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Encyclopedia > Florence
Comune di Firenze
Coat of arms of Comune di Firenze
Municipal coat of arms
Location of Florence in Italy
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Florence (FI)
Mayor Leonardo Domenici (Democratic Party)
Elevation 50 m (164 ft)
Area 102 km² (39 sq mi)
Population (as of 2006-06-02)
 - Total 366,488
 - Density 3,593/km² (9,306/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 43°46′18″N, 11°15′13″E
Gentilic Fiorentini
Dialing code 055
Postal code 50100
Frazioni Galluzzo, Settignano
Patron St. John the Baptist
 - Day June 24
Website: www.comune.firenze.it

Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. It is the most populated city in Tuscany with 364,779 people. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x921, 196 KB) Summary it: Stemma del Comune di Firenze (Provincia di Firenze). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... The Province of Florence (Italian: ) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy, with an area of 3,514 sq. ... Mayor of Florence since June 13th 1999. ... The following is a list of political parties whose names (in English) include the word Democrat(s) or Democratic. For the phrase, see: Democrat Party Category: ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Galluzzo is a suburb of Florence, Italy, located in the southern extremity of the florentine comune. ... La piazza di Settignano, Telemaco Signorini, 1880 Settignano is a picturesque frazione ranged on a hillside northeast of Florence, Italy, with spectacular views that have attracted expatriates for generations. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... The Province of Florence (Italian: ) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy, with an area of 3,514 sq. ...


From 1865 to 1870 the city was also the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Florence lies on the Arno River and it is known for its history and its importance in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, especially for its art and architecture. A centre of medieval European trade and finance, the city is often considered the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and was long ruled by the Medici family. In fact, the city has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages.[1] “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about economic exchange. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The "Historic Centre of Florence" was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1982. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Florence

Florence began as a settlement established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC for his veteran soldiers. It was named Florentia (Flourishing) and built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated at the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the North, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial center. Emperor Diocletian made Florentia capital of the province of Tuscia in the 3rd century AD. The History of Florence // Roman Origins Florences recorded history began with the establishment in 59 BCE of a settlement for Roman former soldiers, with the name Florentia. ... Domenico di Michelino Dante and His Poem (1465) fresco, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (Florences cathedral). ... Domenico di Michelino Dante and His Poem (1465) fresco, in the dome of the church of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (Florences cathedral). ... Dante redirects here. ... ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Saint Minias was Florence’s first martyr. He was beheaded at about 250 AD, during the anti-Christian persecutions of the Emperor Decius. After being beheaded, it is said that he picked up his disembodied head and walked across the Arno River and up the hill Mons Fiorentinus to his hermitage, where the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte now stands. For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... San Miniato al Monte and the Bishops Palace The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte (Basilica of St Minias on the Mountain) stands atop one of the highest points in Florence, and has been described as the finest Romanesque structure in Tuscany and one of the most beautiful churches...


The seat of a bishopric from around the beginning of the 4th century AD, the city experienced subsequent turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 living persons. In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Conquered by Charlemagne in 774, Florence became part of the duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. Population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... For the Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ... Florence as seen from Fiesole Fiesole is a town and comune (township) of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, 43°49N 11°18E, on a famously scenic height 346 m (1140 ft) above Florence, 8 km (5 mi) NE of that city. ...


Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD. This initiated the Golden Age of Florentine art. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte. The exterior of the baptistry was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ...

the Uffizi
the Uffizi

This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa (defeated by Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence in 1406), and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice (1293). For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Ordinaces of Justice were a series of statutory laws enacted in Florence, Italy between the years A.D. 1293 and 1295. ...


Of a population estimated at 80,000 before the Black Death of 1348, about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's wool industry: in 1345 Florence was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi. After their suppression, Florence came under the sway (1382-1434) of the Albizzi family, bitter rivals of the Medici. Cosimo de' Medici was the first Medici family member to essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the gente nuova. The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their rise. Cosimo was succeeded by his son Piero, who was shortly thereafter succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. Lorenzo was also an accomplished musician and brought some of the most famous composers and singers of the day to Florence, including Alexander Agricola, Johannes Ghiselin, and Heinrich Isaac. By contemporary Florentines, (and since), he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico). This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... ... The Albizzi family was a Florentine family based in Arezzo and rivals of the Medici and Alberti families. ... Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... ... Piero de Medici (the Gouty), Italian Piero il Gottoso (1416 – December 2, 1469), was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... Alexander Agricola (1445 or 1446 – August 15, 1506) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. ... Johannes Ghiselin (Verbonnet) (fl. ... Heinrich Isaac (also Henricus, Arrigo dUgo, and Arrigo il Tedesco) (around 1450 – March 26, 1517) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance. ...


Following the death of Lorenzo in 1492, he was succeeded by his son Piero II. When the French king Charles VIII invaded northern Italy, Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he realized the size of the French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the Florentines rebel and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in 1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government. Charles VIII, called the Affable (French: ; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


During this period the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola had become prior of the San Marco monastery in 1490. He was famed for his penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread immorality and attachment to material riches. He blamed the exile of the Medicis as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused Pope Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public. When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake on the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498. Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

the "David di Michelangelo"
the "David di Michelangelo"

A second individual of unusual insight was Niccolò Machiavelli, whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimisation of political expediency and even malpractice. Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the Florentine Histories, the history of the city. Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on May 16, 1527. Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the Medici in 1537 became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in 1569 Grand Dukes of Tuscany, ruling for two centuries. In all Tuscany, only the Republic of Lucca (later a Duchy) and the Principality of Piombino were independent from Florence. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x2046, 363 KB) Description: Michelangelos David (original statue) Source: private photo Date: created 24. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x2046, 363 KB) Description: Michelangelos David (original statue) Source: private photo Date: created 24. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... Lucca (population 90,000) is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, near (but not on) the Ligurian Sea. ... Duchy of Lucca was an Italian state that was formed in 1815 according to the Congress of Vienna, with capital Lucca. ... Piombino is a town and commune in the province of Livorno (Tuscany), Italy, on the medium coast of Tyrrhenian sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma. ...


