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Encyclopedia > Flora of Canada

The flora of Canada is quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity of Canada's plants is extensive. An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... A temperate hardwood forest is a type of forest found in temperate zones around the globe. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076,395 km... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Compass rose with north highlighted and at top North is one of the four cardinal directions, specifically the direction that, in Western culture, is treated as the primary direction: north is used (explicitly or implicitly) to define all other directions; the (visual) top edges of maps usually correspond to the... This article is about the rainforest in general. ... Desert view in Saudi Arabia. ... Categories: Stub | Geology | Landforms | Alberta geography ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... Rainforests are the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ...


This is a (partial) list of the plant species considered native to Canada. Many of the plants seen in Canada are introduced, either intentionally or accidentally. For these plants, see List of introduced species to Canada.


See also Trees of Canada This list includes many of the common large shrubs of Canada, as well as the trees. ...


Below is a listing by genera starting with A. See also:


Flora of Canada B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, PQ, R, S, T, UV, WXYZ


A

  • Abies — firs / sapins
    • Abies amabilisPacific silver fir, amabilis fir / sapin gracieux
    • Abies balsameabalsam fir / sapin baumier / zhingop, zhingopbigiwaandag (Anishinabe)
    • Abies grandisgrand fir / sapin de Vancouver
    • Abies lasiocarpasubalpine fir / sapin subalpin
  • Acalypha — copperleafs / acalyphes
    • Acalypha virginica — Virginia copperleaf, Virginia threeseed mercury / acalyphe de Virginie
  • Acer — maples / érables
    • Acer negundoManitoba maple, box-elder, ashleaf maple / érable à giguère, érable négundo, érable à feuilles de frêne, érable à feuilles composées
    • Acer nigrumblack maple, black sugar maple, rock maple / érable noir
    • Acer pensylvanicumstriped maple, moose maple, goosefoot maple / bois d'orignal, bois barré, érable de Pennsylvanie, érable jaspé / ninaalik-beshibii (Anishinabe)
    • Acer rubrumred maple, swamp maple, scarlet maple / plaine rouge, érable rouge, érable du Canada / ninaatik-mskwaanza, zhiishiigimewanzh (Anishinabe)
    • Acer saccharinumsilver maple, soft maple, white maple, silverleaf maple, river maple / érable argenté, plaine blanche
    • Acer saccharumsugar maple, hard maple / érable à sucre / ninaatik, aninaatigoog, ishigamizige, shenamesh (Anishinabe)
    • Acer spicatummountain maple / fouéreux, érable à épis, plaine bâtard
  • Achillea — yarrows / achillées
    • Achillea millefolium subsp. lanulosawoolly yarrow / achillée laineuse (other subspecies, including the type subsp. millefolium, are considered introduced)
    • Achillea sibirica — Siberian yarrow
  • Acorus — sweetflags / acores
    • Acorus americanus — sweetflag / belle-angélique, acore d'Amérique, roseau aromatique
  • Actaea — baneberries / actées
    • Actaea pachypoda — white baneberry, doll's-eyes / actée à gros pédicelles
    • Actaea rubra — red baneberry / actée rouge, poison de couleuvre, pain de couleuvre
  • Adenocaulon — trail-plants
    • Adenocaulon bicolor — trail-plant
  • Adiantum — maidenhair ferns / adiantes
    • Adiantum pedatum — northern maidenhair fern, five-finger fern / adiante du Canada, adiante pédalé
  • Adlumia — fumitories / adlumies
    • Adlumia fungosa — Allegheny vine, climbing fumitory / adlumie fongueuse
  • Adoxa — muskroots / moscatellines
    • Adoxa moschatellinaMoschatel, muskroot, townhall clock / moscatelline
