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Encyclopedia > Flowering plant
Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
Fossil range: Late Jurassic - Recent
Magnolia virginiana Sweet Bay
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Classes

Magnoliopsida - Dicots
Liliopsida - Monocots
Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... Binomial name Magnolia virginiana L. The Sweetbay magnolia, Magnolia virginiana, also called just Sweetbay, is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Orders See text. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ...

The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. The flowering plants and the gymnosperms comprise the two extant groups of seed plants. The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of apomorphies, or derived characteristics. Divisions Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes are the most familiar group... Gymnosperms are seed-bearing, vascular plants. ... The spermatophytes (also known as phanerogams) comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... In biology, a trait or character is one form of a character of an organism. ...

Contents

Angiosperm derived characteristics

The flowers of flowering plants are the most remarkable feature distinguishing them from other seed plants. Flowers aided angiosperms by enabling a wider range of evolutionary relationships and broadening the ecological niches open to them, allowing flowering plants to eventually dominate terrestrial ecosystems. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • Stamens with two pairs of pollen sacs

Stamens are much lighter than the corresponding organs of gymnosperms and have contributed to the diversification of angiosperms through time with adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes, such as particular pollinators. Stamens have also become modified through time to prevent self-fertilization, which has permitted further diversification, allowing angiosperms to eventually fill more niches. Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Self-fertilization (also known as autogamy) occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual. ...

  • Reduced male parts, three cells

The male gametophyte in angiosperms is significantly reduced in size compared to those of gymnosperm seed plants. The smaller pollen decreases the time from pollination – the pollen grain reaching the female plant – to fertilization of the ovary; in gymnosperms fertilization can occur up to a year after pollination, while in angiosperms the fertilization begins very soon after pollination. The shorter time leads to angiosperm plants setting seeds sooner and faster than gymnosperms, which is a distinct evolutionary advantage. In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Categories: Biology stubs ...

  • Closed carpel enclosing the ovules (carpel or carpels and accessory parts may become the fruit)

The closed carpel of angiosperms also allows adaptations to specialized pollination syndromes and controls to prevent self-fertilization, thereby maintaining increased diversity. Once the ovary is fertilized the carpel and some surrounding tissues develop into a fruit, another opportunity for angiosperms to increase their domination of the terrestrial ecosystem with evolutionary adaptations to dispersal mechanisms. Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Reduced female gametophyte, seven cells with eight nuclei

The reduced female gametophyte, like the reduced male gametophyte may be adaptations allowing for more rapid seed set, eventually leading to such flowering plant adaptations as annual herbaceous life cycles, allowing the flowering plants to fill even more niches.

Endosperm formation generally begins after fertilization and before the first division of the zygote. Endosperm is a highly nutritive tissue that can provide food for the developing embryo, the cotyledons, and sometimes for the seedling when it first appears. Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ... It has been suggested that Biparental zygote be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Sunflower seedlings, just three days after germination In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ...


These distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans. The major exception to the dominance of terrestrial ecosystems by flowering plants is the coniferous forest. Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ...


Evolution

Malus sylvestris or crab apple flowers.
Malus sylvestris or crab apple flowers.

Land plants have existed for about 425 million years. Early land plants reproduced by spores like their aquatic counterparts. Marine organisms can easily scatter copies of themselves to float away and grow elsewhere. Land plants soon found it advantageous to protect their copies from drying out and other hazards by enclosing them in a case, the seed. Early seed bearing plants, like the ginkgo, and conifers (such as pines and firs), did not produce flowers. Binomial name (L.) Mill. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Nymphaea alba, a species of water lily. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ...


The earliest fossil of an angiosperm, or flowering plant, Archaefructus liaoningensis, is dated to about 125 million years BP[1]. Pollen, considered directly linked to flower development, has been found in the fossil record perhaps as long ago as 130 million years. For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Species Archaefructus liaoningensis Archaefructus sinensis Archaefructus is an extinct genus of herbaceous aquatic flowering plants. ...