The extinction of the Medici line and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. It became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the Bourbon-Parma in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), restored at the Congress of Vienna; Tuscany became a province of the United Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...


Florence replaced Turin as Italy's capital in 1865, hosting the country's first parliament, but was superseded by Rome six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible. After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population tripled in the 20th with the growth of tourism, trade, financial services and industry. During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943-1944) and was declared an open city. The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about 9 kilometres (6 mi) south of the city [1], British and Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometers east of the center on the north bank of the Arno [2]) For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the country that owns the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts. ...


A very important role is played in those years by the famous café of Florence Giubbe Rosse from its foundation until the present day. Piazza del Mercato Vecchio was destroyed (Old Market Square), and then was renamed Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II. It is known today as Piazza della Repubblica, and is the location of the Giubbe Rosse. In those years (the end of the l9th century) the city administration of Florence decided to raze the old neighborhood of Mercato Vecchio to the ground, in favour of a new square dedicated to Victor Emmanuel II. "Non fu giammai così nobil giardino/ come a quel tempo egli è Mercato Vecchio / che l'occhio e il gusto pasce al fiorentino", claimed Antonio Pucci (poet) in the fourteenth century, "Mercato Vecchio nel mondo è alimento./ A ogni altra piazza il prego serra". The area had decayed from its original medieval splendor". Nowadays the literary café Giubbe Rosse is publishing books of famous Italian authors such: Mario Luzi, Manlio Sgalambro, Giovanni Lista, Menotti Lerro, Leopoldo Paciscopi. Giubbe Rosse is one of the most famous café of Florence (Italy). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820—January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861, and King of Italy from 1861 until his death in 1878. ... Antonio Pucci (1310 ca. ... Mario Luzi (20 October 1914 – 28 February 2005) was an Italian poet. ... Manlio Sgalambro (philosopher and poet) was born in Lentini in 1924. ...


In November 1966, the Arno flooded parts of the center, damaging many art treasures. There was no warning from the authorities who knew the flood was coming, except a phone call to the jewelers on the Ponte Vecchio. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point. The Arno River flood of November 4, 1966 collapsed the embankment in Florence, killing at least 40 people and damaging or destroying millions of works of art and rare books. ... Ponte Vecchio Ponte Vecchio at night View of the Ponte Vecchio from above The Ponte Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: ) (Italian for Old Bridge)[1] is a Medieval bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for having shops (mainly jewellers) built along it. ...


Florence and the Renaissance

There was a surge in artistic, literary, and scientific activity in Florence from the 14th to 16th centuries. This was accompanied by significant economic growth and business activity. There was substantial private and public funding to sponsor artistic and scholarly endeavours.


There were crises in the Roman Catholic church (especially the controversy over the French Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism). There were catastrophic results from the Black Death and a some re-evaluation of medieval values. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...

Historic Centre of Florence*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Historic Centre of Florence
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 174
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1982  (6th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2218x3327, 6373 KB) Giottos belltower (campanile) in Florence, Italy. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Historic centre of Florence

In 1982, the historic centre of Florence (ita. il centro storico di Firenze) was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO for the importance of its cultural heritages. The centre of the city is contained in medieval walls that were built in XIV century to defend the city after it began famous and important for its economic growth. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


Landmarks

For a complete list, see Buildings and structures in Florence.

Florence is known as the “cradle of Renaissance” (la culla del Rinascimento) for its monuments, churces and buildings. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The best-known site and crowning architectural jewel of Florence is the domed cathedral of the city, Santa Maria del Fiore, known as The Duomo. The magnificent dome was built by Filippo Brunelleschi. The nearby Campanile tower (partly designed by Giotto) and the Baptistery buildings are also highlights. Both the dome itself and the campanile are open to tourists and offer excellent views; The dome, 600 years after its completion, is still the largest dome built in brick and mortar in the world[2]. The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... The duomo of Milan. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects of the Italian Renaissance. ... A campanile (pronounced []) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, bell), often adjacent to a church or cathedral. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ...


At the heart of the city in Piazza della Signoria is Bartolomeo Ammanati's Fountain of Neptune, which is a masterpiece of marble sculpture at the terminus of a still functioning Roman aqueduct. The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ... Bartolomeo Ammanati (1511-1592) was a Florentine architect and sculptor. ... In the Unita dItalia square in the city of Florence is the Fountain of Neptune, where the statue had been placed until 1934 in the so called area of the palazzata near the old fish-pond. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...


The Arno river, which cuts through the old part of the city, is as much a character in Florentine history as many of the men who lived there. Historically, the locals have had a love-hate relationship with the Arno — which alternated from nourishing the city with commerce, and destroying it by flood. Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ...

Facade and Campanile (bell tower) of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Facade and Campanile (bell tower) of Santa Maria del Fiore.