  • Aesculus — buckeyes / marronniers
    • Aesculus glabraOhio buckeye, fœtid buckeye / marronnier de l'Ohio, pavier glabre
  • Agalinis — false foxgloves / gérardies
    • Agalinis gattingeri — Gattinger's agalinis Endangered
    • Agalinis purpurea — purple false foxglove, large purple agalinis / gérardie pourpre
    • Agalinis skinneriana — Skinner's agalinis Endangered
    • Agalinis tenuifolia — slenderleaf purple false foxglove, slenderleaf agalinis / gérardie à petites feuilles
  • Agastache — giant hyssops / agastaches
    • Agastache foeniculum — anise hyssop, blue giant hyssop / agastache fenouil
    • Agastache nepetoides — yellow giant hyssop / hysope géante jaune, agastache nepetoïde
  • Agoseris — false-dandelions / agosérides
    • Agoseris glauca — pale false-dandelion, prairie agoseris, pale agoseris, pale goat-chicory, large-flowered false-dandelion / agoséride glauque
  • Agrimonia — agrimonies / aigremoines
    • Agrimonia gryposepala tall hairy agrimony, tall hairy groovebur / aigremoine à sépales crochus
    • Agrimonia parviflora smallflower groovebur, harvestlice agrimony
    • Agrimonia pubescens soft groovebur, soft agrimony
    • Agrimonia striata woodland agrimony, grooved agrimony / aigremoine striée
  • Agrostis — bentgrasses / agrostides
    • Agrostis hyemalis — winter bentgrass, ticklegrass / agrostide d'hiver
    • Agrostis mertensii — northern bentgrass / agrostide de Mertens
    • Agrostis perennans — upland bentgrass, perennial bentgrass / agrostide pérennante
    • Agrostis scabra — rough bentgrass, tickle grass, rough hairgrass, twin bentgrass / agrostide géminée, agrostide scabre
    • Agrostis stolonifera — creeping bentgrass, spreading bentgrass / agrostide stolonifère
  • Aletris — colicroots
    • Aletris farinosa — colicroot Threatened
  • Alisma — water-plantains / alismas
    • Alisma gramineum — grass-leaved water-plantain
    • Alisma subcordatum — southern water-plantain / alisma subcordé
    • Alisma triviale — northern water-plantain / alisma commun
  • Allium — garlics / ails
    • Allium burdickii — narrow-leaved wild leek
    • Allium canadenseCanada wild onion, meadow garlic, meadow onion / ail du Canada
    • Allium cernuum — nodding onion
    • Allium schoenoprasum var. sibiricum Siberian chives / ciboulette de Sibérie (other varieties, including the type variety schoenoprasum, are considered introduced)
    • Allium stellatum — prairie onion, wild onion / ail étoilée
    • Allium tricoccumWild leek, small wild leek, ramps / ail des bois
  • Alnus — alders / aulnes
    • Alnus incana grey alder, white alder, hoary alder, speckled alder / aulne blanc, aulne blanchâtre
    • Alnus viridis green alder, mountain alder, American green alder, Siberian alder, Sitka alder / aulne vert, aulne crispé, aulne de montagne, aulne de Sibérie, aulne de Sitka / wadoop (Anishinabe)
  • Alopecurus — foxtails / vulpins
    • Alopecurus aequalis — shortawn foxtail / vulpin à courtes arêtes
    • Alopecurus alpinus — alpine foxtail / vulpin alpin
  • Amaranthus — amaranths / amarantes
    • Amaranthus tuberculatus — roughfruit amaranth, roughfruit waterhemp, tall waterhemp, tall pigweed / acnide tuberculée
  • Ambrosia — ragweeds / herbes à poux
    • Ambrosia artemisiifoliacommon ragweed, annual ragweed, annual bur-sage / ambroisie annuelle, ambroisie à feuilles d'armoise, petite herbe à poux
    • Ambrosia psilostachya — perennial ragweed, western ragweed, naked-spike ambrosia, Cuman ragweed / herbe à poux vivace
    • Ambrosia trifida — giant ragweed, great ragweed, buffalo-weed, skeleton-leaf bur-sage / grande herbe à poux, ambroisie trifide
  • Amelanchier — serviceberries / amélanchiers
    • Amelanchier alnifoliaSaskatoonberry, northwestern serviceberry / amélanchier à feuilles d'aulne
    • Amelanchier amabilis — Amelanchier amabilis