While there is only hard evidence of such flowers existing about 130 million years ago, there is some circumstantial evidence that they may have existed 250 million years ago. A chemical used by plants to defend their flowers, oleanane, has been detected in fossil plants that old, including gigantopterids[2], which evolved at that time and bear many of the traits of modern, flowering plants, though they are not known to be flowering plants themselves, because only their stems and prickles have been found preserved in detail, one of the earliest examples of petrification. Oleanane is the name given to a chemical produced by many flowering plants, which has a suppressing effect on some insect threats. ... Gigantopterid is the name given to fossils of a group of plants existing 250 million years ago, which bore many of the traits of flowering plants, quite possibly having been a close relative, but are not proven to have flowered, themselves. ... Petrified log at the Petrified Forest National Park A petrified tree from California Petrified wood is a type of fossil: it consists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals (most often a silicate, such as quartz), while retaining the original structure of the wood. ...


The apparently sudden appearance of relatively modern flowers in the fossil record posed such a problem for the theory of evolution that it was called an "abominable mystery" by Charles Darwin.[1] However the fossil record has grown since the time of Darwin, and recently discovered angiosperm fossils such as Archaefructus, along with further discoveries of fossil gymnosperms, suggest how angiosperm characteristics may have been acquired in a series of steps. Several groups of extinct gymnosperms, particularly seed ferns, have been proposed as the ancestors of flowering plants but there is no continuous fossil evidence showing exactly how flowers evolved. Some older fossils, such as the upper Triassic Sanmiguelia, have been suggested. Based on current evidence, some propose that the ancestors of the angiosperms diverged from an unknown group of gymnosperms during the late Triassic (245-202 million years ago). The relationship of the earlier gigantopterids to flowering plants is still enigmatic. This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Gigantopterid is the name given to fossils of a group of plants existing 250 million years ago, which bore many of the traits of flowering plants, quite possibly having been a close relative, but are not proven to have flowered, themselves. ...


A close relationship between Angiosperms and Gnetophytes, suggested on the basis of morphological evidence, has been disputed on the basis of molecular evidence that suggest Gnetophytes are more closely related to other gymnosperms. taxa: Gnetales Welwitschiales Ephedrales The plant division Gnetophyta or gnetophytes comprise three related families of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms, a paraphyletic group of seed plant divisions. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ...


Recent DNA analysis (molecular systematics) [3] [4] show that Amborella trichopoda, found on the Pacific island of New Caledonia, belongs to a sister group of the other flowering plants, and morphological studies [5] suggest that it has features which may have been characteristic of the earliest flowering plants. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Amborella trichopoda Baill. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


The great angiosperm radiation, when a great diversity of angiosperms appear in the fossil record, occurred in the mid-Cretaceous (approximately 100 million years ago). However, a study in 2007 estimated that the division of the five most recent (the genus Ceratophyllum, the family Chloranthaceae, the eudicots, the magnoliids, and the monocots) of the eight main groups occurred around 140 million years ago.[6] By the late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have become the predominant group of land plants, and many fossil plants recognizable as belonging to modern families (including beech, oak, maple, and magnolia) appeared. Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions. ... genera Ascarina Chloranthus Hedyosmum Sarcandra Chloranthaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. ... Orders Basal eudicots Ranunculales Buxales Trochodendrales Proteales Gunnerales Berberidopsidales Dilleniales Caryophyllales Saxifragales Santalales Vitales Basal rosids Crossosomatales Geraniales Myrtales Eurosids I Zygophyllales Celastrales Malpighiales Oxalidales Fabales Rosales Cucurbitales Fagales Eurosids II Brassicales Malvales Sapindales Basal asterids Cornales Ericales Euasterids I Garryales Solanales Gentianales Lamiales Unplaced: Boraginaceae Euasterids II Aquifoliales Apiales... In the APG-system, the Magnoliid complex is a name for a group within the flowering plants (Angiosperms). ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plant. ...


However, some authors have proposed an earlier origin for angiosperms, sometime in the Paleozoic (251 million years ago or more).[2][3][4] The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...

Two Bees on a Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
Two Bees on a Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense

It is generally assumed that the function of flowers, from the start, was to involve the mobile animals in the reproduction process. Pollen can be scattered without bright colors and obvious shapes. Expending energy on these structures would appear to be a liability, unless they provide significant benefit. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 484 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 484 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Scop. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ...