One of the bridges in particular stands out as being unique — The Ponte Vecchio (Old Bridge), whose most striking feature is the multitude of shops built upon its edges, held up by stilts. The bridge also carried Vasari's elevated corridor linking the Uffizi to the Medici residence (Palazzo Pitti). First constructed by the Etruscans in ancient times, this bridge is the only one in the city to have survived World War II intact. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 657 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (701 × 640 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 657 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (701 × 640 pixel, file size: 281 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... Ponte Vecchio Ponte Vecchio at night View of the Ponte Vecchio from above The Ponte Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: ) (Italian for Old Bridge)[1] is a Medieval bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for having shops (mainly jewellers) built along it. ... A trait of the Vasari Corridor from the Uffizi, seen from Ponte Vecchio. ... Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The San Lorenzo contains the Medici Chapel, the mausoleum of the Medici family - the most powerful family in Florence from the 15th to the 18th century. Nearby is the Uffizi Gallery, one of the finest art galleries in the world - founded on a large bequest from the last member of the Medici family. Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... St. ... The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family during the Renaissance, whose wealth and influence initially derived from the textile trade guided by the guild of the Becoming first bankers, and later politicians, clergy and nobles, the Medici attained their greatest prominence during the 15th through 17th centuries... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ...


The Uffizi ("offices") itself is located at the corner of Piazza della Signoria, a site important for being the centre of Florence civil life and government for centuries (Signoria Palace is still home of the community government): the Loggia dei lanzi was the set of all the public ceremonies of the republican government. Many well known episodes of history of art and political changes were staged here, such as: The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ...

  • In 1301, Dante was sent into Exile from here (a plaque on one of the walls of the Uffizi commemorates the event).
  • 26 April 1478 Jacopo de'Pazzi and his retainers try to raise the city against the Medici after the plot known as The congiura dei pazzi (The pazzi conspiracy) who murdered Giuliano dei Medici and wounded his brother Lorenzo; the florentines seized and hung all the members of the plot that could be apprehended from the windows of the Palace.
  • In 1497, it was the location of the Bonfire of the Vanities instigated by the Dominican friar and preacher Girolamo Savonarola
  • the 23 May 1498 the same Savonarola and two followers were hanged and burnt at the stake (a round plate in the ground commemorates the very spot were he was hanged)
  • In 1504, it was the original location of Michelangelo's David (now replaced by a reproduction as the original was moved indoors to the Accademia dell'Arte del Disegno), in front of the Palazzo della Signoria (also known as Palazzo Vecchio).

It is still the setting for a number of statues by other sculptors such as Donatello, Giambologna,Ammannati, Cellini, although some have been replaced with copies to preserve the priceless originals. The exact same full name was also carried by his grandson Lorenzo (1492 - 1519), Duke of Urbino, with whom he is sometimes confused. ... Bonfire of the Vanities refers to an event on 7 February 1497 when followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. ... Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ... Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it. ... Palazzo della Signoria Palazzo della Signoria was the original name of the Palazzo Vecchio, before the government of the Republic of Florence was moved to the Uffizi under Cosimo I de Medici. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... Benvenuto Cellini (November 1, 1500 _ February 13, 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, painter, sculptor, soldier and musician of the Renaissance. ...

Uffizi and Palazzo Vecchio
Uffizi and Palazzo Vecchio

In addition to the Uffizi, Florence has other world-class museums:


The Bargello concentrates on sculpture, containing many priceless works of art created by such sculptors as Donatello, Giambologna, and Michelangelo. the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to house first the Capitano del Populo and later, in 1261, the Podestà, the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council, Italy. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


The Accademia dell'Arte del Disegno (often simply called the Accademia) collection's highlights are Michelangelo's David and his unfinished Slaves. Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it. ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ...


Across the Arno is the huge Pitti Palace containing part of the Medici family's former private collection. In addition to the Medici collection the palace's galleries contain a large number of Renaissance works, including several by Raphael and Titian as well as a large collection of modern art, costumes, cattiages, and porcerlain. Adjoining the Palace are the Boboli Gardens, elaborately landscaped and with many interesting sculptures. Early 20th century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865 to 1871 when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Also see: Titian (disambiguation). ... The Boboli Gardens is a famous park in Florence, Italy that is home to a small but distinguished collection of sculptures. ...


The Santa Croce basilica, originally a Franciscan foundation, contains the monumental tombs of Galileo, Michelangelo, Machiavelli, Dante (actually a cenotaph), and many other notables. The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church of Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... The Cenotaph, London. ...


Other important basilicas and churches in Florence include Santa Maria Novella, San Lorenzo, Santo Spirito and the Orsanmichele. Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... The Church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito (St. ... Entrance of Orsanmichele Facade - Christ and St. ...


The city's principal football team is AC Fiorentina. ACF Fiorentina, formerly Associazione Calcio Fiorentina, is an Italian football club based in Florence (Firenze), Tuscany. ...


Florence has been the setting for numerous works of fiction and movies, including the novels and associated films Hannibal, Tea with Mussolini and A Room with a View. For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Hannibal is a 2001 film, directed by Ridley Scott about Hannibal Lecters time in Italy following his escape from imprisonment. ... Tea with Mussolini (1999) is a semi-autobiographical film directed by Franco Zeffirelli, telling the story of young Italian boy Lucas upbringing by a kind British woman and her circle of friends. ... This article is about the E. M Forster novel. ...


Today, the city is so rich in art that some first time visitors experience the Stendhal syndrome as they encounter its art for the first time. [3] Stendhal syndrome or Stendhals syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. ...


