and historical studies. It is thought that after World War II, politicians wanted to direct the country's attention toward the future and away from fascist crimes, subsuming the issue of the foibe within this mass "forgetting".


Another reason for the neglect of the foibe can be found in the high degree of ideology historically present in the public debate in Italy. The presence of the biggest Communist party in Western Europe made it difficult to look at recent history objectively. Many Istrians concealed their origins for fear of being identified by other Italians, who tended to believe that Italian Istrians who left after the war likely cooperated with the Fascists. Moreover, because of the Cold War and the desire to maintain good relations with Tito, the Yugoslav massacres were a dangerous topic to broach. Furthermore, Italy never extradited or prosecuted some two thousand Italian Army officers, government officials or former Fascist Party members, accused of war crimes by Yugoslavia, Ethiopia, Greece and other occupied countries and remitted to the United Nations War Crimes Commission.[9] According to some, the Italian government tacitly "exchanged" the impunity of the Italians accused by Yugoslavia for the renunciation to investigate the Foibe killings.[10] An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The United Nations War Crimes Commission (initially called the United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes) was a commission of the United Nations that investigated allegations of war crimes committed by the Nazi Germany and its allies in World War Two. ...


Reemergence of the foibe issue

Since the end of the Cold War, and more recently under the Presidency of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, the historical debate has begun to take on a less ideological tone. The coalition of Silvio Berlusconi brought the issue back into open discussion: the Italian Parliament (with the support of the vast majority of the represented parties) made February 10 National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe, first celebrated in 2005 with exhibitions and observances throughout Italy (especially in Trieste). The occasion is held in memory of innocents killed and forced to leave their homes, with little support from their home country. In Ciampi's words: Time has come for thoughtful remembrance to take the place of bitter resentment. Moreover, for the first time, leaders from the Left, such as Walter Veltroni(himself son of a Slovenian mother), visited the Basovizza foiba and admitted the culpability of the Italian Left in covering up the subject for decades. However, the conciliatory moves of Ciampi and Veltroni were not endorsed by all Italian political groups. Members of the National Alliance party (post-fascist right led by Gianfranco Fini) especially took advantage of the circumstance to promote a nationalist agenda, some even demanding the revision of treaties with former Yugoslav countries. The President of the Italian Republic is the head of State of Italy, and represents national unity. ... Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (born 9 December 1920 in Livorno) is an Italian politician and banker who has been both Prime Minister of Italy and President of the Italian Republic. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Walter Veltroni (Rome, 03 July, 1955) is a Italian politician and lead member of the Democrats of the Left party. ... National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale, AN) is a national-conservative Italian political party. ... Gianfranco Fini Gianfranco Fini (born January 3, 1952 in Bologna) is an Italian politician, currently Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister in the Government led by Silvio Berlusconi. ...


Nowadays, even a large part of the Italian Left acknowledges the violent political and nationalist nature of the foibe killings, as attested by some declarations of Luigi Malabarba, Senator for the Communist Refoundation Party, during the parliamentary debate on the institution of the National Memorial Day: "In 1945 there was a ruthless policy of exterminating opponents. Here, one must again recall Stalinism to understand what Tito's well-organized troops did. (...) Yugoslavian Communism had deeply assimilated a return to nationalism that was inherent to the idea of 'Socialism in One Country'. (...) The war, which had begun as anti-fascist, became anti-German and anti-Italian."[11] However, Malabarba and his party maintained that the discussion on the killings was being manipulated by the right-wing parties and that the new Memorial day was part of a general attempt to criminalize anti-fascism and Resistance. Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... The Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) is an Italian reformed communist party. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924 in the second edition of his Foundations of Leninism, further developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy Stalin. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ...


Slovenian and Croatian view

Slovenia has officially adopted the report of a joint commission describing Slovene-Italian relations from 1880 to 1956 (referenced below). Italian authorities have so far not reciprocated, stating that adopting it would give an official status to a historical research, and that this is not compatible with the principle of free research. Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ...


