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Encyclopedia > Fluoride

Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. Fluorides are organic and inorganic compounds containing the element fluorine. As a halogen, fluorine forms a monovalent ion (−1 charge). Fluoride forms a binary compound with another element or radical. Examples of fluoride compounds include hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF) and calcium fluoride (CaF2), and uranium hexafluoride (UF6). General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is an insoluble ionic compound of calcium and fluorine. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ...

Contents

Occurrence

Fluoride compounds, usually calcium fluoride, are naturally found in low concentration in drinking water and some foods, such as tea. Water with underground sources are more likely to have higher levels of fluoride, while the total concentration in seawater has an average concentration of 1.3 parts per million (ppm).[1] Fresh water supplies generally contain between 0.01-0.3 ppm, while the ocean contains between 1.2 and 1.5 ppm.[2] Calcium fluoride (CaF2) is an insoluble ionic compound of calcium and fluorine. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ...


Applications

Hydrofluoric acid is used in the etching of glass and other industrial applications, including integrated circuit manufacturing. Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


Fluoride, as a concentrated gel, foam, or varnish, is used as a prescription drug.[3] Fluorine is also part of certain drug molecules to resist detoxification in the liver by the Cytochrome P450 oxidase because the strong C-F bonds are not easily broken. This is to ensure that orally administered medication are not inactivated before reaching the blood stream.[citation needed] A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ...


Fluoride ion has a very significant use in synthetic organic chemistry. The silicon-fluorine chemical bond is quite strong. Silyl ether protecting groups can be easily removed by the addition of fluoride ion. Sodium fluoride or tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) are the most common reagents used. Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... It has been suggested that Silicons ranking be merged into this article or section. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Silyl ethers are a group of chemical compounds sharing a common functional group in which a silicon atom is covalently bonded to an alkoxy group. ... A Protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group in order to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride or TBAF is a chemical compound and a quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2)4N+F-. It is used in organic chemistry as a phase transfer catalyst and as a source of fluoride in an organic phase for example in removing silyl ether protecting...


Sulfur hexafluoride is a nearly-inert, non-toxic propellant. Uranium hexafluoride is used in the separation of isotopes of uranium between the fissile isotope U-235 and the non-fissile isotope U-238 in preparation of nuclear reactor fuel and atomic bombs. Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. ... Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant An induced nuclear fission event. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph compairing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Water fluoridation

Main article: Water fluoridation

Fluoride containing compounds such as sodium fluoride, calcium fluoride, and sodium monofluorophosphate are commonly added to toothpaste, drinking water, prescribed treatments, and other commercially available oral hygiene products because fluoride strengthens the tooth enamel. Originally, sodium fluoride was used to fluoridate water; however, hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and its salt sodium hexafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) are more commonly used, especially in the United States. Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Sodium monofluorophosphate Sodium monofluorophosphate (also disodium monofluorophosphate or MFP) is a chemical with the formula Na2PO3F. Its molecular weight is 143. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... Dihydrogen hexafluorosilicate is commonly used for fluoridate in the United States. ...


Some studies suggest that fluoridation is associated with a median decline in the number of children with caries of 12.5%, and a median decline of 2.25 teeth with caries. [4] The fluoridation of water is not without critics, however (see Water fluoridation controversy). Water fluoridation controversy refers to the debate surrounding the health benefits of public authorities fluoridating water supplies. ...