Geography

Florence is in a beautiful geographic position, in a sort of basin between the Senese Clavey Hills, especially the hills of Careggi, Fiesole, Settignano, Arcetri, Poggio Imperiale and Bellosguardo. The city lies on Arno river and others three minor rivers. Villa Medici in Careggi. ... Florence as seen from Fiesole Fiesole is a town and comune (township) of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, 43°49N 11°18E, on a famously scenic height 346 m (1140 ft) above Florence, 8 km (5 mi) NE of that city. ... La piazza di Settignano, Telemaco Signorini, 1880 Settignano is a picturesque frazione ranged on a hillside northeast of Florence, Italy, with spectacular views that have attracted expatriates for generations. ... The Torre del Gallo in Arcetri Arcetri is a region of Florence in the hills to the south of the city centre. ... Province of Foggia Poggio Imperiale is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. ... Bellosguardo is a town and comune in the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-western Italy. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ...


Climate

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg high [°C](°F) 10 (50) 12 (54) 15 (59) 19 (66) 23 (74) 28 (82) 31 (88) 31 (87) 27 (80) 21 (70) 15 (59) 11 (51) 20 (68)
Avg low temperature [°C](°F) 2 (35) 3 (37) 5 (41) 8 (46) 11 (52) 15 (59) 17 (63) 17 (63) 14 (58) 10 (50) 6 (42) 2 (36) 9 (49)
Rainfall [inches](millimeters) 2.90 (73.60) 2.70 (68.58) 3.20 (81.28) 3.10 (78.74) 2.90 (73.66) 2.20 (55.88) 1.60 (40.64) 3.00 (76.20) 3.10 (78.74) 3.50 (88.90) 4.40 (111.76) 3.60 (91.44) 36.20 (919.48)

Although usually perceived to have a Mediterranean climate, under the Köppen climate classification Florence is sometimes classified as having a Humid subtropical climate (Cfa). It experiences hot, humid summers with little rainfall and cool, damp winters. Due to the geographical position of the city (surrounded by hills in a valley traversed by the Arno river), Florence can be hot and humid from June to August. Summer temperatures are higher than those along coastlines, due to the lack of a prevailing wind. The small amount of rain which falls in the summer is convectional in type. Relief rainfall dominates in the winter, with occasional snow.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map[1] The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... Convection rain is a type of rain which occurs in areas that intensely heated. ...


Art and culture

the Uffizi and Palazzo Vecchio
the Uffizi and Palazzo Vecchio

Florence keeps an exceptional artistic heritage which is a marvelous evidence of its aged culture. Cimabue and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio forefathers of the Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.[4][5] Crucifix (1287-88) Panel, 448 x 390 cm Basilica di Santa Croce, Florence. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... Filippo Brunelleschi, 1377 - 1446, was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


Their works, together with those of many other generations of artists up to the artists of our century, are gathered in the several museums of the town: the Uffizi, the most selected gallery in the world, the Palatina gallery with the paintings of the "Golden Ages".[6] The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ...


The Bargello Tower with the sculptures of the Renaissance, the museum of San Marco with Angelico's works, the Academy, the chapels of the Medicis , Buonarroti' s house with the sculptures of Michelangelo, the following museums: Bardini, Horne, Stibbert, Romano, Corsini, The Gallery of Modern Art, The museum of the Opera del Duomo, the museum of Silverware and the museum of Precious Stones.[7] the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to house first the Capitano del Populo and later, in 1261, the Podestà, the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council, Italy. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


Great monuments are the landmarks of Florentine artistic culture: the Baptistry with its mosaics; the Cathedral with its sculptures, the medieval churches with bands of frescoes; public as well as private palaces: Palazzo Vecchio, Palazzo Pitti, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Palazzo Davanzati; monasteries, cloisters, refectories; the "Certosa". In the archeological museum includes documents of Etruscan civilization.[8] Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... Courtyard of Palazzo Medici Riccardi. ...


In fact the city is so rich in art that some first time visitors experience the Stendhal syndrome as they encounter its art for the first time.[9] Stendhal syndrome or Stendhals syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. ...


Historical Evocations

Scoppio del Carro
Scoppio del Carro

Scoppio del Carro

Scoppio del Carro” (“the Explosion of the Cart”) is a celebration of the First Crusade. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


During the day of Easter, it is taken in Piazza del Duomo a cart, called from the florentines "Brindellone", and it is situated in front of the Cathedral of St. John (“ Basilica di San Giovanni”). This article is about the Christian festival. ... Piazza del Duomo is a name often given in Italy to the piazza in front of a cathedral. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The cart is connected with a thread to the inside of the church. Near the cart there is a pretence pigeon: at the end of the Easter's Mass there is an explosion in the cart and the pigeon is pushed towards the church, passing across the thread.


This celebration has a symbolic meaning because, according to a legend, the pigeon takes good luck to Florence.


Calcio in Costume

The “Historic Florentin Football” (“Calcio storico fiorentino”), known in Italy also as “Calcio in costume”, is a medieval sport known as an ancient kind of soccer's game even if it is very similar to rugby. Soccer redirects here. ... Look up rugby in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It is an important manifestation began during the Middle Age when in Florence the most important florentin nobles amused themself playing with magnificent costumes. Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ...


The most important match was done at 17 February 1530, during the siege of Florence. In that day papal troops besiged the city while the florentines, with nonchalence, played at the game. is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ...


