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Encyclopedia > Flying boat
The Dornier Do X, largest airplane of the 1930s.

A flying boat is a type of aircraft which uses its fuselage as a floating hull, generally stabilised on the water surface by underwing floats or stub projections. It is a specialised form of seaplane, an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water utilising a carriage and pontoons that maintain the fuselage above water level. Image File history File links A Dornier Do X the largest seaplane of all times. ... Image File history File links A Dornier Do X the largest seaplane of all times. ... The Dornier Do X The Dornier Do X was a German flying boat that was the largest, heaviest and most powerful aircraft in the world when it was produced. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Flying boats were among the largest aircraft of the first half of the 20th century. Their ability to alight on water allowed them to break free of the size constraints imposed by general lack of large, land-based runways, and also made them important for the rescue of downed pilots, a capability put to great use in World War II. Following World War II, their use gradually tailed off, with many of the roles taken over by land aircraft types. In the 21st century, flying boats maintain a few niche uses, such as for dropping water on forest fires and for air transport around archipelagos. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

History

Origins

Curtiss NC Flying Boat "NC-3" water-taxis before takeoff, 1919.
Curtiss NC Flying Boat "NC-3" water-taxis before takeoff, 1919.

Before World War One the american pioneer aviator Glenn Curtiss, who had been experimenting with floatplanes, joined with Englishman John Cyril Porte to design a flying boat that could take the prize offered by the British Daily Mail newspaper for the first aerial crossing of the Atlantic ocean.[1] Porte developed a practical hull design with the distinctive 'step' which could be married to Curtis' airframe and engine design. The resulting large aircraft would be able to carry enough enough fuel to fly long distances and could berth alongside ships for refeulling. The war interrupted Porte's plans, but from 1914 Curtis produced his "America" flying boat, several examples of which were acquired by the Royal Naval Air Service and tested at their Seaplane Experimental Station, now run by Porte. Porte developed this model into the Felixstowe F.1 and its larger derivatives, used for coastal patrols and hunting U-boats. The NC-3 Flying Boat, from Leslies Magazine, June 7, 1919 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The NC-3 Flying Boat, from Leslies Magazine, June 7, 1919 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Curtiss NC (Navy Curtiss, nicknamed Nancy boat or Nancy) was a flying boat used by the United States Navy from 1918 through the early 1920s. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Glenn H. Curtiss at the Grande Semaine dAviation in France in 1909 Glenn Hammond Curtiss (May 21, 1878 – July 23, 1930) was an aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. ... A De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter float plane in Harbour Air livery. ... Lieutenant Commander John Cyril Porte RN CMG US DCM (1884-1919) was a flying boat pioneer associated with the World War One Seaplane Experimental Station at Felixstowe. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... The Seaplane Experimental Station at Felixstowe was a British aircraft design unit of the early part of the 20th Century. ... The Felixstowe Porte Baby was a British reconnaissance flying boat of the First World War first flying in 1916. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company independently developed its designs into the small model 'F', the larger model 'K' which was licensed to Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich as the Shchetinin M-5 for the Imperial Russian Navy, and the Model 'C' for the US Navy. Curtiss among others also built the Felixstowe F5L, the last of Porte's designs for US use. Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was an American aircraft manufacturer that went public in 1916 with Glenn Curtiss as president. ... Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich Dmitry Pavlovich Grigorovich, in Russian: Дмитрий Павлович Григорович, (born in Kiev, Ukraine, 25 January (6 February) 1883, died 26 July 1938 in Moscow) was a Russian/Soviet aircraft designer of a number of planes under the Grigorovich name. ... Grigorovich M-5 (alternative designation Shch M-5, sometimes also Shchetinin M-5) was a successful Russian World War I-era two-bay unequal-span biplane flying boat with a single step hull, designed by Grigorovich. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Curtiss F-5-L Patrol plane at Pensacola Naval Air Station The twin engine F5L was also known as the Curtiss F5L and as the Aeromarine 75 in civilian operation. ...


