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Encyclopedia > Flood
Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilma's storm surge in October 2005
Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilma's storm surge in October 2005

A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land, a deluge.[1] In the sense of "flowing water", the word is applied to the inflow of the tide, as opposed to the outflow or "ebb". Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flood102405. ... Image File history File links Flood102405. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Lowest pressure 882 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Impact of a storm surge A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically a tropical cyclone. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ...


It is usually due to the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, exceeding the total capacity of the body, and as a result some of the water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. It can also occur in rivers, when the strength of the river is so high it flows right out of the river channel , usually at corners or meanders. These of course, are not applicable in such instances as sea flooding.


The word comes from the Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages, compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float. Old English redirects here. ...


The term "The Flood" usually refers to the great Universal Deluge described in Genesis and is treated at Deluge. For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about great floods. ...

Look up flood in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Contents

Image File history File links Wiktionary-logo-en. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Principal types of flood

Riverine floods

Flooding of a creek due to heavy monsoonal rain and high tide in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Flooding of a creek due to heavy monsoonal rain and high tide in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
  • Slow kinds: A large quantity of rainfall or snowmelt navigated to a river at a too rapid speed for the river to cope. These floods mainly occur in monsoon areas, where there is high precipitation.
  • Fast kinds: flash flood as a result of e.g. an intense thunderstorm.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,500 × 997 pixels, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,500 × 997 pixels, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Port Darwin redirects here. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ...

Estuarine floods

  • Commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by storm-force winds.

Coastal floods

  • Caused by severe sea storms, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. tsunami or hurricane).

Catastrophic floods

  • Caused by a significant and unexpected event e.g. dam breakage, or as a result of another hazard (e.g. earthquake or volcanic eruption).

Other

  • Flooding can occur if water accumulates across an impermeable surface (e.g. from rainfall) and cannot rapidly dissipate (i.e. gentle orientation or low evaporation).

Typical effects

Primary effects

  • Physical damage- Can range anywhere from bridges, cars, buildings, sewer systems, roadways, canals and any other type of structure.
  • Casualties- People and livestock die due to drowning. It can also lead to epidemics and diseases.

Secondary effects

  • Water supplies- Contamination of water. Clean drinking water becomes scarce.
  • Diseases- Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-borne diseases
  • Crops and food supplies- Shortage of food crops can be caused due to loss of entire harvest.[2]

According to the World Health Organization, waterborne diseases are those which generally arise from the contamination of water by feces or urine, infected by pathogenic viruses or bacteria, and which are directly transmitted when unsafe water is drunk or used in the preparation of food. ...

Tertiary/long-term effects

  • Economic- Economic hardship, due to: temporary decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, food shortage leading to price increase etc, especially to the poor.

Flood defences, planning, and management

Autumn Mediterranean flooding in Alicante (Spain), 1997.
Autumn Mediterranean flooding in Alicante (Spain), 1997.

In western countries, rivers prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defences such as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. Coastal flooding has been addressed in Europe with coastal defences, such as sea walls and beach nourishment. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (401x608, 85 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:es. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (401x608, 85 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:es. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Location Coordinates : Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alacant (Catalan) Spanish name Alicante Postal code 03000 - 03016 Website www. ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ... Bunding, also called a bund wall, is the area within a structure designed to prevent inundation or breaches of various types. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... The bridge and weir mechanism at Sturminster Newton on the River Stour, Dorset. ... Coastal defenses are objects and engineering techniques used to defend coasts against erosion and flooding. ... A seawall is a form of hard coastal defense that are constructed on the inland part of a coast to reduce the effects of strong waves, typically to defend the coast around a town or harbour from erosion. ... Before and after photos of beach restoration efforts, Florida coastline, USA. Beach nourishment device Beach nourishment is a complimentary term that describes a process by which sediment (usually sand) lost through longshore drift or erosion is replaced on a beach. ...


London is protected from flooding by a huge mechanical barrier across the River Thames, which is raised when the water level reaches a certain point (see Thames Barrier). This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames, constructed between 1974 and 1984 at Woolwich Reach, London. ...


Venice has a similar arrangement, although it is already unable to cope with very high tides. The defenses of both London and Venice will be rendered inadequate if sea levels continue to rise. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


The largest and most elaborate flood defenses can be found in the Netherlands, where they are referred to as Delta Works with the Oosterschelde dam as its crowning achievement. These works were built in response to the North Sea flood of 1953 of the southwestern part of the Netherlands. The Dutch had already built one of the world's largest dams in the north of the country: the Afsluitdijk (closing occurred in 1932). The Delta Works are a number of constructions that were built between 1950 and 1997 in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land from the sea. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta showing the Oosterschelde estuary (i) The Oosterschelde (Eastern Scheldt) is an estuary in Zeeland, the Netherlands, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south. ... The North Sea flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the Netherlands and England on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ... Afsluitdijk The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1933 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich (mun. ...