Island genetics provides one proposed explanation for the sudden, fully developed appearance of flowering plants. Island genetics is believed to be a common source of speciation in general, especially when it comes to radical adaptations which seem to have required inferior transitional forms. Flowering plants may have evolved in an isolated setting like an island or island chain, where the plants bearing them were able to develop a highly specialized relationship with some specific animal (a wasp, for example). Such a relationship, with a hypothetical wasp carrying pollen from one plant to another much the way fig wasps do today, could result in both the plant(s) and their partners developing a high degree of specialization. Note that the wasp example is not incidental; bees, which apparently evolved specifically due to mutualistic plant relationships, are descended from wasps. Species with a small population size are subject to a higher chance of extinction because they are more vulnerable to genetic drift, resulting in stochastic variation in their gene pool, their demography and their environment. ... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Agaoninae Epichrysomallinae Otitesellinae Sycoecinae Sycophaginae Sycoryctinae Fig wasps are wasps of the family Agaonidae which pollinate figs or are otherwise associated with figs. ... With its eucalyptus diet, the koala can be considered a specialist species. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ...


Animals are also involved in the distribution of seeds. Fruit, which is formed by the enlargement flower parts, is frequently a seed disbursal tool which depends upon animals, who eat or otherwise disturb it, incidentally scattering the seeds it contains (see frugivory). While many such mutualistic relationships remain too fragile to survive competition with mainland animals and spread, flowers proved to be an unusually effective means of production, spreading (whatever their actual origin) to become the dominant form of land plant life. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Trees in this Bangladesh forest are in competition for light. ...


Flowers are derived from leaf and stem components, arising from a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots.[7] The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other. The flowers would have tended to grow in a spiral pattern, to be bisexual (in plants, this means both male and female parts on the same flower), and to be dominated by the ovary (female part). As flowers grew more advanced, some variations developed parts fused together, with a much more specific number and design, and with either specific sexes per flower or plant, or at least "ovary inferior". Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In common parlance, a stem is any elongated, usually narrow, extension or supporting structure of an object. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ...


Flower evolution continues to the present day; modern flowers have been so profoundly influenced by humans that some of them cannot be pollinated in nature. Many modern, domesticated flowers used to be simple weeds, which only sprouted when the ground was disturbed. Some of them tended to grow with human crops, perhaps already having symbiotic companion plant relationships with them, and the prettiest did not get plucked because of their beauty, developing a dependence upon and special adaptation to human affection.[8] Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is planting of different crops in close physical proximity. ...


Classification

There are eight groups of living angiosperms:

The exact relationship between these eight groups is not yet clear, although it has been determined that the first three groups to diverge from the ancestral angiosperm were Amborellales, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales, in that order.[6] Binomial name Amborella trichopoda Baill. ... Families Cabombaceae - fanworts Nymphaeaceae - water lilies The Nymphaeales are an order of flowering plants, including two families of aquatic herbs: Family Nymphaeaceae (waterlily family) Family Cabombaceae (fanwort family) Sometimes the Cabombaceae are included within the Nymphaeaceae. ... Nymphaeaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. ... Families See text The Austrobaileyales are an order of basal flowering plants comprising the following families: Family Austrobaileyaceae Family Trimeniaceae Family Illiciaceae (star anise) Family Schisandraceae (schisandra, kadsura) This essentially corresponds to the order Illiciales in the older Cronquist system, which only included the last two families. ... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... genera Ascarina Chloranthus Hedyosmum Sarcandra Chloranthaceae is the botanical name of a family of flowering plants. ... Species Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions. ... The name magnoliids (plural, not capitalized) or magnoliid complex is used by the APG II system for a clade within the angiosperms. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... In the APG-system, the names eudicots or tricolpates are applied to a monophyletic group that includes most of the (former) dicotyledons. ... For other uses, see Sunflower (disambiguation). ... Petunia is a widely-cultivated genus of flowering plants of South American origin, in the family Solanaceae. ... This article is about the flower. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid. ... Binomial name Amborella trichopoda Amborella trichopoda is a rare shrub found only in New Caledonia. ... Families Cabombaceae - fanworts Nymphaeaceae - water lilies The Nymphaeales are an order of flowering plants, including two families of aquatic herbs: Family Nymphaeaceae (waterlily family) Family Cabombaceae (fanwort family) Sometimes the Cabombaceae are included within the Nymphaeaceae. ... Families See text The Austrobaileyales are an order of basal flowering plants comprising the following families: Family Austrobaileyaceae Family Trimeniaceae Family Illiciaceae (star anise) Family Schisandraceae (schisandra, kadsura) This essentially corresponds to the order Illiciales in the older Cronquist system, which only included the last two families. ...


