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Encyclopedia > Flip book
1886 illustration of the kineograph

A flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books, but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x878, 238 KB) Summary 1886 Illustration of the kineograph by John Barnes Linnet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x878, 238 KB) Summary 1886 Illustration of the kineograph by John Barnes Linnet. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...



Flip books are essentially a primitive form of animation. Like motion pictures, they rely on persistence of vision to create the illusion that continuous motion is being seen rather than a series of discontinuous images being exchanged in succession. Rather than "reading" left to right, a viewer simply stares at the same location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn. The book must also be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to "read" a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. The German word for flip book—Daumenkino, literally "thumb cinema"—reflects this process. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ...

History and cultural uses

The first flip book appeared in September, 1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnet under the name kineograph ("moving picture"). They were the first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular (as in the older phenakistoscope). The German film pioneer, Max Skladanowsky, first exhibited his serial photographic images in flip book form in 1894, as he and his brother Emil did not develop their own film projector until the following year. In 1894, Herman Casler invented a mechanized form of flip book called the Mutoscope, which mounted the pages on a central rotating cylinder rather than binding them in a book. The mutoscope remained a popular attraction through the mid-20th century, appearing as coin-operated machines in penny arcades and amusement parks. In 1897, the English filmmaker Henry William Short marketed his "Filoscope", which was a flip book placed in a metal holder to facilitate flipping. Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A phenakistoscope disc by Eadweard Muybridge (1893). ... Max Skladanowsky (born April 30, 1863, died November 30, 1939) was a German inventor and early filmmaker. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Herman Casler - American Inventor (1867-1939) was co-founder of the partnership called the KMCD Syndicate, along with W.K-L. Dickson, Elias Koopman, and Harry Marvin, which eventually was incorporated into the American Mutoscope Company in 1895. ... The Mutoscope an 1899 trade advertisement The Mutoscope was an early form of motion picture device, invented by the American Mutoscope Company aka American Mutoscope and Biograph Company in 1895. ... A penny arcade can be any type of venue for coin-operated devices, usually for entertainment. ... Theme park redirects here. ...

Flip books are now largely considered a toy or novelty for children, and were once a common "prize" in cereal and Cracker Jack boxes. However, in addition to their role in the birth of cinema, they have also been an effective promotional tool since their creation for such decidedly adult products as automobiles and cigarettes. They continue to be used in marketing of all kinds, as well as in art and published photographic collections. Vintage flip books are popular among collectors, and especially rare ones from the late 19th to early 20th century have been known to fetch thousands of dollars in sales and auctions. For other uses, see Crackerjack (disambiguation). ... Car redirects here. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...

The first international flip book festival was held in 2004, by the Akademie Schloss Solitude in Stuttgart. Another international flip book festival was held in Linz, Austria in 2005. For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Linz in Austria. ...

The first flip book in stereoscopic 3D was published in September 2005 in "Stereo News" (www.cascade3d.org) and subsequently in "Stereoscopy" the Journal of the International Stereoscopic Union in December of 2005. (www.isu3d.org)

See also

The electrotachyscope is an 1887 invention of Ottomar Anschütz of Germany which presents the illusion of motion with transparent serial photographs, chronophotographs, arranged on a spinning wheel of fortune or mandala-like glass disc, significant as a technological development in the history of cinema. ... A phenakistoscope disc by Eadweard Muybridge (1893). ... The Praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope. ... An animation illustrating the effect of strobe light A strobe light or stroboscopic lamp, commonly called a strobe, is a device used to produce regular flashes of light. ... Tachometer showing engine RPM (revolutions per minute), and a redline from 6000 and 7000 RPM. A tachometer is an instrument that measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. ... A thaumatrope is a toy that was popular in Victorian times. ... A modern replica of a Victorian zoetrope. ...

External links

  • flipbook.info (French), includes demonstrative videos of antique flipbooks.
  • Flippies, the world's largest manufacturer of custom flip books. Includes video demonstrations of modern flip books used for corporate promotions.
  • Flipbook.in, a flipbook generating web service.(for Japanese)



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