Flood blocking the road in Jerusalem
Flood blocking the road in Jerusalem

Currently the Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex is to be finished by 2008, in Russia, to protect Saint Petersburg from storm surges. It also has a main traffic function, as it completes a ring road around Saint Petersburg. Eleven dams extend for 25.4 kilometres and stand eight metres above water level. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flood in Jerusalem, Israel, May 2007 Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1002 × 668 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flood in Jerusalem, Israel, May 2007 Photo by beivushtang http://www. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The dam is constructed across the Neva Bay, with the island of Kronstadt at its center The Saint Petersburg Dam, sometimes called the Leningrad Dam or the Kronstadt Dam, is a flood control dam currently under construction outside Saint Petersburg, Russia - from Lomonosov to Kronstadt and from Kronstadt to Lisy... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Impact of a storm surge A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically a tropical cyclone. ... For the American political term, see Inside the Beltway and Beltway bandits. ...


The New Orleans Metropolitan Area, 35% of which sits below sea level, is protected by hundreds of miles of levees and flood gates. This system failed catastrophically during Hurricane Katrina in the City Proper and in eastern sections of the Metro Area, resulting in the inundation of approximately 50% of the Metropolitan area, ranging from a few inches to twenty feet in coastal communities. The New Orleans Metropolitan Area, consisting of the Greater New Orleans region and three addtional parishes which share the perimeter of Lake Ponchartrain, is the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Louisiana, centered around the city of New Orleans. ...


In an act of successful flood prevention, the Federal Government of the United States offered to buy out flood-prone properties in the United States in order to prevent repeated disasters after the 1993 flood across the Midwest. Several communities accepted and the government, in partnership with the state, bought 25,000 properties which they converted into wetlands. These wetlands act as a sponge in storms and in 1995, when the floods returned, the government didn't have to expend resources in those areas.[3]


In China, flood diversion areas are rural areas that are deliberately flooded in emergencies in order to protect cities [1]. Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... In the terminology of the DEA, diversion is the use of prescription drugs for recreational purposes. ...


(See Crossing the Lines) The Crossing the lines project brings the communities of Utrecht (the Netherlands) and Mortsel (Belgium) and the County of Essex (Great Britain) together to protect and redevelop defencelines in Northwest Europe in a sustainable way. ...


Benefits of flooding

There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human settlements and economic activities. However, flooding can bring benefits, such as making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Periodic flooding was essential to the well-being of ancient communities along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers, the Nile River, the Indus River, the Ganges and the Yellow River, among others. The viability for hydrological based renewable sources of energy is higher in flood prone regions. Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, Kuwait, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... Ganga redirects here. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


Flood modelling

Whilst flood modelling is a fairly recent practice, attempts to understand and manage the mechanisms at work in floodplains have been made for at least six millennia.[4] The recent development in computational flood modelling has enabled engineers to step away from the tried and tested "hold or break" approach and its tendency to promote overly engineered structures. Various computational flood models have been developed in recent years either 1D models (flood levels measured in the channel) and 2D models (flood depth measured for the extent of the floodplain). HEC-RAS[5], the Hydraulic Engineering Centre model, is currently among the most popular if only because it is available for free. Other models such as TUFLOW[6] and Flowroute[7], combine 1D and 2D components to derive flood depth in the floodplain. So far the focus has been on mapping tidal and fluvial flood events but the 2007 flood events in the UK have shifted the emphasis onto the impact of surface water flooding.[8]


See also

Dozens of villages were inundated when rain pushed the rivers of northwestern Bangladesh over their banks in early October 2005. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the top image of the flooded Ghaghat and Atrai Rivers on October 12, 2005. The deep blue of the rivers is spread across the countryside in the flood image.
Dozens of villages were inundated when rain pushed the rivers of northwestern Bangladesh over their banks in early October 2005. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite captured the top image of the flooded Ghaghat and Atrai Rivers on October 12, 2005. The deep blue of the rivers is spread across the countryside in the flood image.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Flood

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 452 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 716 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flooding in Bangladesh Source: http://earthobservatory. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 452 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 716 pixel, file size: 242 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Flooding in Bangladesh Source: http://earthobservatory. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  2. ^ Southasianfloods.org
  3. ^ Floods, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Wildfires, Earthquakes... Why We Don't Prepare. Amanda Ripley. Time. August 28, 2006.
  4. ^ Dyhouse, G. et al. Flood modelling Using HEC-RAS (First Edition), Haestad Press, Waterbury (USA), 2003.
  5. ^ http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/
  6. ^ Tuflow
  7. ^ Flowroute
  8. ^ Pitt Review: Lessons learned from the 2007 floods. June 2008.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikinews has related news:

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Further reading

  • O'Connor, Jim E. and John E. Costa. (2004). The World's Largest Floods, Past and Present: Their Causes and Magnitudes [Circular 1254]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
  • Thompson, M.T. (1964). Historical Floods in New England [Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1779-M]. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.

  Results from FactBites:
 
FEMA: Flood (207 words)
Floods are one of the most common hazards in the United States.
Flood effects can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins and multiple states.
Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam.
Encyclopedia4U - Flood - Encyclopedia Article (879 words)
A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages, compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge.
Flooding deposits silt on the flood plain, improving the fertility, which has throughout history attracted agriculture and other human development.
The annual cycle of flood and farming was of great significance to many early farming cultures, most famously to the ancient Egyptians of the Nile river and to the Mesopotamians of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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