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Encyclopedia > Fluorine
9 oxygenfluorineneon
-

F

Cl
General
Name, symbol, number fluorine, F, 9
Chemical series halogens
Group, period, block 172, p
Appearance Yellowish brown gas
Standard atomic weight 18.9984032(5) g·mol−1
Electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p5
Electrons per shell 2, 7
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.7 g/L
Melting point 53.53 K
(-219.62 °C, -363.32 °F)
Boiling point 85.03 K
(-188.12 °C, -306.62 °F)
Critical point 144.13 K, 5.172 MPa
Heat of fusion (F2) 0.510 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization (F2) 6.62 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) (F2)
31.304 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic
Oxidation states −1
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.98 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1681.0 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3374.2 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6050.4 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 50 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 42 pm
Covalent radius 71 pm
(see covalent radius of fluorine)
Van der Waals radius 147 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 27.7 m W·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7782-41-4
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of fluorine
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F syn 109.77 min ε 1.656 18O
19F 100% F is stable with 10 neutrons
References
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Fluorine (pronounced /ˈflʊəriːn, flɔəriːn/, Latin: fluere, meaning "to flow"), is the chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. Atomic fluorine is univalent and is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. In its elementally isolated (pure) form, fluorine is a poisonous, pale, yellowish brown gas, with chemical formula F2. Like other halogens, molecular fluorine is highly dangerous; it causes severe chemical burns on contact with skin. Fluorene, or 9H-fluorene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. ... Fluorone Fluorone is the basic skeleton for various chemicals, most notably fluorone dyes (see dyes). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x270, 10 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Fluorine User:Femto/elements e1 ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... This article is about the chemical series. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The halogens are a chemical series. ... A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Fluorine sample (gas, doesnt look like much). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 pm and 100 pm (10-11 m and 10-12 m). ... The covalent radius of fluorine is a measure of the covalent radius of fluorine, which is approximated at about 60 pm. ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... 18-F important source of positrons ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The term univalent or monovalent describes atoms with one valence electron, i. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


Fluorine's large electronegativity and small atomic radius gives it interesting bonding characteristics, particularly in conjunction with carbon. See covalent radius of fluorine. The covalent radius of fluorine is a measure of the covalent radius of fluorine, which is approximated at about 60 pm. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Pure fluorine (F2) is a corrosive pale yellow or brown[1] gas that is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is the most reactive and most electronegative of all the elements (4.0), and readily forms compounds with most other elements. Its oxidation number -1, except when bonded to another fluorine in F2 which gives it an oxidation number of 0. Fluorine even combines with the noble gases, krypton, xenon, and radon. Even in dark, cool conditions, fluorine reacts explosively with hydrogen. It is so reactive that metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. It is far too reactive to be found in elemental form. In moist air it reacts with water to form also-dangerous hydrofluoric acid. Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


In aqueous solution, fluorine commonly occurs as the fluoride ion F, although highly diluted HF is such a weak acid that substantial amounts of it are present in any water solution of fluoride at near neutral pH. Other forms are fluoro-complexes, such as [FeF4], or H2F+. Synthesis of copper(II)-tetraphenylporphine, a metal complex, from tetraphenylporphine and copper(II) acetate monohydrate. ...


Fluorides are compounds that combine fluorine with some positively charged counterpart. They often consist of crystalline ionic salts. Fluorine compounds with metals are among the most stable of salts. The carbon-fluoride bond is covalent and stable, so that organofluorines are inert, in contrast to other organohalogens. Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ...


Applications

Chemical uses:

  • Atomic fluorine and molecular fluorine are used for plasma etching in semiconductor manufacturing, flat panel display production and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication[2]. Xenon difluoride is also used for this last purpose.
  • Hydrofluoric acid (chemical formula HF) is used to etch glass in light bulbs and other products.
  • Fluorine is indirectly used in the production of low friction plastics such as Teflon, and in halons such as Freon.
  • Along with some of its compounds, fluorine is used in the production of pure uranium from uranium hexafluoride and in the synthesis of numerous commercial fluorochemicals, including vitally important pharmaceuticals, agrochemical compounds, lubricants, and textiles.
  • Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are used extensively in air conditioning and in refrigeration. Chlorofluorocarbons have been banned for these applications because they contribute to ozone destruction and the ozone hole. Interestingly, since it is chlorine and bromine radicals which harm the ozone layer, not fluorine, compounds which do not have chlorine or bromine and contain only fluorine, carbon and hydrogen (called hydrofluorocarbons), are not on the E.P.A. list of ozone-depleting substances,[3] and have been widely used as replacements for the chlorine and bromine containing fluorocarbons. Hydrofluorocarbons do have a greenhouse effect, but a small one compared with carbon dioxide and methane.
  • Sulfur hexafluoride is an extremely inert and nontoxic gas, very useful as an insulator in high-voltage electrical equipment. It doesn't occur in nature so is a useful tracer gas, though as an exceptionally potent greenhouse gas its use in unenclosed systems is inadvisable.
  • Sodium hexafluoroaluminate (cryolite), is used in the electrolysis of aluminium.
  • In much higher concentrations, sodium fluoride has been used as an insecticide, especially against cockroaches.
  • Fluorides have been used in the past to help molten metal flow, hence the name.
  • Some researchers including US space scientists in the early 1960s have studied elemental fluorine gas as a possible rocket propellant due to its exceptionally high specific impulse. The experiments failed because fluorine proved difficult to handle, and its combustion products proved extremely toxic and corrosive.
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene, also known as the non-stick Teflon surface in baking pans.
  • Compounds of fluorine such as fluoropolymers, potassium fluoride and cryolite are utilized in applications such as anti-reflective coatings and dichroic mirrors on account of their unusually low refractive index.

Dental and medical uses: The general meaning of atomic is irreducible. That is, reduced to the smallest possible part. ... Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing in which a high-speed stream of plasma is shot (in pulses) at a metal. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays using cathode ray tubes, usually less than 10 cm (4 inches) thick. ... A mite next to a gear set produced using MEMS. Courtesy Sandia National Laboratories, SUMMiTTM Technologies, www. ... Xenon difluoride is a very powerful fluorinating agent, but it is one of the most stable xenon compounds. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Halon 1211 and Halon 1301 are special-purpose fire extiguishing agents that were banned by the Montreal Protocol. ... Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... This article should be merged with Freon, Halon, CFC, and Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and added to Alkyl halide Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) is one of a class of fluorocarbon compounds that are used primarily as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Image of the largest antarctic ozone hole ever recorded in September 2000. ... The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sodium hexafluoroaluminate. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Rocket fuel is a propellant that reacts with an oxidizing agent to produce thrust in a rocket. ... Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a way to describe the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... The chemical compound potassium fluoride (KF) is a metal halide composed of potassium and fluoride. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sodium hexafluoroaluminate. ... The term reflection (also spelt reflexion) can refer to several different concepts: In mathematics, reflection is the transformation of a space. ... In optics, the term dichroic has two related but distinct meanings. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...

Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Stannous fluoride is commonly used in toothpaste to protect tooth enamel from attack by bacteria, similar to sodium fluoride. ... Sodium monofluorophosphate Sodium monofluorophosphate (also disodium monofluorophosphate or MFP) is a chemical with the formula Na2PO3F. Its molecular weight is 143. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Water fluoridation controversy refers to the debate about the safety of the addition of fluoride to public water supplies. ... Sevoflurane (2, 2, 2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Desflurane is a highly flourinated ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. ... Structural formula of isoflurane Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether used for inhalation anesthesia. ... CFC molecules CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are a family of artificial chemical compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. ... Fluconazole (INN) (IPA: ) is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. ... Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Trovafloxacin The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... A broad-spectrum antibiotic is so called due to its activity against a wide range of infectious agents. ... SSRI is an acronym that stands for several things: It is a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI also is used as the stock symbol for Silver Standard Resources Inc. ... Citalopram is an antidepressant drug used to treat depression associated with mood disorders. ... Escitalopram oxalate (also known as LexaproTM and CipralexTM) is a medication developed by the Danish pharmaceutical company Lundbeck, that acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or SSRI. It is typically used as an antidepressant to treat depression associated with mood disorders although also may be used in the treatment... Prozac redirects here. ... Fluvoxamine maleate (sold under the brand-names Luvox® and Faverin®) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. ... Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat, Pexeva) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant. ... Zoloft bottles, with blue and green tablets Sertraline hydrochloride (also sold under brand names Zoloft, Lustral, Apo-Sertral, Asentra, Gladem, Serlift, Stimuloton, Xydep, Serlain, Concorz) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. ... Fluorine-18 is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons. ... The first detection of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson The positron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ...

Compounds

Fluorine forms a variety of very different compounds, owing to its small atomic size and covalent behavior, and on the other hand, its oxidizing ability and extreme electronegativity. For example, hydrofluoric acid is extremely dangerous, while in synthetic drugs incorporating an aromatic ring (e.g. flumazenil), fluorine is used to prevent toxication. Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ... Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ...