The Slovene and Croatian public and politics have come to acknowledge the atrocities of the foibe and other massacres committed at the end of World War II. They recognize these events as the result of Italian Fascism. After World War I areas later affected by the Foibe massacres (see map) were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy. After the rise of the Fascist regime, the Slavic part of the population was subjected to a policy of forced assimilation (ethnocide). Some incidents occurred even before the rising of the regime, such as the burning of the Slovene National House in Trieste by fascist supporters (1920), and many others. The Slovene population responded with one of the earliest militant anti-fascist organisations in Europe TIGR (active 1927-1941). The long-term and savage aggression of Italian politics (see also Italian war crimes) evoked a strong resistance movement during World War II in the area. Finally, the animosity culminated in revenge and further political divisions at the end of the war. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Fascist redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... TIGR, abbreviation for Trst (Trieste), Istra (Istria), Gorica (Gorizia) and Reka (Rijeka (Fiume)), was the first antifascist national-defensive organization in Europe, consisting of Slovenians in Slovenian region of Primorje (Primorski Slovenci). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Partially in response to the new Italian memorial day, Slovenia has enacted September 15 as a national holiday, memorial day of Reunification of the Slovene Littoral to the Homeland. is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bibliography

Many books have been written about the foibe, and results, interpretations and estimates of victims can in some cases vary largely according to the point of view of the author. Since most of the alleged foibe currently lie outside Italian territory, no formal and complete investigation could be carried out during the years of the Cold war, and books could be of a speculative or anecdotal nature. Since the topic seemed especially appealing to the far right, there is an overrepresentation of authors that can be traced to neo-fascism. Many authors from the left wing of politics have maintained that the foibe were either an exaggeration (or an invention) of the extreme right for propaganda purposes,[12] since the fascist crimes in the same areas dwarf even the most lavish of the foibe allegations.[10] Since a definitive investigation on all foibe has not yet been carried out, and is unlikely to be carried out anytime in the near future due to technical and political difficulties, the subject is still controversial, and one should approach any book in this bibliography with a critical spirit. For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...

  • Gianni Bartoli, Il martirologio delle genti adriatiche
Gianni Bartoli was the former mayor of Trieste, with the centrist Christian Democracy.
  • Claudia Cernigoi, Operazione Foibe—Tra storia e mito, Kappa Vu, Udine, 2005, ISBN X001486360. (The first edition of the book, published in 1997 as Operazione foibe a Trieste and limited in scope to the Trieste territory, is available online)
Claudia Cernigoi is apparently a former member of the Communist Refoundation Party.
Kappa Vu is a small left-wing publishing house.
  • Vincenzo Maria De Luca, Foibe. Una tragedia annunciata. Il lungo addio italiano alla Venezia Giulia, Settimo sigillo, Roma, 2000.
Settimo Sigillo is a small publishing house, specialised in revisionist books.
  • Gianni Oliva, Foibe, Oscar Mondadori, 2003, ISBN 88-04-51584-8.
  • Luigi Papo, L'Istria e le sue foibe, Settimo sigillo, Roma, 1999.
  • Luigi Papo, L'ultima bandiera.
Luigi Papo has been accused by the left of being a war criminal in Istria during World War II.
  • Marco Pirina, Dalle foibe all'esodo 1943-1956.
Pirina has been associated to the youth wing of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement, the FUAN, and Fronte Delta, an extreme-right university movement.
  • Raoul Pupo, Il lungo esodo. Istria: le persecuzioni, le foibe, l'esilio, Rizzoli, 2005, ISBN 88-17-00562-2.
  • Raoul Pupo and Roberto Spazzali, Foibe, Mondadori, 2003, ISBN 8842490156
Raoul Pupo is an associate professor in contemporary history at the University of Trieste.
  • Franco Razzi, Lager e foibe in Slovenia.
  • Guido Rumici, Infoibati, Mursia, Milano, 2002, ISBN 88-425-2999-0.
  • Giorgio Rustia, Contro operazione foibe a Trieste, 2000.
Rustia is apparently close to Forza Nuova, a neofascist movement.
  • Carlo Sgorlon, La foiba grande, Mondadori, 2005, ISBN 88-04-38002-0.
  • Pol Vice, Scampati o no - i racconti di chi uscì "vivo" dalla foiba, Kappa Vu, Udine, 2005.