Other Historical Evocations

Not only in Florence there are important evocations. In a lot of towns near the city there are others religious manifestations. One of these towns is Signa, placed to the west of Florence, where is celebrated the Feast of Blessed Jane" ("Festa della Beata Giovanna"). Country Italy Region Tuscany Province Province of Florence (FI) Mayor Elevation 46 m Area 18. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


Squares of Florence

Piazza della Repubblica
Piazza della Repubblica

Piazza della Signoria” is the principal square of Florence. Dominated by the “Palazzo Vecchio”, it is the heart of the city's political power and social life. It has a remarkable number of famous monuments and works of art. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 825 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 825 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ...


Piazza del Duomo” is one of the most famous squares in Italy, with the cathedral, Giotto’s bell tower (“Campanile di Giotto”) and the Baptistry of St John (“il Battistero di San Giovanni”). Piazza del Duomo is a name often given in Italy to the piazza in front of a cathedral. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Piazza della Repubblica” is a square in the style of the ‘800 where there are a lot of important cafés representing (il "salotto buono"), “the drawing room”, places where important business was done.


Piazza Santa Croce”, dominated by the namesake basilica, is one of the largest churches of Florence. During the Renaissance it began as the favorite place for popular celebrations. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Piazza San Lorenzo” containing the namesake basilica with the second most important dome of Florence, “the dome of the Chapel of Princes” (“la Cappella dei Principi”). It has a typical Italian market, the Market of St. Laurence, with many stalls.

Piazza San Marco
Piazza San Marco

Piazza Santa Maria Novella”, an important square dominated by the namesake basilica. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2546 × 1693 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (2546 × 1693 pixel, file size: 1. ...


"Piazza San Marco" is a beautiful square, and meeting place of Florentines.


Piazza della Santissima Annunziata” is a beautiful square, the first example in Europe of town planning [?questionable as towns were planned back to Roman & Greek times?], and the most important example of Renaissance style. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Piazza Santo Spirito” is a typical Italian square. A popular meeting place because of the markets and many restaurants.


The “Piazzale Michelangelo”, the most famous vantage point to view a panorama of Florence.


Piazza Pitti” is another important square of the city which contains the “Palazzo Pitti”.


Buildings of Florence

Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio

Palazzo Vecchio” is the town hall of Florence in the “Piazza della Signoria”, Place of the Senators. Inside the “Palazzo Vecchio”, Old Palace, there is a museum with many works of art by Michelangelo Buonarroti and Giorgio Vasari. Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ... The Piazza della Signoria is an L-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. ...


Palazzo Medici Riccardi” is in “Via Cavour” (“Cavour Street”) also known as “Via Larga” (“Large Street”). The building is used as the headquarters of the “Consiglio Provinciale” (“Provincial Council”) and house of the Prefect of Florence. Inside the “Palazzo Medici Riccardi” is the Presidential Suite used by the President of the Italian Republic when visiting Florence. Courtyard of Palazzo Medici Riccardi. ...


Palazzo Pitti” is in the “Piazza Pitti” in the southern part of Florence. It is near the (“Giardino di Boboli”), “Boboli Garden”. Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ...


The “Galleria degli Uffizi”, called simply “Uffizi”, is one of the most famous art galleries of the world, with an incredibile number of Renaissance works of art. It contains many works by Botticelli. The Uffizi Gallery (Italian Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the most famous museums in the world. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (Florence March 1, 1445 - May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ...


The “Galleria dell'Accademia” is world famous because of Michelangelo’s famous statue, “David” . Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it The Accademia dell Arte del Disegno (Academy of Design) of Florence was the first academy of drawing in Europe. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ...


The “Corridoio Vasariano” is an art gallery that connects “Palazzo Vecchio” to “Ponte Vecchio", crossing the art gallery of “Uffizi”. This passage was built by the Gran Duke Cosimo I. Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519 - April 21, 1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ...


Churches of Florence

The Duomo
The Duomo

Santa Maria del Fiore” or Duomo di Firenze is the Cathedral of Florence with a famous towering cupola known as Brunelleschi’s Dome. This is the fourth biggest church in Europe, after “San Pietro in Vaticano” (“Saint Peters”) in Rome, “Saint Pauls” in London and the “Cathedral of Milan” (“Duomo di Milano”) in Milan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2608x1952, 702 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2608x1952, 702 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...


The “Battistero di San Giovanni” has three sets of heavily ornamented doors, the most famous being the east doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti (“Porta del Paradiso”), (“The Gates of Paradise”). The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ...


The “Basilica di Santa Croce” is one of the largest churches in Florence. It contains tombs and memorials of famous Florentines and Italians. Facade of Basilica di Santa Croce, The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church of Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Basilica di Santa Croce
Basilica di Santa Croce

The “Basilica di San Lorenzo” was the local church of the Medici dynasty. Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


The "Basilica della Santissima Annunziata" is a small Roman Catholic basilica and the mother church of the Servite order. It is on the northeastern side of the Piazza Santissima Annunziata. Santa Annunziata di Firenze The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence and the mother church of the Servite order. ...


The "Chiesa di San Marco" has an adjacent historical monastery containing an important art collection and individual frescoes by Fra Angelico in the monastic cells.