    • Amelanchier arborea downy serviceberry, downy juneberry, common serviceberry / amélanchier arborescent
    • Amelanchier bartramiana — mountain juneberry, Bartram's shadbush, Bartram's chuckleypear / amélanchier de Bartram
    • Amelanchier humilis — low serviceberry, running serviceberry / amélanchier humile
    • Amelanchier laevis — smooth juneberry, Allegheny serviceberry, smooth chuckleypear / amélanchier glabre / bzagwaakminak, bgesaan, bagesaanaatig (Anishinabe)
    • Amelanchier sanguinea var. gaspensis
    • Amelanchier sanguinea var. sanguinea — roundleaf juneberry, roundleaf serviceberry, Fernald's chuckleypear / amélanchier sanguin
    • Amelanchier stolonifera — running serviceberry, running juneberry, running chuckleypear / amélanchier stolonifère, petits poires
  • Amerorchis — orchises / orchis
    • Amerorchis rotundifolia — small roundleaf orchis, oneleaf orchid / orchis à feuille ronde
  • Ammannia — ammannias
    • Ammannia robusta — scarlet ammannia Endangered
  • Ammophila — beachgrasses / ammophiles
    • Ammophila brevigulata — American beachgrass / ammophile à ligule courte
  • Amorpha — indigobushes / faux indigos
    • Amorpha fruticosa — false indigo / faux indigo
  • Amphicarpaea — hog-peanuts / haricots de terre
    • Amphicarpaea bracteata — American hog-peanut / haricot de terre, amphicarpe bractéolée
  • Anaphalis — pearly everlastings / immortelles
    • Anaphalis margaritacea — pearly everlasting / immortelle blanche, anaphale marguerite
  • Andromeda — bog rosemarys / andromèdes
    • Andromeda polifolia subsp. glaucophylla
    • Andromeda polifolia subsp. polifolia — northern bog rosemary, marsh holyrose / andromède à feuilles de Polium
  • Andropogon — bluestems / barbons
    • Andropogon gerardiibig bluestem, turkeyfoot / barbon de Gérard
    • Andropogon virginicus — broom-sedge
  • Androsace — androsaces / androsaces
    • Androsace septentrionalis — northern androsace / androsace septentrionale
  • Anemone — anemones / anémones
    • Anemone acutiloba — sharp-lobed hepatica, sharp-lobed liverleaf / hépatique à lobes aigus, anémone à lobes aigus
    • Anemone americana — round-lobed hepatica, American liverleaf / hépatique d'Amérique, anémone d'Amérique
    • Anemone canadensis — Canada anemone, roundleaf thimbleweed / anémone du Canada
    • Anemone cylindrica — long-fruited anemone, thimbleweed, candle anemone, long-headed anemone / anémone cylindrique
    • Anemone multifida — cutleaf anemone, cliff anemone, early anemone / anémone multifide
    • Anemone parviflora — northern anemone, small-flowered anemone / anémone à petites fleurs
    • Anemone patens — pasqueflower, prairie smoke, prairie crocus / pulsatille
    • Anemone quinquefoliawood anemone, snow-drops / anémone à cinq folioles
    • Anemone richardsonii — Richardson's anemone, yellow anemone / anémone de Richardson
    • Anemone virginiana — tall thimbleweed, riverbank anemone / anémone de Virginie, anémone blanche
  • Angelica — angelicas / angéliques
    • Angelica atropurpurea — purplestem angelica, dark-purple alexanders, wild masterwort, great angelica / angélique pourpre
  • Antennaria — pussytoes / antennaires
    • Antennaria microphylla — littleleaf pussytoes / antennaire à feuilles réduites
    • Antennaria neglecta — field pussytoes / antennaire négligée
    • Antennaria oxyphylla — Antennaria oxyphylla
    • Antennaria parvifolia — small-leaf pussytoes, Rocky Mountain cudweed, Nuttall's pussytoes / antennaire à petites feuilles
    • Antennaria pulcherrima — showy pussytoes, handsome pussytoes / antennaire magnifique
    • Antennaria rosea — rosy pussytoes, pink everlasting / antennaire rosée
    • Antennaria subviscosa — Antennaria subviscosa
  • Apios — groundnuts / glands de terre
    • Apios americanaAmerican groundnut, Indian potato, wild bean, potato-bean / apios d'Amérique, gland de terre / nmepin, piniik (Anishinabe)
