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Encyclopedia > Flour
Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
wheat flour
wheat flour

An ingredient used in many foods, flour is a fine powder made from cereals or other starchy food sources. It is most commonly made from wheat, but also maize (now called corn in many parts of the Western Hemisphere), rye, barley, and rice, amongst many other grasses and non-grain plants (including many Australian species of acacia). Flour is the key ingredient of bread, which is the staple food in many countries, and therefore the availability of adequate supplies of flour has often been a major economic and political issue. Flour can also be made from legumes and nuts, such as soy, peanuts, almonds, and other tree nuts. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Flour is a common food ingredient made from wheat, rice, or other starchy sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... “Corn” redirects here. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Media:Example. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Flour is always based on the presence of starches, which are complex carbohydrates. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Usually, the word "flour" used alone refers to wheat flour, which is one of the most important foods in European and American culture and it usually is enriched. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most types of breads and pastries. Wheat flour often was called corn before the introduction of corn from the Western Hemisphere. Enriched flour is flour with nutrients added to it. ...


Wheat is so widely used because of an important property: when wheat flour is mixed with water, a complex protein called gluten develops. The gluten development is what gives wheat dough an elastic structure that allows it to be worked in a variety of ways, and which allows the retention of gas bubbles in an intact structure, resulting in a sponge-like texture to the final product. This is highly desired for breads, cakes and other baked products. However, certain individuals suffer from an intolerance to wheat gluten known as coeliac or celiac disease. Increased awareness of this disorder, as well as a rising belief in the benefits of a gluten-free diet for persons suffering certain other conditions, has led to an increased demand for bread and other products made with flours that do not contain gluten. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... Coeliac disease or celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals in all age groups after early infancy. ... A gluten-free diet is a diet completely free of ingredients derived from gluten-containing cereals: wheat (including Kamut and spelt), barley, rye, and triticale. ...


A coarser, somewhat granular preparation, rather than a fine dust, is often called meal.

Contents

Types of flour

Wheat flour

Protein
8-10% Cake Flour
9-10% Pastry Flour
10-11.5% All-Purpose Flour
11-13% Bread Flour
14% and up High-Gluten Flour

The vast majority of today's flour consumption is wheat flour. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


Wheat varieties are typically known as, variously, "white" or "brown" if they have high gluten content, and "soft" or "weak flour" if gluten content is low. Hard flour, or "bread" flour, is high in gluten and so forms a certain toughness that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour. Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ...


All-purpose or plain flour is a blended wheat flour with an intermediate gluten level which is marketed as an acceptable compromise for most household baking needs.


In terms of the parts of the grain (the grass seed) used in flour—the endosperm or starchy part, the germ or protein part, and the bran or fiber part—there are three general types of flour. White flour is made from the endosperm only. Whole grain flour is made from the entire grain including bran, endosperm, and germ. A germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Whole-wheat flour is whole-grain wheat flour. Whole wheat flour is a powdery substance derived by grinding or mashing the whole wheat grain. ...


Bleached flour is flour that was subjected to flour bleaching agents for health purposes, to whiten it (freshly milled flour is yellowish), and to give it more gluten-producing potential. Oxidizing agents are usually employed, most commonly organic peroxides like acetone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, or chlorine. A similar effect can be achieved by letting the flour slowly oxidize with oxygen in the air ("natural aging") for approximately 10 days; however, this process is more expensive due to the time required. [1] Flour bleaching agent is a food additive added to flour in order to make it appear whiter (freshly milled flour is yellowish) and to oxidize the surfaces of the flour grains and help with developing of gluten. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Acetone peroxide Ball-and-stick model of the acetone peroxide trimer (TATP) Acetone peroxide (triacetone triperoxide, peroxyacetone, TATP, TCAP) is an organic peroxide and a primary high explosive. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Autoignition temperature 80°C RTECS number DM8575000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Tube of Basiron, a water-based 5% benzoyl peroxide preparation for the treatment of acne. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Bromated flour is flour with a maturing agent added. The agent's role is to help with developing gluten, a role similar to the flour bleaching agents. Bromate is usually used. Other choices are phosphates, ascorbic acid, and malted barley. Bromated flour has been banned in much of the world, but remains available in the United States. Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents) are food additives added to flour in order to improve its properties. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... Flour bleaching agent is a food additive added to flour in order to make it appear whiter (freshly milled flour is yellowish) and to oxidize the surfaces of the flour grains and help with developing of gluten. ... The bromate ion is BrO3−. A bromate is a compound that contains this group. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... MALT also means mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ...