History of classification

From 1736, an illustration of Linnaean classification.
From 1736, an illustration of Linnaean classification.
Auxanometer: devise for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants.
Auxanometer: devise for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants.

The botanical term "Angiosperm", from the ancient Greek αγγειον (receptacle) and σπερμα (seed), was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked. The term and its antonym were maintained by Carolus Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after 1827, when Robert Brown established the existence of truly naked ovules in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, and applied to them the name Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, with varying scope, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants. Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... Paul Hermann (1646-1695), German born Dutch botanist. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... In biological taxonomy, a kingdom or regnum is a taxon in either (historically) the highest rank, or (in the new three-domain system) the rank below domain. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Robert Brown (1773–1858) Robert Brown (December 21, 1773–June 10, 1858) is acknowledged as the leading British botanist to collect in Australia during the first half of the 19th century. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants which are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ...


In 1851, Hofmeister discovered the changes occurring in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and determined the correct relationships of these to the Cryptogamia. This fixed the position of Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the term Angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than Gymnosperms, including the classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term is used today. 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister (18 May 1824 to 12 January 1877) was a German self-taught botanist. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ...


In most taxonomies, the flowering plants are treated as a coherent group. The most popular descriptive name has been Angiospermae (Angiosperms), with Anthophyta ("flowering plants") a second choice. These names are not linked to any rank. The Wettstein system and the Engler system use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision. The Reveal system treated flowering plants as subdivision Magnoliophytina (Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal, Phytologia 79: 70 1996), but later split it to Magnoliopsida, Liliopsida and Rosopsida. The Takhtajan system and Cronquist system treat this group at the rank of division, leading to the name Magnoliophyta (from the family name Magnoliaceae). The Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida. However, the APG system, of 1998, and the APG II system, of 2003[7], do not treat it as a formal taxon but rather treat it as a clade without a formal botanical name and use the name angiosperms for this clade. A system of plant taxonomy, the Wettstein system recognised the following main groups, according to R. Wettstein (4th edition, 1935). ... One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler. ... A modern system of plant taxonomy, the Reveal system of plant classification was drawn up by the botanist J.L. Reveal (1941- ), professor emeritus at the Norton Brown Herbarium, Maryland (see his cv). ... A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards. ... A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms). ... In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. ... One of the modern systems of plant taxonomy, the Dahlgren system was published by monocot specialist Rolf Dahlgren. ... A modern system of plant taxonomy, the Thorne system (1992) of plant classification was drawn up by the botanist Robert F. Thorne (1920- ). He replaced it in 2000 with a new system. ... A modern system of plant taxonomy, the APG system of plant classification was published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. ... A modern system of plant taxonomy, the APG II system of plant classification was published in 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, APG, in Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ...


The internal classification of this group has undergone considerable revision. The Cronquist system, proposed by Arthur Cronquist in 1968 and published in its full form in 1981, is still widely used, but is no longer believed to accurately reflect phylogeny. A general consensus about how the flowering plants should be arranged has recently begun to emerge, through the work of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, who published an influential reclassification of the angiosperms in 1998. An update incorporating more recent research was published as APG II[7] in 2003. A system of plant taxonomy, the Cronquist system is a scheme for the classification of flowering plants (or angiosperms). ... Arthur C. Cronquist (1919–1992) was a North American botanist who wrote An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) and The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1988). ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group is an international group of systematic botanists who have come together to try to establish a consensus view of the taxonomy of flowering plants in the light of the rapid rise of molecular systematics. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A monocot (left), and dicot
A monocot (left), and dicot

Traditionally, the flowering plants are divided into two groups, which in the Cronquist system are called Magnoliopsida (at the rank of class, formed from the family name Magnoliacae) and Liliopsida (at the rank of class, formed from the family name Liliaceae). Other descriptive names allowed by Article 16 of the ICBN include Dicotyledones or Dicotyledoneae, and Monocotyledones or Monocotyledoneae, which have a long history of use. In English a member of either group may be called a dicotyledon (plural dicotyledons) and monocotyledon (plural monocotyledons), or abbreviated, as dicot (plural dicots) and monocot (plural monocots). These names derive from the observation that the dicots most often have two cotyledons, or embryonic leaves, within each seed. The monocots usually have only one, but the rule is not absolute either way. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly handy nor reliable character. Image File history File linksMetadata Monocot_vs_dicot_crop_Pengo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Monocot_vs_dicot_crop_Pengo. ... Genera Calochortus Cardiocrinum Clintonia Erythronium Fritillaria Gagea Korolkowia Lilium Lloydia Nomocharis Notholirion Scoliopus Streptopus Tricyrtis Tulipa The Liliaceae, or the Lily Family, is an important family of monocotyledons that includes a great number of ornamental flowers as well as several important agricultural crops; the onion has traditionally been classified here... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ... Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves An example of a trimerous and non-eudicot flower: Magnolia Dicotyledons or dicots are a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Monocotyledon. ... Orders See text. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... For the plant genus, see Cotyledon (genus). ...