The fluoride ion is basic, therefore hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid in water solution. However, water is not an inert solvent in this case: when less basic solvents such as anhydrous acetic acid are used, hydrofluoric acid is the strongest of the hydrohalogenic acids. Also, owing to the basicity of the fluoride ion, soluble fluorides give basic water solutions. The fluoride ion is a Lewis base, and has a high affinity to certain elements such as calcium and silicon. For example, deprotection of silicon protecting groups is achieved with a fluoride. The fluoride ion is poisonous. R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was represented by the general formula HA, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of undissolved HA still remains. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A Lewis base is any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons. ... A Protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group in order to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction. ...


Fluorine as a freely reacting oxidant gives the strongest oxidants known. Chlorine trifluoride, for example, can burn water and sand, both compounds of a weaker oxidant, oxygen. Chlorine trifluoride is a colourless, very poisonous gas that condenses to a pale-yellow liquid. ...


Fluorine compounds involving noble gases were first synthesised by Neil Bartlett in 1962 - xenon hexafluoroplatinate, XePtF6, being the first. Fluorides of krypton and radon have also been prepared. Also argon fluorohydride has been prepared, although it is only stable at cryogenic temperatures. Neil Bartlett (born September 15, 1932) is an English-born American chemist. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... The discovery of this first argon compound is credited to as group of Finnish scientists, lead by Markku Rasanen. ...


The carbon-fluoride bond is covalent and very stable. The use of a fluorocarbon polymer, poly(tetrafluoroethene) or Teflon, is an example: it is thermostable and waterproof enough to be used in frying pans. Organofluorines may be safely used in applications such as drugs, without the risk of release of toxic fluoride. In synthetic drugs, toxication can be prevented. For example, an aromatic ring is useful but presents a safety problem: enzymes in the body metabolize some of them into poisonous epoxides. When the para position is substituted with fluorine, the aromatic ring is protected and epoxide is no longer produced. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms. ...


Fluorine can often be substituted for hydrogen when it occurs in organic compounds. Through this mechanism, fluorine can have a very large number of compounds. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Fluorite (CaF2) crystals

This element is recovered from fluorite, cryolite, and fluorapatite. Commons:Imagem:Fluorite_crystals_270x444. ... Commons:Imagem:Fluorite_crystals_270x444. ... Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sodium hexafluoroaluminate. ... Apatite is a group of minerals, usually referring to: hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal lattice. ...


For a list of fluorine compounds, see here.


History

Fluorine in the form of fluorspar (also called fluorite, calcium fluoride) was described in 1530 by Georgius Agricola for its use as a flux [4], which is a substance that is used to promote the fusion of metals or minerals. In 1670 Schwanhard found that glass was etched when it was exposed to fluorspar that was treated with acid. Carl Wilhelm Scheele and many later researchers, including Humphry Davy, Caroline Menard,Gay-Lussac, Antoine Lavoisier, and Louis Thenard all would experiment with hydrofluoric acid, easily obtained by treating calcium fluoride (fluorspar) with concentrated sulfuric acid. Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is an insoluble ionic compound of calcium and fluorine. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ... In metallurgy, flux is a substance which removes passivating oxides from the surface of a metal or alloy. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Octahedral fluorite crystals from New Mexico, USA Fluorite (also called fluor-spar or Blue John) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet, FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794), the father of modern chemistry [1], was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Louis Jacques Thénard. ... Fluorite (also called fluor-spar) is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride, CaF2. ...


It was eventually realized that hydrofluoric acid contained a previously unknown element. This element was not isolated for many years after this, due to its extreme reactivity; fluorine can only be prepared from its compounds electrolytically, and then it immediately attacks any susceptible materials in the area. Finally, in 1886, elemental fluorine was isolated by Henri Moissan after almost 74 years of continuous effort by other chemists.[5] It was an effort which cost several researchers their health or even their lives. The derivation of elemental fluorine from hydrofluoric acid is exceptionally dangerous, killing or blinding several scientists who attempted early experiments on this halogen. These men came to be referred to as "fluorine martyrs." For Moissan, it earned him the 1906 Nobel Prize in chemistry (Moissan himself lived to be 54, and it is not clear whether his fluorine work shortened his life). Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (September 28, 1852 – February 20, 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. ...