Cake flour is a finely milled flour made from soft wheat. It has very low gluten content, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. The higher gluten content of other flours would make the cakes tough. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A chocolate chip cookie In the United States and Canada, a cookie (sometimes spelled cooky) is a small, flat baked pastry. ...


Graham flour is a special type of whole-wheat flour. The endosperm is finely ground, as in white flour, while the bran and germ are coarsely ground. Graham flour is uncommon outside of the USA and the cities of Romania. It is the basis of true graham crackers. Many graham crackers on the market are actually imitation grahams because they do not contain graham flour or even whole-wheat flour. Graham flour is a type of whole wheat flour named after the American Presbyterian minister Rev. ... The graham cracker (pronounced gram cracker) was developed in nineteenth century America in Suffield, Connecticut by Presbyterian minister Rev. ...


Pastry flour (also called cookie flour or cracker flour) has slightly higher gluten content than cake flour, but lower than all-purpose flour. It is suitable for fine, light-textured pastries. Pastry is the name given to various kinds of dough made from ingredients such as flour, butter, shortening, baking powder or eggs. ...


Self-rising or self-raising flour is "white" wheat flour that is sold premixed with chemical leavening agents. It was invented by Henry Jones. It can also be substituted by Maida when cooking under the Indian Cusine. Typical ratios are: Henry Jones was a baker in Bristol. ... Maida flour is super refined wheat flour used to make a wide variety of food items like puri, chappathi, paratha, etc. ...

U.S. customary:
one cup flour
1 to 1½ teaspoon baking powder
a pinch to ½ teaspoon salt
Metric:
100 g flour
3 g baking powder
1 g or less salt

In Britain, many flours go by names different than those from America. Some American flours and British equivalents include: Baking powder Baking Powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used in baking and deodorizing. ...

Cake and pastry flour = soft flour
All-purpose flour = plain flour
Bread flour = strong flour, hard flour
Self-rising flour = self-raising flour
Whole-wheat flour = wholemeal flour

Durum flour is made of durum wheat. It has the highest protein content, and it is an important component of nearly all noodles and pastas. It is also commonly used to make Indian flatbreads. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Look up Noodle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Crisp bread Making Tortillas A flatbread is a simple bread made from flattened dough. ...


Wheat flour is highly explosive when airborne. In medieval flour mills, candles, lamps, or other sources of fire were forbidden.


Other flours

  • Corn flour is popular in the Southern and Southwestern US and in Mexico. Coarse whole-grain corn flour is usually called corn meal. Corn meal that has been bleached with lye is called masa harina (see masa) and is used to make tortillas and tamales in Mexican cooking. Corn flour should never be confused with cornstarch, which is known as "cornflour" in British English.
  • Rye flour is used to bake the traditional sourdough breads of Germany and Scandinavia. Most rye breads use a mix of rye and wheat flours because rye has a low gluten content. Pumpernickel bread is usually made exclusively of rye, and contains a mixture of rye flour and rye meal.
  • Rice flour is of great importance in Southeast Asian cuisine. Also edible rice paper can be made from it. Most rice flour is made from white rice, thus is essentially a pure starch, but whole-grain brown rice flour is commercially available.
  • Teff flour is made from the grain teff, and is of considerable importance in eastern Africa (particularly around the horn of Africa). Notably, it is the chief ingredient in the bread injera, an important component of Ethiopian cuisine.
  • Tang flour(not to be confused with the powdered beverage Tang) or wheat starch is a type of wheat flour used primarily in Chinese cooking for making the outer layer of dumplings and buns.
  • Glutinous rice flour or sticky rice flour, used in east and southeast Asian cusines for making tangyuan etc.
  • Peasemeal or pea flour is a flour produced from roasted and pulverized yellow field peas.
  • Bean flour is a flour produced from pulverized dried or ripe beans.
  • Potato flour is obtained by grinding the tubers to a pulp and removing the fibre by water-washings. The dried product consists chiefly of starch, but also contains some protein
  • Amaranth flour is a flour produced from ground Amaranth grain. It was commonly used in pre-columbian meso-american cuisine. It is becoming more and more available in specialty food shops.