Recent studies, as by the APG, show that the monocots form holophyletic or monophyletic group; this clade is given the name monocots. However, the dicots are not (they are a paraphyletic group). Nevertheless, within the dicots a monophyletic group does exist, called the eudicots or tricolpates, and including most of the dicots. The name tricolpates derives from a type of pollen found widely within this group. The name eudicots is formed combining dicot with the prefix eu- (from Greek, for "well," or "good," botanically indicating "true"), as the eudicots share the characters traditionally attributed to the dicots, such as flowers with four or five parts (four or five petals, four or five sepals). Separating this group of eudicots from the rest of the (former) dicots leaves a remainder, which sometimes are called informally palaeodicots (Greek prefix "palaeo-" means "old"). As this remnant group is not monophyletic this is a term of convenience only. In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the APG-system, the names eudicots or tricolpates are applied to a monophyletic group that includes most of the (former) dicotyledons. ... In the APG-system, the names eudicots or tricolpates are applied to a monophyletic group that includes most of the (former) dicotyledons. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... Orders Amborellales Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales Chloranthales Magnoliids Magnoliales Laurales Piperales (incl. ...


Flowering plant diversity

Various flower colors and shapes

The number of species of flowering plants is estimated to be in the range of 250,000 to 400,000. [8] [9] [10] The number of families in APG (1998) was 462. In APG II[7] (2003) it is not settled; at maximum it is 457, but within this number there are 55 optional segregates, so that the minimum number of families in this system is 402. Image File history File links Flores. ... Image File history File links Flores. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...


The diversity of flowering plants is not evenly distributed. Nearly all species belong to the eudicot (75%), monocot (23%) and magnoliid (2%) clades. The remaining 5 clades contain a little over 250 species in total, i.e. less than 0.1% of flowering plant diversity, divided among 9 families.


The most diverse families of flowering plants, in their APG circumscriptions, in order of number of species, are:

  1. Asteraceae or Compositae (daisy family): 23,600 species[11]
  2. Orchidaceae (orchid family): 21,950 species[11]
  3. Fabaceae or Leguminosae (pea family): 19,400[11]
  4. Rubiaceae (madder family): 13,183[12]
  5. Poaceae or Gramineae (grass family): 10,035[11]
  6. Lamiaceae or Labiatae (mint family): 7,173[11]
  7. Euphorbiaceae (spurge family): 5,735[11]
  8. Cyperaceae (sedge family): 4,350[11]
  9. Malvaceae (mallow family): 4,225[11]
  10. Araceae (aroid family): 4,025[11]

In the list above (showing only the 10 largest families), the Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Araceae are monocot families; the others are dicot families. Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Look up Daisy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Orchid redirects here. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Type Genus Rubia L. Genera See text For a full list, see: List of Rubiaceae genera Egyptian Starcluster Pentas lanceolata White luculia gratissima Rubiaceae Juss. ... Species See text. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Species See full list. ... Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Genera See text The family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Subfamilies Bombacoideae Brownlowioideae Byttnerioideae Dombeyoideae Grewioideae Helicteroideae Malvoideae Sterculioideae Tilioideae Malvaceae is family of flowering plants containing Malva, the mallow genus, and its relatives. ... Mallow is the common name of several closely related genera of plant in the family Malvaceae: Althaea – Marsh mallow Callirhoe – Poppy mallow Kosteletzkya – Seashore mallow Lavatera – Tree mallow or rose mallow Malacothamnus – Santa Cruz Island bush-mallow Malva – Mallow Malvaviscus – Turks cap mallow Sidalcea – Greek mallow Sphaeralcea – Globemallow Plants... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ...


Vascular anatomy

The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of Gymnosperms. The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings. Complexity in general usage is the opposite of simplicity. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ...