Salt fluoridation

In countries where large, centralized water systems are uncommon, salt fluoridation is sometimes used as an alternative to water fluoridation. In countries where salt fluoridation is common, such as Switzerland, France, and Jamaica, among many others, caries experience has also decreased in groups using fluoridated salt compared to groups using salt without fluoride. [5][6]


Toxicology

Acute

In high concentrations, fluoride compounds are toxic and can cause death. In mice, the LD50 is estimated to be 184 milligrams of stannous fluoride per kilogram of body mass.[7] An individual report involving fatality following the accidental administration of fluoride ion to a child at 5 mg/kg was cited by G. M. Whitford in 1987,[8] while after experimenting on himself in 1899, Herbert H Baldwin reported symptoms of acute toxicity (e.g. gastrointestinal upset) occurred at doses as low as 0.1-0.3 mg/kg.[9] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Stannous fluoride is commonly used in toothpaste to protect tooth enamel from attack by bacteria, similar to sodium fluoride. ... Acute Toxicity is a property of a substance that has toxic effects on a living organism, when that organism is exposed to a lethal dose of a substance once. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


When ingested directly, fluoride compounds are readily absorbed by the intestines. Over time, the compound is excreted through the urine, and the half life for concentration of fluorine compounds is on an order of hours. It is thought that fluoride is taken out of circulation by the body and trace amounts become bound in bone. Urine tests are a good indication of high exposure to fluoride compounds in the recent past. The half-life of a quantity, subject to exponential decay, is the time required for the quantity to decay to half of its initial value. ...


Skin or eye contact with many fluoride compounds in high concentrations is dangerous. In case of accidental swallowing, milk, calcium carbonate, or milk of magnesia is given to slow absorption. Eye or skin contact is treated by removing any contaminated clothing and flushing with water. A glass of cows milk. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... A bottle of Phillips Milk of Magnesia in the 1900s. ...


Chronic

Fluoride ions replace hydroxide ions in calcium hydroxyapatite, Ca5[(PO4)3OH], in teeth, forming calcium fluoroapatite, Ca5[(PO4)3F], which is more chemically stable and dissolves at a pH of 4.5, compared to 5.5 pH for calcium hydroxyapatite. This is generally believed to lead to fewer cavities, since stronger acids are needed to attack the tooth enamel. In 1951, Joseph C. Muhler and Harry G. Day of Indiana University reported their research results on stannous fluoride as a tooth decay preventive and the university first sold the technology to Procter & Gamble to use in Crest toothpaste. Groups that have evaluated available studies and support water fluoridation include The American Dental Association (ADA), World Health Organization (WHO), and some other health organizations which recommend raising the fluoride level of municipal water supplies to a level between 0.7 and 1.2 ppm. Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... A sample of hydroxylapatite Hydroxylapatite, also frequently called hydroxyapatite, is a mineral. ... Fluoroapatite, often with the alternate spelling of fluorapatite, is a mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F. Fluoroapatite is a hard crystalline solid. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Tube of Crest Crest is a brand of toothpaste made by Procter & Gamble which is now on the market in many countries, such as the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France. ...


The most widely accepted adverse effect of low concentration fluoridation at this time is fluorosis [4]. It is a condition caused by 'excessive' intake of fluorine compounds over an extended period of time, and can cause yellowing of teeth. The definition of 'excessive' in the context of fluorosis falls on the order of parts per million and is generally accepted to mean significantly higher than the 0.7 to 1.2 ppm amounts recommended for fluoridated water. However, dosage is crucial to adverse effects, and therefore, what concentration is problematic will depend on the amount of fluoride ingested, how much is absorbed, and the weight of the person ingesting it. For this reason, many doctors have advised against using fluoridated water to make up formula for infants. Picture of a mild case of fluorosis. ...


Contested claims

Some opponents of fluoridation have expressed concern that fluoride damages body function. One of the key concerns is that fluoride can weaken bone strength, leading to an increase in hip and wrist fracture [10]. Additional concerns of fluoridation opponents include the potential for fluoride to damage the brain[11], reduce thyroid function[12], and cause bone cancer in adolescent boys[13]. While a recent review from the US National Research Council supports concerns that fluoride may cause some of these effects, at least at high doses[14], more than 100 national and international health service agencies and professional organizations continue to recognize the benefits of community water fluoridation in preventing dental decay.[15] Water fluoridation controversy refers to the debate surrounding the health benefits of public authorities fluoridating water supplies. ...


