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Encyclopedia > Flora
Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.
Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.

In botany, flora (plural: floras or florae) has two meanings. The first meaning, or flora of an area or time period, refers to all plant life occurring in an area or time period, especially the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life. The second meaning refers to a book or other work which describes the plant species occurring in an area or time period, with the aim of allowing identification. Some classic and modern floras are listed below. Image File history File links Flora. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...


The term flora comes from Latin Flora, the goddess of flowers in Roman mythology. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. In relation to all the flora and fauna of a region, it is collectively referred to as biota. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... In Roman mythology, Flora was a goddess of flowers and the season of spring. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture A goddess is a female deity, in contrast with a male deity known as a god. Many cultures have goddesses. ... A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Empires Biota is the superdomain that categorizes life. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Flora classifications

Plants are grouped into floras based on region, period, or special environment. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora. Lastly, floras may be subdivided by special environments: A habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular organism usually lives or grows. ...

  • Native flora. The native and indigenous flora of an area.
  • Agricultural and garden flora. The plants that are deliberately grown by humans.
  • Weed flora. Traditionally this classification was applied to plants regarded as undesirable, and studied in efforts to control or eradicate them. Today the designation is less often used as a classification of plant life, since it includes three different types of plants: weedy species, invasive species (that may or may not be weedy), and native and introduced non-weedy species that are agriculturally undesirable. Many native plants previously considered weeds have been shown to be beneficial or even necessary to various ecosystems.

Bacterial life is sometimes included in a flora [1] [2]. Other times, the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately. In ecology, a weedy species is a species that lives in a wide variety of ecologies, including unstable ones and those damaged by humans. ... Lantana Invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel; May 2, 2006 The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species or non-indigenous species. ...


Flora treatises

Traditionally floras are books, but some are now published on CD-ROM or websites. The area that a flora covers may be either geographically or politically defined. They usually require some specialist botanic knowledge to use with any effectiveness. A chained book in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University A Chinese bamboo book, in a collection at the University of California, Riverside. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, images, videos and other digital assets and hosted on a particular domain or subdomain on the World Wide Web. ...


A flora often contains a diagnostic key. Often these are dichotomous keys. These require the user to repeatedly examine a plant, and decide which one of two alternatives given in the flora best applies to the plant. An identification key, also known as a dichotomous key, is a method of deducing the correct species assignment of a living thing. ...


Classic floras

Europe
India
Indonesia

A product of The Age of Enlightenment, Flora Danica is a comprehensive atlas of botany, containing folio-sized pictures of all the wild plants native to Denmark, as of 1874. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Hendrik Adriaan Van Rheede tot Draakenstein (1636-1691) was a Dutch traveller and naturalist. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Carl Ludwig Blume (29 June 1789 - 3 February 1862) was a German-Dutch botanist. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Modern floras

Americas

Caribbean
  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to Thymeleales. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
  • Flora Brasiliensis
  • Flora of São Paulo in Brazil
  • Flora de Chile
  • Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Flora of Ecuador
  • Flora of Guatemala
  • Flora de Nicaragua
  • Flora of Peru
  • Flora of the Guianas
  • Flora of Panama
  • Flora del Paraguay
  • Flora of Suriname
  • Flora Mesoamericana (1994-ongoing) Introduction
  • Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana
  • Flora Neotropica (1968-ongoing) Organising committee website.
North America

Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... el 18 de mayo nacio claudia // 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Stanford University Press is a publishing house, a division of Stanford University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The University of North Carolina is a sixteen-university system which comprises all public four-year universities in North Carolina, United States. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... This article is about the private university in Philadelphia. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dover Publications is a book publisher founded in 1941. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Asia

China and Japan
Southeast Asia
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of Cambodia
  • Flora of Nepalthe Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915-36)
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903-29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921-25)
  • Flora of British India (1872-1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia
  • Flora of Turkey
  • Flora Iranica
  • Flora Palaestina:
    • M. Zohary (1966). Flora Palaestina part 1.
    • M. Zohary (1972). Flora Palaestina part 2.
    • N. Feinbrun (1978). Flora Palaestina part 3.
    • N. Feinbrun (1986). Flora Palaestina part 4.
    • A. Danin, (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina Area (Flora Palaestina part 5).
    • Online updates: http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=showfile&fileid=14005

1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ...

Australasia

  • Flora of Australia
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae. ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; E Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special Edition. ISBN 0-478-09339-X.

The Flora of Australia Volume 1, second edition. ...

Pacific Islands

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [3]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)

Europe

British Isles

Clive Anthony Stace is a British botanist and botanical author. ... An illustrator is a graphic artist who specializes in enhancing written text by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ... The Queens University of Belfast (QUB) is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland; the university is often called Queens University Belfast. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stan Woodell (died 24 April 2004) was a British botanist. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Humphry John Moule Bowen (1929–2001) was a British botanist and chemist. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Flora Europaea is an extensive searchable plant database of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. ...

Africa and Madagascar

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

See also

In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, elevation, and terrain. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... In microbiology, flora (plural: floras or floræ) refers to the collective bacteria and other microorganisms in an ecosystem (usually an animal host or a single part of its body). ... An herbal is a book, often illustrated, that describes the appearance, medical properties, and other characteristics of plants used in herbal medicine. ... Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Jepson Flora Project (432 words)
The Jepson Flora Project brings together all of the floristic references and data of the Jepson Herbarium.
The Ecological Flora of California is a new component of the Jepson Flora Project that will provide information on a broad suite of ecological traits, including life history, phenology, and morphology.
A Flora of California by Willis Linn Jepson was published in a multi-volume series beginning in 1909 and continuing steadily through 1940.
Flora (plants) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (398 words)
The first meaning, or flora of an area, refers to the collection of plant life occurring in that area, especially the naturally occurring or indigenous plant life.
The native and indigenous flora of an area is often the subject of greatest interest.
Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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