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Encyclopedia > Flavonoid
Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone)
Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone)

The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. According to the IUPAC nomenclature,[1] they can be classified into: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...

Flavonoids are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity. However, it is now known that the health benefits they provide against cancer and heart disease are the result of other mechanisms.[2] Flavonoids are also commonly referred to as bioflavonoids in the media – the terms are equivalent and interchangeable, for flavonoids are biological in origin. The structural formula of chromone Chromone (or 1,4-benzopyrone) is a derivative of benzopyran with a substituted keto group on the pyran ring. ... Benzopyran is an polycyclic organic compound that results from the fusion of a benzene ring to a heterocyclic pyran ring. ... The structural formula of chromone Chromone (or 1,4-benzopyrone) is a derivative of benzopyran with a substituted keto group on the pyran ring. ... Benzopyran is an polycyclic organic compound that results from the fusion of a benzene ring to a heterocyclic pyran ring. ... Coumarin is a chemical compound/poison found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ... Benzopyran is an polycyclic organic compound that results from the fusion of a benzene ring to a heterocyclic pyran ring. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...

Contents

Biosynthesis

Flavonoids are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in which the amino acid phenylalanine is used to produce 4-coumaroyl-CoA. This can be combined with malonyl-CoA to yield the true backbone of flavonoids, a group of compounds called chalcones which contain two phenyl rings (see polyphenols). Conjugate ring-closure of chalcones results in the familiar form of flavonoids, the three-ringed structure of a flavone. The metabolic pathway continues through a series of enzymatic modifications to yield flavanones → dihydroflavonols → anthocyanins. Along this pathway many products can be formed, including the flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins (tannins) and a host of other polyphenolics. Phenylpropanoids are a class of plant-derived organic compounds that are biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Coumaric acids are organic compounds that are hydroxy derivatives of cinnamic acid. ... -1... Chalcones are important biological compounds. ... In chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring (often abbreviated as -Ph) is the functional group with the formula -C6H5 Picture where the six carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic manner. ... Polyphenols are a group of vegetable chemical substances, characterized by the presence of more than one phenolic group. ... Flavonoids are a group of chemical compounds naturally found in certain fruits, vegetables, teas, wines, nuts, seeds, and roots. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Anthocyanin is a pigment that reflects the red to blue range of the visible spectrum. ... Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC)). Their diversity stems from the different positions the phenolic -OH groups. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ...


Biological effects

Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants fulfilling many functions including producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in flowers and protection from attack by microbes and insects. The widespread distribution of flavonoids, their variety and their relatively low toxicity compared to other active plant compounds (for instance alkaloids) mean that many animals, including humans, ingest significant quantities in their diet. Flavonoids have been referred to as "nature's biological response modifiers" because of strong experimental evidence of their inherent ability to modify the body's reaction to allergens, viruses, and carcinogens. They show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory[3] , anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity. In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Consumers and food manufacturers have become interested in flavonoids for their medicinal properties, especially their potential role in the prevention of cancers and cardiovascular disease. The beneficial effects of fruit, vegetables, and tea or even red wine have been attributed to flavonoid compounds rather than to known nutrients and vitamins. Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ...


Health benefit not due to direct antioxidant value

In 2007, research conducted at the Linus Pauling Institute and published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine indicates that inside the human body, flavonoids themselves are of little or no direct antioxidant value. Unlike in the controlled conditions of a test tube, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by the human body (less than 5%), and most of what is absorbed is quickly metabolized and excreted from the body. The Linus Pauling Institute was established at Oregon State University in August 1996 under an agreement reached between OSU and the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine (located in California from 1973 to 1996). ...