The first large-scale production of fluorine was needed for the atomic bomb Manhattan project in World War II where the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) was needed as a gaseous carrier of uranium to separate the 235U and 238U isotopes of uranium. Today both the gaseous diffusion process and the gas centrifuge process use gaseous UF6 to produce enriched uranium for nuclear power applications. In the Manhattan Project, it was found that elemental fluorine was present whenever UF6 was, due to the spontaneous decomposition of this compound into UF4 and F2. The corrosion problem due to the F2 was eventually solved by electrolytically coating all UF6 carrying piping with nickel metal, which resists fluorine's attack. Joints and flexible parts were made from Teflon, then a very recently-discovered fluorocarbon plastic which was not attacked by F2. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... -1... A cascade of gas centrifuges at a United States enrichment plant. ... These pie-graphs showing the relative proportions of uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) at different levels of enrichment. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ... Some important fluorocarbons. ...


Preparation

Elemental fluorine is prepared industrially by Moissan's original process: electrolysis of anhydrous HF in which KHF2 has been dissolved to provide enough ions for conduction to take place. Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (September 28, 1852 – February 20, 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. ...


In 1986, when preparing for a conference to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of fluorine, Karl Christe discovered a purely-chemical preparation by reacting together at 150 °C solutions in anhydrous HF of K2MnF6 and of SbF5. The reaction is: Antimony pentafluoride, SbF5 is a chemical compound. ...

K2MnF6 + 2SbF5 → 2KSbF6 + MnF3 + ½F2

This is not a practical synthesis, but demonstrates that electrolysis is not essential. General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ...


Safety

Main article: fluoride poisoning

Both elemental fluorine and fluoride ions are highly toxic and must be handled with great care and any contact with skin and eyes should be strictly avoided. When it is a free element, fluorine has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 nL/L. Its MAC value is 1 1 µL/L. All equipment must be passivated before exposure to fluorine. In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, fluoride compounds are toxic. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is a concept anaesthetists use to compare the strengths of anaesthetic vapours; in simple terms, it is defined as the minimal concentration of the vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent physical response to a noxious stimulus in 50% of subjects. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ...


Contact of exposed skin with hydrofluoric acid solutions poses one of the most extreme and insidious industrial threats—one which is exacerbated by the fact that hydrofluoric acid damages nerves in such a way as to make such burns initially painless. The hydrofluoric acid molecule is capable of rapidly migrating through lipid layers of cells which would ordinarily stop an ionized acid, and the burns are typically deep. HF may react with calcium, permanently damaging the bone. More seriously, reaction with the body's calcium can cause cardiac arrhythmias, followed by cardiac arrest brought on by sudden chemical changes within the body. These cannot always be prevented with local or intravenous injection of calcium salts. Hydrofluoric acid spills over just 2.5% of the body's surface area (about 75 in2 or 5 dm2), despite copious immediate washing, have been fatal.[6] If the patient survives, hydrofluoric acid burns typically produce open wounds of an especially slow-healing nature. R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point nonflammable Related Compounds Other anions Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Related compounds Hydrogen fluoride fluorosilicic acid Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Elemental fluorine is a powerful oxidizer which can cause organic material, combustibles, or other flammable materials to ignite.


Fluorocarbons are generally inert and nontoxic; the electronegativity of fluorine means that a nearby fluorine atom makes a carboxylic acid group very much more reactive. For example, trifluoroacetic acid is 100,000 times stronger than acetic acid. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong, hygroscopic, non-oxidizing, organic acid with a molecular formula C2HF3O2. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


See also

Some important fluorocarbons. ... 18-F important source of positrons ...

References

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Fluorine
  1. ^ Theodore Gray. Real visible fluorine. The Wooden Periodic Table.
  2. ^ Leonel R Arana, Nuria de Mas, Raymond Schmidt, Aleksander J Franz, Martin A Schmidt and Klavs F Jensen, Isotropic etching of silicon in fluorine gas for MEMS micromachining , J. Micromech. Microeng. 17 , 2007, pp. 384-392.
  3. ^ Class I Ozone-Depleting Substances. Ozone Depletion. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  4. ^ Fluoride History Discovery of fluorine
  5. ^ H. Moissan (1886). "Action d'un courant électrique sur l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences 102: 1543-1544. 
  6. ^ [1]

The mission of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment: air, water, and land. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Fluorine
Look up fluorine in
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  • It's Elemental – Fluorine
  • Picture of liquid fluorine – chemie-master.de
  • Chemsoc.org
  • Discovery of fluorine


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fluorine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1174 words)
Fluorine (from L. fluere, meaning "to flow"), is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol F and atomic number 9.
Atomic fluorine is univalent and is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements.
When it is a free element, fluorine has a characteristic pungent odor that is detectable in concentrations as low as 20 nL/L. It is recommended that the maximum allowable concentration for a daily 8-hour time-weighted exposure is 1 µL/L (part per million by volume) (lower than, for example, hydrogen cyanide).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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