A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Udine (Friulian Udin, Slovene Videm) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of the historical region of Friuli, in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche), less than 40 km from the Slovenian border. ... The Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) is an Italian reformed communist party. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... The Italian Social Movement (Movimento sociale italiano ) (MSI) was a neo-Fascist party formed 1946 in the post-World War II period by supporters of the executed dictator Benito Mussolini under the lead of Giorgio Almirante. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... The University of Trieste (Italian Università degli Studi di Trieste, UNITS) is a medium-sized university in Trieste in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. ... Forza Nuova (New Force) is an Italian nationalist and neo-fascist movement, a member of the European National Front. ...

References

  1. ^ (English): Slovene-Italian Relations 1880-1956 Report 2000;(Italian): Relazioni Italo-Slovene 1880-1956 Relazione 2000;(Slovene): Slovensko-italijanski odnosi 1880-1956 Poročilo 2000. See particularly the part for 1941-1945, items 10 and 11.
  2. ^ http://www.drcar-murko.si/en/vsbina.php?id=11
  3. ^ A Historical Outline Of Istria
  4. ^ http://www.vojska.net/eng/world-war-2/yugoslavia/corps/8/
  5. ^ Gian Luigi Falabrino. Il punto sulle foibe e sulle deportazioni nelle regioni orientali (1943-45) (Italian). Retrieved on 2006-06-07.
  6. ^ Silvia Ferreto Clementi. La pulizia etnica e il manuale Cubrilovic (Italian). Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
  7. ^ Paolo Sardos Albertini (2002-05-08). "Terrore" comunista e le foibe (Italian). Il Piccolo. Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  8. ^ Paolo Rumiz (2006-03-10). Gorizia: La storia. Quei 1048 nomi riemersi dalle foibe. (PDF) (Italian). La Repubblica. Retrieved on 2006-06-07.
  9. ^ Crimini di Guerra. La mancata estradizione e l'impunità dei presunti criminali di guerra italiani accusati per stragi in Africa e in Europa (Italian). Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
  10. ^ a b Marco Ottanelli. La verità sulle foibe (Italian). Retrieved on 2006-06-03.
  11. ^ Luigi Malabarba (2004-03-11). Declaration of Vote (PDF) (Italian). Transcript of the 561th Session of the Italian Senate 15. Retrieved on 2006-06-05.
  12. ^ Claudia Cernigoi. Capitolo III: Le foibe triestine (Italian). Operazione foibe a Trieste. Retrieved on 2006-06-07.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Report of the Italian-Slovene commission of historians (in three languages)

  • (English) Slovene-Italian Relations 1880-1956 Report 2000
  • (Italian) Relazioni Italo-Slovene 1880-1956 Relazione 2000
  • (Slovene) Slovensko-italijanski odnosi 1880-1956 Poročilo 2000

Other sources

See also

At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ... The 1944-1945 Killings in Bačka were the killings of several thousands of ethnic Hungarians in Bačka allegedly organised by members of the Yugoslav Partisan Movement after they gained control over the area between 1944 and 1945. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... THIS A HATE SPEECH AGAINST CROATS AND SHOULD BE CANCELLED FROM THE WIKIPEDIA. IT IS PRESUMED THAT CROATS COMITTED GENOCIDE AGAINST SERBS AND ITALIANS (the number of victims of the foibe should be studied by an italian-croat mixed commission, as it ranges according to various sources between 600-17000). ... Italians in Istria in 1910. ... Il Cuore nel Pozzo (Italian for The hearth in the pit; often reported in Croatian media with the translation Srce u bunaru and in Slovenian Srce v breznu) is a TV movie, produced by state broadcaster RAI, that focuses on the escape of a group of children from Titos...

Video

  • Italian documentary maybe of 1948
  • Italian documentary of 1998

 
 

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