In the Dicotyledons, the bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium; by the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside. The soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings. Vascular cambium is a tissue found in the stems of perennial dicots. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings Cheraw, South Carolina Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree ring patterns. ...


Among the Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.


The flower, fruit, and seed

Flowers

Main articles: Flower and Plant sexuality

The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species. The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf. Occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More typically, the flower-bearing portion of the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ...


The reproductive cells produced by flowers are of two kinds. Microspores which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens (or microsporophylls). The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg-cell (megagametogenesis), are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll). SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Megagametogenesis is the development of a megaspore into an embryo sac, which is the gametophyte - though a highly reduced one - stage in the life cycle of vascular plants. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ...


The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators. The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals (or tepals in flowers such as Magnolia where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other). The outer series (calyx of sepals) is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, especially the bud. The inner series (corolla of petals) is generally white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color, scent, and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower. The characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Look up perianth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the plant. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ...


While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite (having both male and female parts in the same flower structure), flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization. Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot easily transfer pollen to the pistil (receptive part of the carpel). Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical (physiological) mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self- and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers. For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ...


Fertilization and embryogenesis

Double fertilization refers to a process in which two sperm cells fertilize two cells in the ovary. The pollen grain adheres to the stigma of the carpel (female reproductive structure) and grows a pollen tube that penetrates the ovum through a tiny pore called a micropyle. Two sperm cells are released into the ovary through this tube. One of the two sperm cells fertilizes the egg cell, forming a diploid zygote or embryo, also called the ovule. The other sperm cell fuses with two haploid polar nuclei in the center of the embryo sac. The resulting cell is triploid (3n). This triploid cell divides through mitosis and forms the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue inside the fruit. When seed develops without fertilization, the process is known as apomixis. Categories: Biology stubs ... Plant embryogenesis is a sexual or asexual reproductive process that forms new plants. ... For other uses, see Sperm (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Pollen may refer to the microspores of either angiosperms (flowering plants) or gymnosperms (conifers and cycads). ... A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... Location of ovules inside a Helleborus foetidus flower Ovule literally means small egg. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... In botany, apomixis is asexual reproduction, without fertilization. ...


Fruit and seed

Main articles: Seed and Fruit
The fruit of the Aesculus or Horse Chestnut tree.
The fruit of the Aesculus or Horse Chestnut tree.

As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, the sac wall enlarges and combines with the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) and the integument to form the seed-coat. The ovary wall develops to form the fruit or pericarp, whose form is closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) duplicate removed File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Conker Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Plants User:Solipsist/images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/October-2004... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 400 KB) duplicate removed File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Conker Wikipedia:List of images/Nature/Plants User:Solipsist/images Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/October-2004... Location of ovules inside a Helleborus foetidus flower Ovule literally means small egg. ... An integument is an outer protective covering such as the feathers or skin of an animal or rind or shell. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ...


Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, e.g. the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others. // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ...


The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation to that of the fruit. They protect the embryo and aid in dissemination; they may also directly promote germination. Among plants with indehiscent fruits, the fruit generally provides protection for of the embryo and secures dissemination. In this case, the seed-coat is only slightly developed. If the fruit is dehiscent and the seed is exposed, the seed-coat is generally well developed, and must discharge the functions otherwise executed by the fruit. Dehiscence is the spontaneous opening at maturity of a plant structure, such as a fruit, anther, or sporangium, to release its contents. ...


Economic importance

A mature wheat field in northern Israel.
A mature wheat field in northern Israel.

Agriculture is almost entirely dependent on angiosperms, either directly or indirectly through livestock feed. Of all the families plants, the Poaceae, or grass family, is by far the most important, providing the bulk of all feedstocks (rice, corn (maize), wheat, barley, rye, oats, pearl millet, sugar cane, sorghum). The Fabaceae, or legume family, comes in second place. Also of high importance are the Solanaceae, or nightshade family (potatoes, tomatoes, and peppers, among others), the Cucurbitaceae, or gourd family (also including pumpkins and melons), the Brassicaceae, or mustard plant family (including rapeseed and cabbage), and the Apiaceae, or parsley family. Many of our fruits come from the Rutaceae, or rue family, and the Rosaceae, or rose family (including apples, pears, cherries, apricots, plums, etc). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wheat Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wheat Metadata This... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name (L.) R. Br. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... This article refers to the dried fruit shell. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Genera See text Ref: Hortiplex 2003-11-14 The Apiaceae, the carrot or parsley family, are a family of usually aromatic plants with hollow stems, including parsley, carrot, and other relatives. ... This article is about the herb. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca The scientific name for the apricot is Prunus armeniaca L., which puts it in the same subgenus as the plum (Prunophora). ... Plum is also a nickname for British humorist P. G. Wodehouse. ...