The huge increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods is not caused directly by the flavonoids themselves, but most likely is due to increased uric acid levels that result from expelling flavonoids from the body.[2] According to Frei, "we can now follow the activity of flavonoids in the body, and one thing that is clear is that the body sees them as foreign compounds and is trying to get rid of them. But this process of gearing up to get rid of unwanted compounds is inducing so-called Phase II enzymes that also help eliminate mutagens and carcinogens, and therefore may be of value in cancer prevention... Flavonoids could also induce mechanisms that help kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor invasion."[2]


Their research also indicated that only small amounts of flavonoids are necessary to see these medical benefits. Taking large dietary supplements provides no extra benefit and may pose some risks.[2]


Diarrhea

A study done at Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland, in collaboration with scientists at Heinrich Heine University in Germany, has shown that epicatechin, quercetin and luteolin can inhibit the development of fluids that result in diarrhea by targeting the intestinal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl– transport inhibiting cAMP-stimulated Cl– secretion in the intestine.[4] Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf (Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf) in Germany is named for the German poet and political thinker Heinrich Heine, who was born in Düsseldorf in 1797. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Luteolin Luteolin classified as a bioflavonel, and is thought to play an important role in the human body as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger, an agent in the prevention of inflammation, a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism, and an immune system modulator. ... Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter-class protein that functions in transporting chloride ions across epithelial cells found in the lung, liver, pancreas, digestive tract, reproductive tract, and skin. ...


Important flavonoids

Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Quercetin

Quercetin is a flavonoid and more specifically a flavonol (see below), that constitutes the aglycone of the glycoside rutin. In studies, quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids, and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercetin content. Quercetin has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the production and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory mediators. In addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin C-sparing action. It has been found to be anti-cancer. Quercetin can be found in the herbal products based on Hawthorn which are used for acute symptoms of Congestive Heart Failure. Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin, is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat, the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and the fruit of the Fava DAnta tree (from Brazil), as well as other sources. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Mediator may refer to: A neutral party who assists in negotiations and conflict resolution, the process being known as mediation By analogy, someone who channels contact between mortals and divinity; e. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Species See text Crataegus (Hawthorn) is a large genus of in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ...


Epicatechin

Epicatechin improves blood flow and thus seems good for cardiac health. Cocoa, the major ingredient of dark chocolate, contains relatively high amounts of epicatechin and has been found to have nearly twice the antioxidant content of red wine and up to three times that of green tea in in-vitro tests.[5] [6] But in the test outlined above it now appears the beneficial antioxidant effects are minimal as the antioxidants are rapidly excreted from the body. Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... This article is about the beverage. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ...


Oligomeric proanthocyanidins

Proanthocyanidins extracts demonstrate a wide range of pharmacological activity. Their effects include increasing intracellular vitamin C levels, decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, scavenging oxidants and free radicals, and inhibiting destruction of collagen, the most abundant protein in the body. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins or OPCs are a class of flavonoid complexes found in grape seeds and skin, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ...


Important dietary sources

Good sources of flavonoids include all citrus fruits, berries, onions, parsley, legumes, green tea, red wine, seabuckthorn, and dark chocolate (that with a cocoa content of seventy percent or greater). Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herb. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Species Hippophae rhamnoides Hippophae salicifolia Hippophae tibetana The Sea-buckthorns, also known as Seaberry or Sea Berry, are deciduous shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. ... Chocolate block in melted chocolate Chocolate is a common ingredient in many kinds of sweets—one of the most popular in the world. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ...


Citrus

The citrus bioflavonoids include hesperidin, quercetin, rutin (a glycoside of quercetin), and tangeritin. In addition to possessing antioxidant activity and an ability to increase intracellular levels of vitamin C, rutin and hesperidin exert beneficial effects on capillary permeability and blood flow. They also exhibit some of the anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory benefits of quercetin. Quercetin can also inhibit reverse transcriptase, part of the replication process of retroviruses.[7] The therapeutical relevance of this inhibition has not been established. Hydroxyethylrutosides (HER) have been used in the treatment of capillary permeability, easy bruising, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins. Chemical structure of hesperidin Hesperidin is a flavonoid glycoside (C28H34O15) found abundantly in citrus fruits. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside and sophorin, is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat, the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and the fruit of the Fava DAnta tree (from Brazil), as well as other sources. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Tangeritin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is found in tangerine and other citrus peels. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Chemical structure of hesperidin Hesperidin is a flavonoid glycoside (C28H34O15) found abundantly in citrus fruits. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood flow is the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system. ... In biochemistry, a reverse transcriptase, also known as RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, is a DNA polymerase enzyme that transcribes single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. Normal transcription involves the synthesis of RNA from DNA, hence reverse transcription is the reverse of this. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Vein gymnastics in the barefoot park Dornstetten, Germany. ...