Flour can also be made from buckwheat, soy beans, arrowroot, taro, cattails, acorns, peas, beans, and other non-grain foodstuffs. “Corn” redirects here. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Masa, or masa nixtamalera, is a fine maize dough made from masa harina, ground hominy flour. ... Products treated with cornstarch Cornstarch, or cornflour, is the starch of the maize grain, commonly known as corn. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... White Vienna Sourdough loaves sometimes arrive on shelves at speeds in excess of 75mph Sourdough is a symbiotic culture of lactobacilli and yeasts used to leaven bread. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Pumpernickel is a type of German sourdough bread made with a combination of rye flour and rye meal (a more coarsely ground form of the flour). ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... Rice paper usually refers to paper made from parts of the rice plant, like rice straw or rice flour. ... Binomial name Castanea sativa Mill. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Périgord (   pronunciation?) is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ... Lunigiana is an historical territory of Italy, which today falls within the provinces of La Spezia and Massa Carrara. ... Fried polenta (left), with chicken and potatoes Polenta is a cornmeal dish popular in Italian, Savoyard, Swiss, Austrian, Croatian, Slovenian, Serbian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Corsican, Argentine, Brazilian, and Mexican cuisine, and it is a traditional staple food throughout much of northern Italy. ... A selection of desserts Dessert is not a meal that can be withstanding by itself. ... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Gram flour, not to be confused with Graham flour, also known as chana flour, besan or chickpea flour, is an ingredient used in Indian cuisine. ... Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Farinata (which literally means floured) is a thin, crisp, pizza-like pancake from Liguria, which is also eaten in Alessandria and is similar to the socca from Nice. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat or tsebhi (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... Atta flour is a form of wheat flour used in South Asian cooking. ... Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs. ... It has been suggested that Chapati be merged into this article or section. ... An Indian girl baking chapatis. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Tang is a sugared, fruit-flavored, non-carbonated soft drink from the USA. The original orange flavored Tang was formulated by General Foods Corporation in 1957 and first marketed (in powdered form) in 1959. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ... Tangyuan (Simplified: 汤圆; Traditional: 湯圓; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Chinese food made from glutinous rice flour. ... Peasemeal is a flour produced from yellow field peas that have been roasted. ... Amarant redirects here. ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... Binomial name Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Taro corms for sale Taro (from Tahitian), more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian), is a tropical plant grown primarily as a vegetable food for its edible corm, and secondarily as a leaf vegetable. ... Species See text Typha is a genus of about eleven species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the monogeneric family, Typhaceae. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum L. A pea is the small, edible round green bean which grows in a pod on the leguminous vine Pisum sativum, or in some cases to the immature pods. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ...


Flour type numbers

In some markets, the different available flour varieties are labeled according to the ash mass ("mineral content") that remains after a sample was incinerated in a laboratory oven (typically at 550 °C or 900 °C, see international standards ISO 2171 and ICC 104/1). This is an easy to verify indicator for the fraction of the whole grain that ended up in the flour, because the mineral content of the starchy endosperm is much lower than that of the outer parts of the grain. Flour made from all parts of the grain (extraction rate: 100%) leaves about 2 g ash or more per 100 g dry flour. Plain white flour (extraction rate: 50-60%) leaves only about 0.4 g. Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) was founded in 1955 and was originally called the International Association for Cereal Chemistry. ...

  • German flour type numbers (Mehltype) indicate the amount of ash (measured in milligrams) obtained from 100 g of the dry mass of this flour. Standard wheat flours (defined in DIN 10355) range from type 405 for normal white wheat flour for baking, to strong bread flour types 550, 650, 812, and the darker types 1050 and 1600 for wholegrain breads.
  • French flour type numbers (type de farine) are a factor 10 smaller than those used in Germany, because they indicate the ash content (in milligrams) per 10 g flour. Type 55 is the standard, hard-wheat white flour for baking, including puff pastries ("pâte feuilletée"). Type 45 is often called pastry flour, but is generally from a softer wheat. Types 65, 80, and 110 are strong bread flours of increasing darkness, and type 150 is a wholemeal flour.