In some parts of the world, certain single species assume paramount importance because of their variety of uses, for example the coconut (Cocos nucifera) on Pacific atolls, and the olive (Olea europaea) in the Mediterranean. For other uses, see Coconut (disambiguation). ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Flowering plants also provide economic resources in the form of wood, paper, fiber (cotton, flax, and hemp, among others), medicines (digitalis, camphor), decorative and landscaping plants, and many other uses. The main area in which they are surpassed by other plants is timber production. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... This list of flowers includes different individual flowers produced by flowering plants (Division Magnoliophyta). ...

References

  1. ^ Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. T. Jonathan Davies, Timothy G. Barraclough, Mark W. Chase, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, and Vincent Savolainen. Published (online) February 6, 2004.
  2. ^ A theory of much earlier angiosperm origin and proliferation (360 mya) is offered by Harry Levin at http://www.flwildflowers.com
  3. ^ Clair Ossian, Geological Evidence for the origin of the Orchidaceae. 14th World Orchid Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, April 29-March 5, 1993
  4. ^ David Winship Taylor, Hongqi Li, Jeremy Dahl, Fred J. Fago, David Zinniker, and J. Michael Moldowan (March 2006). "Biogeochemical evidence for the presence of the angiosperm molecular fossil oleanane in Paleozoic and Mesozoic non-angiospermous fossils". Paleobiology 32 (2): 179–190. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2006)32[179:BEFTPO]2.0.CO;2.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase (2004). "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view". American Journal of Botany 91: 1437–1445.
  6. ^ Pamela S. Soltis and Douglas E. Soltis (2004). "The origin and diversification of angiosperms". American Journal of Botany 91: 1614–1626.
  7. ^ a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II.". 'Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society' 141: 399-436.
  8. ^ Thorne, R. F. (2002). "How many species of seed plants are there?". Taxon 51: 511-522. >
  9. ^ Scotland, R. W. & Wortley, A. H. (2003). "How many species of seed plants are there?". Taxon 52: 101-104.
  10. ^ Govaerts, R.url=http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2003/00000052/00000003/art00016+(2003). "How many species of seed plants are there? - a response". Taxon 52 (3): 583-584.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (at Missouri Botanical Garden).
  12. ^ Kew Scientist 30 (October2006).

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Angiosperms – Tree of Life Web Project
  • Cronquist, Arthur. (1981) An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia Univ. Press, New York.
  • Dilcher, D. 2000. Toward a new synthesis: Major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record. PNAS [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America] 97: 7030-7036 (available online here)
  • Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55407-206-9. 
  • Oldest Known Flowering Plants Identified By Genes, William J. Cromie, Harvard Gazette, December 16, 1999.
  • L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
  • Simpson, M.G. Plant Systematics. Elsevier Academic Press. 2006.
  • Raven, P.H., R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn. Biology of Plants, 7th Edition. W.H. Freeman. 2004.


is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of some twenty thousand species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia The gymnosperms (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, the sporophylls usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For the scientific journal see The Plant Cell. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... assimilation. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels and stamen, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... In Botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plants or plant parts, mainly in a dried form. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flowering Plant Reproduction II (1140 words)
Flower color is thought to indicate the nature of pollinator: red petals are thought to attract birds, yellow for bees, and white for moths.
In flowering plants, gametophyte phases are reduced to a few cells dependant for their nutrition on the sporophyte phase.
Plant Biology (University of Maryland) Text, outlines, and images that are part of a general botany course.
Flowering Plant definition (681 words)
The ten-penny answer is that it's a plant which during some part of its reproductive cycle produces flowers, and the female portion of these flowers must consist of at least a pistil, inside which reside ovules developing into seeds.
Therefore, plants in most backyards confirm the fact that flowering plants are the most conspicuous, most diverse, and most economically important group of plants on earth today.
Flowering plants, in terms of the history of life on earth, are fairly "new inventions." Life on earth is reckoned as having dawned a little over four billion years ago.
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