The Curtis NC-4 became the first airplane to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1919. In the 1920s and 1930s, flying boats made it possible to have regular air transport between the U.S. and Europe, opening up new air travel routes to South America, Africa, and Asia. Foynes, Ireland and Botwood, Newfoundland and Labrador were the termini for many early transatlantic flights. Where land-based aircraft lacked the range to travel great distances and required airfields to land, flying boats could stop at small island, river, lake or coastal stations to refuel and resupply. The NC-4 was the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... World map showing the location of Europe. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Foynes (Faing in Irish) is a small town and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary. ... Botwood is a town in north-central Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... This bridge across the Danube River links Hungary with Slovakia. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake (from Latin lacus) is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ...

The Pan Am Boeing 314 "Clipper" planes brought exotic destinations like the Far East in reach of air travelers and came to represent the romance of flight. BOAC and Imperial Airways provided flying boat passenger and mail transport links between Britain and South Africa, Australia and New Zealand using aircraft such as the Short Empire and the Short S.8 Calcutta. Image File history File links Boeing314. ... Image File history File links Boeing314. ... The Boeing 34114 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by Boeing from 1938 to 1941. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... The Boeing 34114 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by Boeing from 1938 to 1941. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... The Imperial Airways Empire Terminal, Victoria, London. ... The Short Empire or S.23 was a passenger and mail carrying flying boat, of the 1930s and 1940s, which flew between Britain and British colonies in Africa, Asia and Australia. ... The Short Calcutta or S.8 was a flying boat made by Short Brothers. ...

The military value of flying boats was quickly recognized, and they were utilized by various nations in tasks from anti-submarine patrol to maritime search and rescue. Aircraft such as the PBY Catalina, Short Sunderland and Grumman Goose recovered downed airmen and operated as scout aircraft over the vast distances of the Pacific Theater and Battle of the Atlantic during World War II. The largest flying boat of the war was the Blohm und Voss Bv 238 which was also the heaviest plane to fly during the Second World War. By the end of World War II, nearly 350 Gooses (they are never referred to as Geese) had been built. They helped the U.S. military and their allies with reliable transportation to remote locations all over the world. Kawanishi H8K The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Kawanishi H8K The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... The Kawanishi H8K (二式大型飛行艇, Type 2 Large Flying Boat. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... PBY Catalina was the United States Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ... The S.25 Sunderland was a flying boat patrol bomber developed for the Royal Air Force by Short Brothers, first flown on 16 October 1937. ... The Grumman G-21 Goose amphibious flying boat was designed as a 10 seat commuter plane for businessmen in the Long Island area. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign of World War II, running from 1939 right through to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, and was at its height from mid-1940 through to about the end of 1943. ... A BV238 shortly after takeoff. ...

Hughes H-4 Hercules.
Hughes H-4 Hercules.

The Hughes H-4 Hercules in development in the U.S. during the war was even larger than the Bv238, but it did not fly until 1947. The "Spruce Goose", as the H-4 was nicknamed, was the largest flying boat ever to fly.That short 1947 hop of the 'Flying Lumberyard' was to be its last however, a victim of post-war cutbacks and the disappearance of its intended mission as a transatlantic transport..[2] Image File history File links H-4 Hercules, The Spruce Goose source: [1] [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Howard Hughes Spruce Goose Seaplane Hughes Aircraft Category:Seaplanes and flying boats Categories: United States government images ... Image File history File links H-4 Hercules, The Spruce Goose source: [1] [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Howard Hughes Spruce Goose Seaplane Hughes Aircraft Category:Seaplanes and flying boats Categories: United States government images ... The Hughes H-4 Hercules (Spruce Goose), dubbed The Edsel of Aviation, is an aircraft which was designed and built by Howard Hughes Hughes Aircraft company. ... The Hughes H-4 Hercules (Spruce Goose), dubbed The Edsel of Aviation, is an aircraft which was designed and built by Howard Hughes Hughes Aircraft company. ...