Tea

Green tea flavonoids are potent antioxidant compounds, thought to reduce incidence of cancer and heart disease. The major flavonoids in green tea are the catechins (catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)). Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a type of catechin and is the most abundant catechin in tea. ...


In producing teas such as oolong tea and black tea, the leaves are allowed to oxidize, during which enzymes present in the tea convert some or all of the catechins to larger molecules. White tea is the least processed of teas and is shown to present the highest amount of catechins known to occur in camellia sinensis.However, green tea is produced by steaming the fresh-cut leaf, which inactivates these enzymes, and oxidation does not significantly occur. Alternate meanings: Oolong (disambiguation) Oolong (烏龍 wūlóng in the Mandarin Pinyin romanization) is a traditional Chinese type of tea somewhere in between green and black in oxidation (traditionally but improperly called fermentation) time. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Bai Hao Yinzhen from Fuding in Fujian Province, widely considered the best grade of white tea Bai Mu Dan, widely considered to be the second grade white tea White tea is tea made from new growth buds and young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. ... Binomial name (L.) Kuntze Camellia sinensis is the tea plant, the plant species whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Wine

Grape skins contain significant amounts of flavonoids as well as other polyphenols[8]. Both red and white wine contain flavonoids; however, since red wine is produced by fermentation in the presence of the grape skins, red wine has been observed to contain higher levels of flavonoids, and other polyphenolics such as resveratrol. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by bacteria or fungi. ...


Subgroups

Over 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been characterized from various plants. They have been classified according to their chemical structure, and are usually subdivided into the following subgroups:


Flavones

Flavones are divided into four groups:[9]

  • Flavonols
    Flavonols or 3-hydroxyflavones use the 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one skeleton.
    Examples: Quercetin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Fisetin, Isorhamnetin, Pachypodol, Rhamnazin
  • Flavanones
    Flavanones use the 2,3-dihydro-2-phenylchromen-4-one skeleton.
    Examples: Hesperetin, Naringenin, Eriodictyol
  • 3-Hydroxyflavanones or 2,3-dihydroflavonols
    3-Hydroxyflavanones use the 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-2-phenylchromen-4-one skeleton.
    Examples: Dihydroquercetin, Dihydrokaempferol

Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenylchromen-4-one / 2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) Flavones are a class of flavonoids based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) shown on the right. ... Luteolin Luteolin classified as a bioflavonel, and is thought to play an important role in the human body as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger, an agent in the prevention of inflammation, a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism, and an immune system modulator. ... Apigenin is a flavone that is the aglycone of apiin, isolated from parsley and celery, and apigetrin. ... Tangeritin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is found in tangerine and other citrus peels. ... Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that use the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one (IUPAC)). Their diversity stems from the different positions the phenolic -OH groups. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ... Myricetin is a naturally-occurring flavonoid found in many grapes, berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, as well as other plants. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid. ... Naringenin (not to be confused with naringin)is a flavonone that is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, antiinflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, immunity system modulater. ...