Bridges of Florence

The “Ponte Vecchio” (“Old Bridge”) is a symbol of Florence. First constructed by Romans at the narrowest point of the Arno river. It is the only bridge that wasn’t destroyed by the Nazis during their Italian withdraw in 1944. Ponte Vecchio Ponte Vecchio at night View of the Ponte Vecchio from above The Ponte Vecchio (IPA pronunciation: ) (Italian for Old Bridge)[1] is a Medieval bridge over the Arno River, in Florence, Italy, noted for having shops (mainly jewellers) built along it. ... Arno River in Florence, Italy The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. ...

Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio

Ponte Santa Trinita” takes its name from the nearby church. It is one of the most beautiful bridge in Italy and Europe. Ponte Santa Trinita. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Other bridges in Florence are “Ponte alle Grazie” (“Bridge to the Graces”), “ Ponte alla Carraia” (“Bridge to the Driveway”) and “Ponte di San Niccolò” (“Bridge of St. Nicolaus”).


Other points of interest

Wax anatomical models in the Zoologia La Specola The Museum of Zoology and Natural History, La Specola is located in Florence, next to the Pitti Palace. ... Giardino dei Semplici Fossils in the Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia Wax anatomical models in the Zoologia La Specola The Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze is a natural history museum in 6 major collections. ... Orto Botanico di Firenze General view Central fountain The Orto Botanico di Firenze (2. ...

Demography

As of 2004, the greater Florence area had a population of 957,949 inhabitants, 93.30% being ethnic Italian. Immigrants in the city number 6.70% of the greater Florence area. Of the 64,421 immigrants living in the Firenze area, 27,759 are of European origins other than Italian. The majority are of Albanian, Romanian, and German ethnicities. An increasing Asian population numbers 19,488, mostly recent immigrants of Chinese and Filipino origins. The African population numbers 10,364, of which half are North African Arabs and the other half sub-Saharan blacks. The remaining numbers constitute immigrants from the Americas.[3] Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Age structure[4]

  • 00 - 14 (115,175) = 12.02%
  • 15 - 64 (619 961) = 64.63%
  • 65+ (223,613) = 23.34%

The city is undergoing an aging process due to the low fertility rates among the women like much of Europe. As a result, the pensioner population outnumbers that of youths. However, in the past decade there has been an increase in the number of births contributing to the slow, continuing positive growth of the city.[citation needed]


Language

For more details on this topic, see Tuscan dialect.

The Florentine (fiorentino), spoken by inhabitants of Florence and its environs, is a Tuscan dialect and an immediate parent language to modern Italian. (Many linguists and scholars of Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch consider modern Italian to be, in fact, modern Florentine.) The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... The Florentine language was the language spoken in the Italian city of Florence. ... The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... From the c. ...


Its vocabulary and pronunciation are largely identical to Italian, though the hard c [k] between two vowels (as in ducato) is pronounced as a fricative [h], similar to an English h. This gives Florentines a distinctive and highly recognizable accent (the so-called gorgia toscana). Other traits include using a form of the subjunctive mood last commonly used in medieval times, a frequent usage of the modern subjunctive instead of the present, which may be viewed as incorrect in comparison to standard Italian, and a reduced pronunciation of the definite article, [i] instead of "il". The voiceless glottal transition, commonly called a fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often behaves like a consonant, but sometimes behaves more like a vowel, or is indeterminate in its behavior. ... The Tuscan gorgia (Italian Gorgia toscana, Tuscan throat) is a phonetic phenomenon which characterizes the Tuscan dialects, in Tuscany, Italy, most especially the central ones, with Florence traditionally viewed as the epicenter. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ...


Transport

Inside the principal railway station of Florence, Santa Maria Novella
Inside the principal railway station of Florence, Santa Maria Novella

The principal public transport network within the city is run by the ATAF and Li-nea bus company, with tickets available at local tobacconists, bars, and newspaper stalls. Individual tickets or a pass called the Carta Agile with multiple rides (10 or 21) may be used on buses. Once on the bus, tickets must be stamped (or swiped for the Carta Agile) using the machines on board unlike the train tickets which must be validated before boarding. The main bus station is next to Santa Maria Novella train station. Trenitalia runs trains between the railway stations within the city, and to other destinations around Italy and Europe. The central station, Santa Maria Novella Station, is located about 500 metres (1,640 ft) NW of Piazza del Duomo. There is also another important station, Campo Di Marte, but it is not as well-known as Santa Maria Novella; most bundled routes are Firenze-Pisa, Firenze-Viareggio and Firenze-Arezzo (along the main line to Rome). Other local railways connect Florence with Borgo San Lorenzo and Siena. Mass transit redirects here. ... Trenitalia logo. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Long distance buses are run by the SITA, Copit, CAP and Lazzi companies. The transit companies also accommodate travellers from the Amerigo Vespucci Airport, which is five kilometers (3.1 mi) west of the city center, and which has scheduled services run by major European carriers such as Air France and Lufthansa. Peretola Airport, Florence Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Firenze) or Amerigo Vespucci Airport (IATA: FLR, ICAO: LIRQ) is an airport located close to Florence, Italy, but administratively located within the territory of Sesto Fiorentino. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried (second is Air France - KLM), and the flag carrier of Germany. ...


The centre of the city is closed to through-traffic, although buses, taxis and residents with appropriate permits are allowed in. This area is commonly referred to the ZTL (Zona Traffico Limitato), which is divided into five subsections.[citation needed] Residents of one section, therefore, will only be able to drive in their district and perhaps some surrounding ones. Cars without permits are allowed to enter after seven-thirty at night, or before seven-thirty in the morning. The rules shift somewhat unpredictably during the tourist-filled summers, putting more restrictions on where one can get in and out. Autobus redirects here. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


Future developments

Due to the high level of air pollution and traffic in the city, an urban tram network called the TramVia is currently under construction in the City.[10] It will run from Scandicci to the southwest through the western side of the city, cross the river Arno at the Cascine Park and arrive to the main station of Santa Maria Novella. Two other lines are in the final design phase.[citation needed] This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Scandicci is a comune (municipality) of c. ...


