FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Flutina
A flutina
A flutina

The flutina is an early precursor to the diatonic button accordion, having one or two rows of treble buttons, which are configured to have the tonic of the scale, on the "draw" of the bellows. There is usually no bass keyboard: the left hand operates an air valve (silent except for the rush of air). A rocker switch, called a "bascule d'harmonie" is in the front of the keyboard. When this switch is thumb activated, it would open up a pallet (a pad that covers a tone hole, at the other end of the key button(s), (see photo) for a simple Tonic/Dominant drone: Tonic on the draw and Dominant on the press, e.g. Tonic notes C/g, and Dominant G/d, without any major or minor thirds. Civil war era concertina Source: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Civil war era concertina Source: National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A diatonic button accordion is a type of button accordion where the melody-side keyboard is limited to the notes of diatonic scales in a small number of keys (sometimes only one). ... Treble is a term applied in music to the high or acute part of the musical system, as opposed to the bass, the lower or grave part. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music, a scale is a set of musical notes in order by pitch, either ascending or descending. ... Hand bellows The bellows is a device for delivering pressured air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location. ... Bass (IPA: [], rhyming with face), when used as an adjective, describes tones of low frequency. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much or all of a piece, sustained or repeated, and most often establishing a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built. ... A major third is the larger of two commonly occuring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ... A minor third is the smaller of two commonly occurring musical intervals that span three diatonic scale degrees. ...

Many of these "Flutina" accordions were imported into the United States and were common photographers' studio props. This imparted a touch of "culture" to the sitter, hence the many tintype, ambrotype, etc. images of men and women, with their hands poised over "Flutinas", which they may (or may not) have actually played. Many of the images date from the 1850s through the American Civil War period (1861-1865). This is a ferrotype, circa 1870, possibly made in Philadelphia, of an African-American man leaning on a hitching post. ... Many ambrotypes were made by unknown photographers, such as this American example of a small girl holding a flower, circa 1860. ... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-four mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

The internal construction of the flutina resembles the English Wheatstone concertina more than the "reed banks" used in regular accordion construction. Thus, it has a concertina-like sound. Underneath the pallet/keyboard face, there is a rectangular, wooden board, reed pan, with reed chambers, made with air tight,leather covered,thin wooden dividers,. These dividers are between the reeds, for the diatonic scale notes. The brass reed tongues are mounted on reed shoes, with each tongue nailed on with a single metal pin. These reed shoes (or frames) are inserted into dovetail-shaped slots into the top side of the pan. If the keyboard has two rows of keys, the outside row plays the diatonic scale, while the inside row plays the sharps and flats, and these chromatic reeds face the interior of the bellows, in dovetailed slots on the backside of the pan board, without any dividers. The face of the pallet/keyboard actually slides out to reveal the inset reed pan, reminiscent of the construction of a pencil box, or a Japanese puzzle box. The accordion bellows has a very short "throw"(the maximum extension of the bellows, when drawn out), with most instruments having only four folds. Larger versions had 5 to 7 folds in the bellows. The use of the 4 fold bellows made the duration of the note played very short, and the volume of the note comparatively soft, in contrast to the later "German" style accordions, with their larger, multi-fold bellows. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) and the Wheatstone bridge. ... English concertina made by Wheatstone around 1920 A concertina, like the various accordions, is a member of the free-reed family of instruments. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ... This article is about the musical notation. ... Alternate uses: Flat (disambiguation) Figure 1. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Puzzle boxes (also alled trick boxes) have a long tradition. ... A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played with a musical keyboard. ...

The name "flutina"

The term "flutina" is actually a more specific English name for a version of the accordéon diatonique, accordéon mélodique, clavier (keyboard) mélodique, or even accordéon romantique. Instrument makers of the 19th century often invented many distinct names for all these "new" versions of the same instrument. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

All these names, which the French makers gave these instruments, have the pallets on the outside, but the name "Flutina" implies an accordion with the pallets opening on the interior side of the face, just above the buttons, and the air exiting from a narrow slot in back of the protruding keyboard. This feature was supposed to give a more "flute-like" tone to the reeds. Whether the French makers ever used the name "Flutina" is not known. The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ...