Isoflavones

A phytoestrogen that is thought of by many as useful in treating cancer. ... Genistein is one of several known isoflavones. ... daidzein This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Flavan-3-ols and Anthocyanidins

  • Flavan-3-ols
    Flavan-3-ols use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton.
    Examples: Catechins (Catechin (C), Gallocatechin (GC), Catechin 3-gallate (Cg), Gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCg)), Epicatechins (Epicatechin (EC), Epigallocatechin (EGC), Epicatechin 3-gallate (ECg), Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCg))

Catechin is a bioflavonoid and a powerful anti-oxidant. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Gallocatechol is a type of catechin. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... Epicatechin Epigallocatechin Catechins are bioflavonoids, polyphenols and powerful anti-oxidants. ... In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ... Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized exclusively by organisms of the plant... A pyrylium compound is a conjugated 6 membered carbon ring system with one carbon atom replaced by a positively charged oxygen atom forming a salt with a negatively charged counterion [1]. It is the oxygen pendant of benzene and shares with it aromatic properties. ... Chemical structure of cyanidin Cyanidin, or flavan-3-ol, is a natural organic compound which is classified as a flavonoid and an anthocyanin. ... Delphinidin Delphinidin is an anthocyanin, and a primary plant pigment. ... Malvidin is an anthocyanidin. ... The generic garden peony. ...

Availability through microorganisms

A number of recent research articles have demonstrated the efficient production of flavonoid molecules from genetically-engineered microorganisms[10].


See also

Phytochemistry is in the strict sense of the word the study of phytochemicals. ...

References

  1. ^ Flavonoids (isoflavonoids and neoflavonoids)., IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology
  2. ^ a b c d "Studies force new view on biology of flavonoids", by David Stauth, EurekAlert!. Adapted from a news release issued by Oregon State University. URL accessed 2007-03-06.
  3. ^ Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. Yamamoto and Gaynor 107 (2): 135 -- Journal of Clinical Investigation. Retrieved on 2006-08-30.
  4. ^ Schuier, Maximilian; Helmut Sies, Beate Illek, and Horst Fischer (October 2005). "Cocoa-Related Flavonoids Inhibit CFTR-Mediated Chloride Transport across T84 Human Colon Epithelia" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition 135 (10): 2320-2325. Retrieved on 2007-05-02. 
  5. ^ J. Agric.Food Chem. (2003) 51:7292-7295 Lee et al.
  6. ^ Cocoa nutrient for 'lethal ills'. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  7. ^ Spedding, G., Ratty, A., Middleton, E. Jr. (1989) Inhibition of reverse transcriptases by flavonoids. Antiviral Res 12 (2), 99-110. PMID 2480745
  8. ^ James A. Kennedy, Mark A. Matthews, and Andrew L. Waterhouse, Effect of Maturity and Vine Water Status on Grape Skin and Wine Flavonoids Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 53:4:268-274 (2002) (abstract)
  9. ^ http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/phenolics/illus/phenfig4.htm
  10. ^ Hwang EI, Kaneko M, Ohnishi Y, Horinouchi S. Production of plant-specific flavanones by Escherichia coli containing an artificial gene cluster. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 May;69(5):2699-706 PMID 12732539
  • Balch, J. F., & Balch, P. A. (2000). Prescription for Nutritional Healing. New York: Avery, Penguin Putnam Inc.
  • Murray, M. T. (1996). Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. Roseville: Prima Publishing.

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
flavonoid: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1531 words)
chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, anthocyanidins (flavylium cations), flavan 3-ols (catechins), flavan 3,4-diols (proanthocyanidins), biflavonoids and oligomeric flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and the aurones.
Flavonoids are widely distributed in plants fulfilling many functions including producing yellow or red/blue pigmentation in flowers and protection from attack by microbes and insects.
Flavonoids have been referred to as "nature's biological response modifiers" because of strong experimental evidence of their inherent ability to modify the body's reaction to allergens, viruses, and carcinogens.
Flavonoids : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., Health Benefits of Flavonoids (4838 words)
The flavonoids are further divided into subclasses based on the connection of an aromatic ring to the heterocyclic ring, as well as the oxidation state and functional groups of the heterocyclic ring.
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in fruits and vegetables.
Flavonoids are components of fruit and vegetables that may be beneficial in the prevention of disease such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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