Following the end of World War II, the use of flying boats rapidly declined though the U.S. Navy continued to operate such aircraft (notably the Martin P5M Marlin) until the early 1970s, even attempting to build a jet-powered seaplane bomber, the Martin Seamaster. Several factors contributed to the decline. The ability to land on water became less of an advantage owing to the considerable increase in the number and length of land based runways, which had been driven by the needs of the allied forces during the Second World War. Further, as the speed and range of land-based aircraft increased, the commercial competitiveness of flying boats diminished, as their design compromised aerodynamic efficiency and speed to accomplish the feat of waterborne takeoff and alighting. Competing with new civilian jet aircraft like the de Havilland Comet and Boeing 707 was impossible. Aircraft like the Saunders-Roe Princess made it to prototype stage but orders or a purpose never came. Helicopters overtook the flying boats in their air-sea rescue role. The land-based P-3 Orion and carrier-based S-3 Viking became the US Navy's fixed-wing anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The Martin P5M Marlin, built by the Glenn L. Martin Company of Middle River, Maryland, was the last flying boat in service with the United States Navy and the US armed forces in general. ... The Martin P6M SeaMaster, built by the Glenn L. Martin Company, was a 1950s strategic bomber flying boat for the United States Navy that almost entered service; production aircraft had been built and Navy crews were undergoing operational conversion, with a service entry about six months off, when the program... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... The Boeing 707 is a four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Saunders-Roe Princess was a very large flying boat aircraft built in the United Kingdom by Saunders-Roe, based in Cowes on the Isle of Wight. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a maritime patrol aircraft of numerous militaries around the world, used primarily for maritime patrol, reconnaissance, and anti-submarine warfare. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft — in effect acting as a sea... An S-3B Viking launches from the catapult aboard USS Abraham Lincoln The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a United States Navy jet aircraft used to hunt and destroy enemy submarines and provide surveillance of surface shipping. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


In the early to mid-1950s, there was an attempt to build a full-size, jet-powered flying boat (the Martin P6M Seamaster) for the U.S. Navy. Though several Seamaster aircraft were manufactured and flown, the project was terminated for a variety of reasons.


In 2008, Antilles Seaplanes is expected to commence manufacturing of the Antilles Goose, based upon the design of the Grumman Goose.[3]


In July of 2007 a re-enactment flight of the first transatlantic commercial flights (1937) from the Bay of Exploits, Newfoundland, Canada to Foynes, Ireland will take place using a vintage PBY Canso (Vintage Lady) flying boat. Captain Patrick White of Norris Arm will fly the aircraft.


Australian Connection

Just twenty years after the first powered flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, the new British aviation industry was experiencing rapid growth. The Government decided that rationalisation was necessary and ordered five aviation companies to merge and form Imperial Airways (IA). IA then became the official British airline. Also in 1923, the first British commercial flying boat service was introduced with flights to and from the Channel Islands. The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871–January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867–May 30, 1912), were two Americans generally credited with building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. ... The Imperial Airways Empire Terminal, Victoria, London. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


In 1928, a new world achievement in aviation attracted the attention of the Australian public when four Supermarine Southampton flying boats of the RAF Far-East flight arrived in Melbourne on a circumnavigation and flag-waving mission. The RAF crews were warmly welcomed by the waterside crowds, and the flight was considered proof that flying boats had evolved to become reliable means of long distance transport. The Supermarine Southampton was one of the most successful flying boats of the between-war period. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Melbourne (pronounced ) is the second most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3. ...


Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, better known as Qantas, was registered in Brisbane during November of 1920. With good levels of public support for the new faster public transport and agreements to carry domestic mail, the outback airline grew. By 1931, Qantas was trialling land plane flights with Imperial Airways, and mail was now reaching London in just 16 days - less than half the time taken by sea. QF may also mean Quick firing in British artillery terminology. ... Qantas (pronounced ) is the name and callsign of the national airline of Australia. ... Brisbane (pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, as well as the third largest city in Australia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Government tenders on both sides of the world invited applications to run new passenger and mail services between the ends of Empire, and Qantas and IA were successful with a joint bid. A company under combined ownership was then formed, Qantas Empire Airways. The new ten day service between Sydney's Rose Bay and Southampton was such a success with letter-writers that before long mail volumes were exceeding aircraft storage space. A solution to the problem was found by the British Government, who in 1933 had requested aviation manufacturer's Short Brothers to design a big new long-range monoplane for use by IA and the RAF. Partner Qantas agreed to the initiative and undertook to purchase six of the new Empire 'C' Class S.23 flying boats.[3] The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... Southampton is the largest city[1] on the south coast of England. ... Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company now based in Belfast. ... The Short Empire or S.23 was a passenger and mail carrying flying boat, of the 1930s and 1940s, which flew between Britain and British colonies in Africa, Asia and Australia. ...