  • Aplectrum — puttyroots
  • Apocynum — dogbanes / apocynes
    • Apocynum androsaemifolium — spreading dogbane / apocyne à feuilles d'androsème
    • Apocynum cannabinumIndian hemp, clasping-leaf dogbane, prairie dogbane, velvet dogbane, amyroot / apocyne chanvrin
    • Apocynum sibiricum — clasping-leaved dogbane
  • Aquilegia — columbines / ancolies
    • Aquilegia brevistyla — small-flowered columbine
    • Aquilegia canadensisCanadian columbine, red columbine / ancolie du Canada, gants de Notre-Dame
  • Arabis — rockcresses / arabettes
    • Arabis alpinaalpine rockcress
    • Arabis arenicola var. arenicola — arctic rockcress / arabette des sables, arabette arénicole
    • Arabis arenicola var. pubescens
    • Arabis canadensis — sicklepod
    • Arabis divaricarpa — limestone rockcress
    • Arabis drummondii — Drummond rockcress
    • Arabis glabra — tower-mustard
    • Arabis hirsuta var. adpressipilis — hairy rockcress, creamflower rockcress / arabette hirsute
    • Arabis hirsuta var. pycnocarpa
    • Arabis holboelli var. retrofracta — Holboell's rockcress (other varieties, including the type variety holboelli, are considered introduced)
    • Arabis laevigata — smooth rockcress
    • Arabis lyrata — lyreleaf rockcress
    • Arabis shortii — Short's rockcress
  • Aralia — sarsaparillas / salsepareilles
    • Aralia hispida — bristly spikenard, bristly sarsaparilla, dwarf elder / salsepareille, aralie hispide
    • Aralia nudicaulis — wild sarsaparilla, small spikenard / sarsapareille, aralia à tige nue
    • Aralia racemosa — American spikenard, Indian-root, life-of-man, petty morel / grande sarsapareille, anis sauvage, aralie à grappes
  • Arceuthobium — mistletoes / arceuthobies
    • Arceuthobium pusillum — dwarf mistletoe, eastern dwarf mistletoe / arceuthobie naine, petit gui, faux-gui nain
  • Arctagrostis — polargrasses / arctagrostis
    • Arctagrostis latifolia — polargrass / arctagrostis à larges feuilles
  • Arctophila — pendant grasses / arctophiles
    • Arctophila fulva — pendant grass / arctophile fauve
  • Arctostaphylos — bearberries / raisins d'ours
    • Arctostaphylos alpinaalpine bearberry / raisin d'ours des Alpes
    • Arctostaphylos rubra — red manzanita
    • Arctostaphylos uva-ursibearberry, kinnikinnick, mealberry / raisin d'ours, bousserole
  • Arenaria — sandworts / sablines
    • Arenaria humifusa — creeping sandwort, low sandwort, spreading sandwort / sabline rampante
  • Arethusa — dragon's mouths / aréthuses
    • Arethusa bulbosadragon's mouth, swamp pink / aréthuse bulbeuse
  • Arisaema — Jack-in-the-pulpits / petits-prêcheurs
  • Aristida basiramea
  • Aristida dichotoma
  • Aristida longespica var. geniculata
  • Aristida longespica var. longespica
  • Aristida purpurascens
  • Arnica angustifolia
  • Arnica chamissonis
  • Arnica cordifolia
  • Arnica lonchophylla
  • Arnoglossum platagineum
  • Asarum canadense
  • Asclepias exaltata
  • Asclepias hirtella
  • Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed
  • Asclepias ovalifolia
  • Asclepias purpurascens
  • Asclepias sullivantii
  • Asclepias syriaca Common milkweed
  • Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly weed
  • Asclepias verticillata
  • Asclepias viridiflora
  • Asplenium platyneuron Ebony spleenwort
  • Asplenium rhizophyllum
  • Asplenium ruta-muraria
  • Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum Hart's-tongue fern
  • Asplenium trichomanes
  • Asplenium viride
  • Aster alpinus
  • Astragalus alpinus
  • Astragalus australis
  • Astragalus canadensis
  • Astragalus eucosmus
  • Astragalus neglectus
  • Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum Lady fern
  • Atriplex dioica
  • Atriplex patula
  • Atriplex prostrata
  • Aureolaria flava
  • Aureolaria pedicularia
  • Aureolaria virginica
  • Azolla caroliniana

 
 

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