The earliest version was known as the Clavier Melodique ("melodious keyboard"), circa 1831. It was made by Pichenot Jeune ("Young Pichenot"), and was probably one of the first accordions capable of playing a melody. The first recorded factory was that of Napoleon Fourneux in Paris. 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The Accordion of Cyril Demian (1829) described in his Austrian(at Vienna)patent application, had 5 pallets with 10 chords (musical triads) available. It all depended on which direction the player moved the bellows. One key pressed down had 2 chords: one chord on the "press" (in) and the other chord, on the "draw" (out). Demian also produced some Accordions with a single note per button "on the draw" or, "on the press". One of his models, had single notes and two rows of keys: first row the diatonic scale, the second row played the accidentals. The accordion Tutor published in the Year of 1833 by Adolph Müller (Austrian National Bibliotheca) has an example, please see the German text. [1]) includes pictures and descriptions of many different models. A music journal of Paris, printed in the year of 1831, has many details about the beginning of accordion production in Paris. The article starts out with the statement that the first accordion was copied from a Demian instrument, and later, Demian invented many different scale systems, with some buttons in the second row being divided in the middle. More information about it, is in the German wikipedia. "[2]" text. Note: After Demian's 1829 patent,there is some controversy about the exact dates of further inventions, and the times of applied manufacture, of accordions. Thus, opinions differ, somewhat, among musical instrument historians. 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... In music and music theory, a chord (from the Middle English cord) short for accord is three or more different notes or pitches sounding simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, over a period of time. ... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ...


  • 1837, an Advertisment in the musical news paper „LE MENESTREL“ of M. Reisner, selling accordeons.

By *1845, There were many makers of accordions, listed in various journals: Alexandre, Fourneaux, Jaulin, Lebroux, Neveux, Kasriel, Leterme, Reisner, Busson, M. Klaneguisert. All of these makers sold two different models at that time:

    • one without any chromatic accidentals– a diatonic one row or two row system,
    • and one two rows of buttons with accidentals – diatonic outside row/chromatic inside row.

A single scale system for these accordions was not universaly adopted, many competing "key layouts" existed. These variations offered slightly differing advantages to the player,and were "championed" by the different manufacturers. layout link

Later versions of the "Flutina" had a few open (tonic and fifth) chords available on the bass side, in addition to the silent "air" key. The most famous maker of these "flutina" accordions was Busson of Paris. Busson also is thought to have had a part in the development of the piano accordion (circa 1880s). The heyday of the "Flutina" was approximately from 1840 to 1880. In the United States of America, the more robust steel-reeded German Melodians "won out" over these brass-reeded, soft, and delicate "accordeon melodiques". French "accordeon" manufactures nearly came to an end during the Franco-Prussian War 1870-71. From 1880 on, the Italian accordion makers took over a large share of the French market for accordions. The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... a piano accordion An accordion is a small portable free-reed wind instrument with a keyboard, the smallest representative of the organ family. ... // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Franco-Prussian War (July 19, 1870 – May 10, 1871) was fought between France and Prussia (backed by the North German Confederation) allied with the south German states of Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg. ...

Reference Literature

For a more detailed survey of flutinas/accordeons romantiques, please note the reference book "L'Accordeon" below. It is a good history of all types of accordions, and has an extensive section on accordeons romantiques, with many color photos. Note: It is available only in the French language! Title: "L'Accordeon" Author: Monichon, Pierre, Publisher: Payot/ Lausanne, Date: 1985, Pages: 144.

Accordions Bayan | Chromatic button accordion | Diatonic button accordion | Flutina | Garmon' | Livenka | Melodeon | Piano accordion | Saratovskaya Garmonika | Schrammel accordion | Schwyzerörgeli | Trikitixa
Concertinas Bandoneón | Chemnitzer concertina

  Results from FactBites:
Squeezytunes: Flutina (1363 words)
This is a preceptor for the Accordion or Flutina
Flutina's are very attractive early French accordions - this one would have been made around mid 1800s.
Most flutinas were produced between 1831 and 1880 and often had a very limited range; this one has the full compass and the standard of construction and quality of fitments is exceptional.
Musurgia - Fine, Rare & Peculiar Musical Instruments (306 words)
Interestingly enough, the flutina's melody keyboard is seen here as being on the left side of the instrument when it should be on the right.
Flutinas were first created in the 1830s by instrument makers like Charles Buffet in Belgium and Fourneax and Busson in France.
Like the button accordion, the flutina accordions worked on the "push-pull" system wherein each key lever produces two different notes: one when the bellows are pushed in and a different one when the bellows are pulled out.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m