See also

The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... Picture of a mild case of fluorosis. ... Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a medical condition in which a human, or other organism lacks the necessary compounds containing fluorine to keep bones and teeth healthy. ... In high concentrations, as with almost all substances, fluoride compounds are toxic. ... Fluoride therapy is the delivery of fluoride to the teeth topically or systemically, which is designed to prevent tooth decay (dental caries) which results in cavities. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ...

References

  1. ^ Fluoride in Drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. World Health Organization, 2004, page 2. Page accessed on February 22, 2007.
  2. ^ Environmental Health Criteria 227: Fluorides. World Health Organization, 2002, page 38. Page accessed on February 22, 2007.
  3. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fluoridation - Other fluoride products. Page accessed on March 22, 2007.
  4. ^ a b McDonagh M S, Whiting P F, Wilson P M, Sutton A J, Chestnutt I, Cooper J, Misso K, Bradley M, Treasure E, & Kleijnen J. (2000). "Systematic review of water fluoridation". British Medical Journal 321 (7265): 855-859. DOI:10.1136/bmj.321.7265.855. 
  5. ^ Estupiñán-Day, S R; Horowitz H, Warpeha R, Sutherland B, Thamer M (2001). "Salt fluoridation and dental caries in Jamaica". Journal of Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 29: 247-252. 
  6. ^ Fabien, V; Obry-Musset A M, Hedelin G, Cahen P M (1996). "Caries prevalence and salt fluoridation among 9-year-old schoolchildren in Strasbourg, France". Journal of Community Dentisry and Oral Epidemiology 24: 408-411. 
  7. ^ Tin(II) Fluoride MSDS
  8. ^ Whitford, G. M.. "Fluoride in Dental Products". Journal of Dental Research 66 (5): 1056. 
  9. ^ Baldwin, H. B. (1899). "The Toxic Action of Sodium Fluoride". Journal of the American Chemical Society 21 (6): 517-521. DOI:10.1021/ja02056a008. 
  10. ^ Colquhoun, John. Why I Changed My Mind about Fluoridation', Perspectives in Biology & Medicine 1997;41,27-44. Page accessed 23 February, 2007.
  11. ^ National Research Council. Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral effects' Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006). Page accessed 23 February, 2007.
  12. ^ National Research Council. Effects of the Endocrine System' Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (2006). Page accessed 23 February, 2007.
  13. ^ Environmental Working Group. Harvard Study: Strong Link Between Fluoridated Water and Bone Cancer in Boys' April 5, 2006. Page accessed 23 February, 2007.
  14. ^ National Research Council. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards Page accessed 23 February, 2007.
  15. ^ National and International Organizations that Support Fluoride, from the Massachusetts Coalition for Oral Health website, page accessed March 19, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (2908 words)
Fluoride is considered a trace element because only small amounts are present in the body (about 2.6 grams in adults), and because the daily requirement for maintaining dental health is only a few milligrams a day.
Although fluoride in pharmacologic doses has been shown to be a potent therapeutic agent for increasing spinal bone mass (see Disease treatment), there is little evidence that water fluoridation at optimum levels for the prevention of dental caries is helpful in the prevention of osteoporosis.
Fluoride supplements are available only by prescription, and are intended for children living in areas with low water fluoride concentrations for the purpose of bringing their intake to approximately 1 mg/day (5).
Scientific Facts on Fluorides (1266 words)
Fluorides are important industrial chemicals with a number of uses but the largest uses are for aluminium production, drinking water fluoridation, and the manufacture of fluoridated dental preparations.
Fluoride concentration in food can be increased by the presence of fluoride in water used for its preparation.
Fluoride can help prevent cavities, but at high intakes it can harm tooth development (dental fluorosis) and bones (skeletal fluorosis); there is a narrow range between intakes which are beneficial and those which are detrimental.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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