Modern versions

The shape of the Spruce Goose was a harbinger of the shape of later aircraft yet to come,[citation needed] and the type also contributed much to the designs of later ekranoplans. However, true flying boats have largely been replaced by seaplanes with floats and amphibian aircraft with wheels. The Beriev Be-200 twin-jet amphibious aircraft has been one of the closest 'living' descendants of the flying-boats of old, along with the larger amphibious planes used for fighting forest fires, until the new model Antilles Seaplane arrives on the market in 2007. There are also several experimental/kit amphibians such as the Glass Goose, the LSA SeaMax and the Seawind. Hughes H-4 Hercules The Spruce Goose is the nickname commonly given to the Hughes H-4 Hercules, an aircraft designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft company, owned by Howard Hughes. ... An ekranoplan (Russian: , literally screen plane) is a vehicle resembling an aircraft but that operates solely on the principle of ground effect (in Russian эффект экрана effekt ekrana - from which the name derived). ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... An amphibious or amphibian aircraft is an aircraft that can land on either land or water. ... The Be-200 is a multipurpose amphibious aircraft being developed by the Beriev Aircraft Company as part of a cooperative project with Irkut. ...


The Canadair CL-215 and successor Canadair CL-415 are also examples of modern flying boats. The Canadian Canadair CL-215 (Superscooper) was the first model in a series of firefighting aircraft built by Canadair and later Bombardier. ... The Bombardier (formerly Canadair) CL-415 (Superscooper) is a Canadian amphibious aircraft purpose-built as a water bomber. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ enhanced by a further sum from the "Women's Aerial League of Great Britain"[1]
  2. ^ Its claim to true flying status is disputed as it made but one short flight in its life
  3. ^ [2]

See also

The AD Flying Boat was designed by the British Admiraltys Air Department to serve as a patrol aircraft that could operate in conjunction with Royal Navy warships. ... The following is a list of flying boats and seaplanes Canada Bombardier CL 415, Canada, 1993, firefighting, amphibious China Harbin SH 5, Peoples Republic of China, 1976, Amphibious Germany Blohm & Voss BV 222 Blohm & Voss BV 238 Blohm & Voss Ha 139 Dornier Do 18 Dornier Do 24 Dornier Do... The Dornier Do X The Dornier Do X was a German flying boat that was the largest, heaviest and most powerful aircraft in the world when it was produced. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... An amphibious or amphibian aircraft is an aircraft that can land on either land or water. ... Jerome Clarke Hunsaker (August 26, 1886-September 10, 1984) was an American airman born in Creston, Iowa, and educated at the Naval Academy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Gatow Airport is an airport in the city of Berlin, Germany. ... Maureen OHara Maureen OHara (born Maureen FitzSimons) on August 17, 1920 is an Irish film actress. ... Foynes (Faing in Irish) is a small town and major port in County Limerick in the midwest of Ireland, located at the edge of hilly land on the southern bank of the Shannon Estuary. ... William (Bill) Chen (born 1970) is a quantitative analyst, poker player and software designer with a Ph. ... An ekranoplan (Russian: , literally screen plane) is a vehicle resembling an aircraft but that operates solely on the principle of ground effect (in Russian эффект экрана effekt ekrana - from which the name derived). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flying boat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (757 words)
Flying boats were among the largest aircraft of the first half of the 20th century.
The military value of flying boats was quickly recognized, and they were utilized by various nations in tasks from anti-submarine patrol to maritime search and rescue.
The largest flying boat of the war was the Blohm und Voss Bv 238 which was also the heaviest plane to fly during the Second World War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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