In the United States and the United Kingdom, no numbered standardized flour types are defined, and the ash mass is only rarely given on the label by flour manufacturers. However, the legally required standard nutrition label specifies the protein content of the flour, which is also a suitable way for comparing the extraction rates of different available flour types. Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It is possible to find out ash content from some US manufacturers. However, US measurements are based on wheat with a 14% moisture content. Thus, a US flour with .48 ash would approximate a French Type 55.


In general, as the extraction rate of the flour increases, so do both the protein and the ash content. However, as the extraction rate approaches 100% (whole meal), the protein content drops slightly, while the ash content continues to rise.


The following table shows some typical examples of how protein and ash content relate to each other in wheat flour:

Ash Protein Wheat flour type
US German French
~0.4% ~9% all-purpose flour 405 45
~0.55% ~11% pastry flour 550 55
~0.8% ~14% high gluten flour 812 80
~1% ~15% first clear flour 1050 110
>1.5% ~13% white whole wheat 1600 150

This table is only a rough guideline for converting bread recipes. Since the American flour types are not standardized, the numbers may differ between manufacturers.


Flour production

Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" usually means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontially with the grain in between. Many small appliance mills are available, both hand-cranked and electric. Mill stones are used in windmills and watermills for grinding wheat or other grains. ...


Flour dust suspended in air is explosive, as is any mixture of a finely powdered flammable substance with air,[1] see Lycopodium. Some devastating and fatal explosions have occurred at flour mills, including an explosion in 1878 at the Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis, the largest flour mill in the United States at the time. [2] Lycopodium is a genus of clubmosses, also known as ground pines, in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of fern-allies (see Pteridophyta). ... The Washburn A Mill complex in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ...


History

In history, both large and hand mills were operated. Until modern times, much flour contained minute amounts of grit, either the result of poor sifting of the grain or of grinding stones together. This grit strongly abraded teeth.


One of the most ancient methods of grinding to produce flour was by using a pair of quern-stones. These were made out of rock, and were ground together by hand. They were generally replaced by millstones once mechanised forms of milling appeared, particularly the water mill and the windmill, although animals were also used to operate the millstones. Quern-stones are a pair of stone tools for hand grinding a wide variety of materials. ... The interior of a functional water mill The basic anatomy of a millstone. ... Milling may refer to: Grinding grain and other materials in a mill Cutting and shaping materials into products with milling machines Miller Category: ... A watermill is a machine constructed by connecting a water wheel to a pair of millstones. ... A Dutch tower windmill surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...


Flour products

Bread, pasta, crackers, many cakes, and many other foods are made using flour. Wheat flour is also used to make a roux as a base for gravy and sauces. White wheat flour is the traditional base for wallpaper paste. It is also the base for papier-mâché. Cornstarch is a principal ingredient of many puddings. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A Cheez-It cracker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Roux (IPA: ) (pronounced like the English word rue) is a mixture of wheat flour and fat. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer protocol, see SAUCE. Or see source. ... Mary Cassatts painting of two ladies drinking tea in a room with red-blue striped wallpapers. ... Papier-mâché around a form such as a balloon to create a pig. ... Pudding can be prepared with a large variety of toppings such as fresh fruit and whipped cream Christmas pudding Dessert pudding In the United Kingdom, and some Commonwealth countries, pudding is the common name for dessert. ...


External links

  • Grain and wheat flour
  • Cooking For Engineers - Kitchen Notes: Wheat Flour
  • h2g2 entry on Bread Flour
  • British Nutrition Foundation - Flour Information

References

  1. ^ Williamson, George (06-02-2002). Introduction to Dust Explosions. Retrieved on 2006-10-29.
  2. ^ Washburn ‘A’ Mill Explosion. Minnesota Historical Society Library History Topics. Retrieved on 2006-10-29.

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