Economy and industry

Tourism is the most significant industry within the centre of Florence. On any given day between April and October, the local population is greatly outnumbered by tourists from all over the world.[citation needed] The Uffizi and Accademia museums are regularly sold out of tickets, and large groups regularly fill the basilicas of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella, both of which charge for entry. Tourist redirects here. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it. ... For the basilica in Florence, see Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze Santa Croce is one of the six sestieri of Venice. ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ...


Florence being historically the first home of Italian fashion (the 1951-1953 soirées held by Giovanni Battista Giorgini are generally regarded as the birth of the Italian school[11] as opposed to french haute couture) is also home to the legendary Italian fashion establishment Salvatore Ferragamo, notable as one of the oldest and most famous Italian fashion houses. Many others, most of them now located in Milan, were founded in Florence. Gucci, Prada, Roberto Cavalli, and Chanel have large offices and stores in Florence or its outskirts. Salvatore Ferragamo (June 5, 1898 - August 7, 1960) was an Italian footwear designer of the 20th century, providing Hollywoods glitterati and many others with unique hand-made designs and spawning an emporium of luxury consumer goods for men and women, with stores in some of the most important cities... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Guccio Gucci and Gucci, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see Prada (disambiguation). ... Roberto Cavalli (born November 15, 1940) is a well-known Italian fashion designer of modern luxury clothing. ... The House of Chanel, more commonly known as Chanel, is a Parisian fashion house in France founded by Coco Chanel (b. ...


Certain textile industries employing largely immigrant populations can be found to the north and north-west of the city, continuing its long tradition as a centre of fine fabrics.[citation needed]


Food and wine have long been an important staple of the economy. Florence is the most important city in Tuscany, one of the great wine-growing regions in the world. The Chianti region is just south of the city, and its Sangiovese grapes figure prominently not only in its Chianti Classico wines but also in many of the more recently developed Supertuscan blends. Within twenty miles (32 km) to the west is the Carmignano area, also home to flavorful sangiovese-based reds. The celebrated Chianti Rufina district, geographically and historically separated from the main Chianti region, is also few miles west of Florence. More recently, the Bolgheri region (about 100 miles/200 kilometres southwest of Florence) has become celebrated for its Supertuscan reds like Sassicaia.[citation needed] For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Valdelsa (part of Chianti Colli Fiorentini sub-area). ... // Sangiovese is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy whose name derives from sanguis Jovis, the blood of Jove. It is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany, but winemakers outside Italy are starting to experiment with it. ... Chianti Classico is more or less the same as the original Chianti area, up until the early 20th century. ...


Cuisine

Crostini toscani served at an osteria in Florence.
Crostini toscani served at an osteria in Florence.

Florentine food grows out of a tradition of peasant eating rather than rarefied high cooking. The vast majority of dishes are based on meat. The whole animal was traditionally eaten; various kinds of tripe, (trippa) and (lampredotto) were once regularly on the menu and still are sold at the remaining food carts stationed throughout the city. Antipasti include crostini toscani, sliced bread rounds topped with a chicken liver-based pâté, and sliced meats (mainly prosciutto and salami, often served with melon when in season). The typically saltless Tuscan bread, obtained with natural levain frequently features in Florentine courses, especially in its famous soups, ribollita and pappa al pomodoro, or in the salad of bread and fresh vegetables called panzanella that is served in summer. The most famous main course is the bistecca alla fiorentina, a large (the customary size should weigh around 600 grams) T-bone steak of Chianina beef cooked over hot charcoal and served very rare with its more recently derived version, the tagliata, sliced rare beef served on a bed of arugula, often with slices of Parmesan cheese on top. Most of these courses are generally served with local olive oil, also a prime product enjoying a worldwide reputation[12] Tripe in an Italian market Look up tripe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antipasti can mean something Italian like Hors dÅ“uvre something British like a band named Anti-Pasti ... Various pâtés and terrines Salmon terrine, with a cream and herb sauce A slice of Bloc de foie gras Pâté (French pronunciation: ; RP pronunciation: ; General American pronunciation ) is a form of spreadable paste, usually made from meat (although vegetarian variants exist), and often served with toast as... Prosciutto Prosciutto (IPA: ) is the Italian word for ham, used in English to refer to dry-cured ham (prosciutto crudo). ... Salami Salami is cured sausage, fermented and air-dried. ... T-Bone redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Chianina is an Italian beef breed of cattle. ... Binomial name (L.) Cav. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parmigiano_Reggiano. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...


Notable residents

See also category:People from Florence

Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. ... Dante redirects here. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects of the Italian Renaissance. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Giotto di Bondone (c. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... -1... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ... Girolamo Mei (May 27, 1519 - July,1594) was an Italian historian and humanist, famous in music history for providing the intellectual impetus to the Florentine Camerata, which attempted to revive ancient Greek music drama. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. ... Galileo redirects here. ... Vincenzo Galilei (1520 – July 2, 1591) was an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of the famous astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei. ... The Frescobaldi Family is a prominent Florentine family that has been involved in the political, sociological and economic history of the Tuscany region since the Middle Ages. ... Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ... Salvatore Ferragamo (June 5, 1898 - August 7, 1960) was an Italian footwear designer of the 20th century, providing Hollywoods glitterati and many others with unique hand-made designs and spawning an emporium of luxury consumer goods for men and women, with stores in some of the most important cities... Angelo Acciaioli (died May 31, 1408) was a cardinal of the Catholic Church. ... Michael Cassio is a fictional character in William Shakespeares tragedy Othello. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ...

Administration

The current Mayor of Florence is Leonardo Domenici (elected in June 1999) who in February 2008 sued Wikipedia for reporting that his wife is on the board of directors of a company that manages parking in Florence[13][14] Mayor of Florence since June 13th 1999. ...


Twinning

Sister cities include:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Gemlik (Kios, Cius gr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Coat of Voždovac Voždovac (Вождовац) is a municipality of Belgrade. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Location of Turku in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku sub-region Government  - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen Area  - City 306. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... El-Aaiún or Laâyoune (Arabic: العيون, transliterated al-`ayÅ«n), is the unofficial capital of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony now mostly controlled and occupied by Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Eritrea. ... Asmara (English) (Geez: አሥመራ Asmera, formerly known as Asmera, or in Arabic: Asmaraa) is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... FES is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Family Expenditure Survey, a national survey in UK Functional electrical stimulation, a neurological treatment technique Flat Earth Society, an organization that advocates the belief that the Earth is flat Flywheel energy storage Fellowship of Evangelical Students Foundation for Ecological Security... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Gaziantep (Kurdish: , informally, Antep) is the capital city of Gaziantep Province in Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Nanjing (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Hebrew (Natzrat or Natzeret) Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Government City District North Population 64,800[1] Metropolitan Area: 185,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rhode_Island. ... Providence redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Salvador (in full, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, meaning Holy Savior of the Bay of All Saints) is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Brazilian state of Bahia. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...

See also

The Chancellor of Florence held the most important position in the bureaucracy of the Florentine Republic but did not hold any political power. ... The Florentine School refers to artists in, from or influenced by the style developed in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of the world. ... Hexadecimal time is the representation of the time of day as a hexadecimal number in the interval [0,1] or [0,2], regulary multipied by a multiple of 16. ... On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... The following is a list of the churches in Florence, Italy. ... Stendhal syndrome or Stendhals syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. ... The University of Florence (Università degli Studi di Firenze, UNIFI) is one of the largest and oldest universities in Italy. ...

References

  1. ^ Profs. Spencer Baynes, L.L.D., and W. Robertson Smith, L.L.D., Encyclopaedia Britannica. Akron, Ohio: The Werner Company, 1907: p.675
  2. ^ Ross King,Brunelleschi's Dome, The Story of the great Cathedral of Florence, Penguin, 2001
  3. ^ Auxologia: Graziella Magherini: La Sindrome di Stendhal (book) (excerpts in Italian)
  4. ^ Art in Florence http://www.learner.org/interactives/renaissance/florence_sub2.html
  5. ^ Renaissance Artists http://library.thinkquest.org/2838/artgal.htm
  6. ^ Uffizi Gallery Florence • Uffizi Museum • Ticket Reservation
  7. ^ Palace of Bargello ( Bargello's Palace ), Florence Italy - ItalyGuides.it
  8. ^ Inner court of Pitti Palace (Palazzo Pitti), Florence Italy - ItalyGuides.it
  9. ^ Auxologia: Graziella Magherini: La Sindrome di Stendhal (book) (excerpts in Italian)
  10. ^ tramvia.fi.it
  11. ^ the birth of italian fashion
  12. ^ http://www.welcometuscany.it/special_interest/wine_food_olive_oil/olive_oil.htm
  13. ^ Slashdot | Mayor of Florence Sues Wikipedia
  14. ^ (Italian) "The Mayor of Florence Wikipedia Complaint" from Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera
  • Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (Frederick Ungar, 1936) is the standard overall history of Florence

The headquarters in Milan. ...

Bibliography

  • Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, (1983)
  • Richard A. Goldthwaite. The Building of Renaissance Florence: An Economic and Social History (1982)
  • Christopher Hibbert. The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (1999)
  • R.W.B. Lewis. The City of Florence: Historical Vistas and Personal Sightings (1996)
  • John Najemy. A History of Florence 1200-1575 (2006)
  • Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (1936)
  • Richard C. Trexler. Public Life in Renaissance Florence (1991)

Primary sources

  • Gene A. Brucker, eds. The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study (1971) 132 original documents in English
  • Niccolò Machiavelli. Florentine Histories numerous editions

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Panoramic Views of Florence
Find more about Florence on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Florence travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Città di Firenze Official site (English)
  • Air Quality in Florence (English)
  • Statistics on Florence
  • Museums :
    • Polo museale Fiorentino Official site for the state museums, including the Uffizi Gallery (English)
    • Archimede's Garden A museum for Mathematics (Italian)
    • Listing of museums and Galleries in Florence at the Open Directory Project
  • Florence is at coordinates 43°46′13″N 11°15′17″E / 43.7703, 11.2547 (Florence)Coordinates: 43°46′13″N 11°15′17″E / 43.7703, 11.2547 (Florence)
See also: List of mayors of Florence
 This section requires expansion.

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This is a list of mayors of Florence, Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


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Florence by Net - Detailed information about the city of Florence, Italy (932 words)
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