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Encyclopedia > Flashlight

A flashlight, electric torch or simply torch is a hand-held portable electric spotlight. It is known as a flashlight mainly in the United States and Canada and as a torch or electric torch in most Commonwealth countries. Image File history File links Flashlight. ... Parliament was originally The Parliaments, a doo-wop group based out of George Clintons Plainfield, New Jersey barber shop. ... Flash Light is a song by funk band Parliament, released in 1977 on the album Funkentelechy Vs. ... The Yakovlev Yak-25 (NATO designation Flashlight-A / Mandrake) was a swept wing, turbojet-powered interceptor aircraft and reconnaissance aircraft used by the Soviet Union. ... Edisons classical searchlight cart. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...

Contents

History

An 1899 Eveready flashlight, one of the earliest flashlight models.

In 1896, Joshua Lionel Cowen invented a decorative lighting fixture for potted plants which consisted of a metal tube housing a light bulb and a dry cell battery. It failed commercially, and so Cowen sold his company and patents to Conrad Hubert that same year and turned his attention to building and selling model trains. Hubert renamed Cowen's company the American Electrical Novelty & Manufacturing Company and, recognizing the true potential of Cowen's invention, hired David Misell to produce a tubular flashlight for portable use. They donated some models to the New York City police, who responded favorably to it.[1] These early flashlights ran on zinc-carbon batteries, which were poor at providing sustained currents; they would run down after a while and needed to rest before being usable again.[2] Since these early flashlights also used energy-inefficient carbon filament bulbs, this happened rather quickly, and consequently they could only be used in brief flashes (hence their name). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Joshua Lionel Cowen (August 25, 1877-1965), born Joshua Lionel Cohen, was an American inventor and the cofounder of Lionel Corporation, a manufacturer of model railroads and toy trains. ...


General information

A high power torch
A high power torch

A typical flashlight consists of a small incandescent lightbulb with associated parabolic reflector, powered by electric batteries, and with an electric power switch. The components are mounted in a housing that contains the necessary electric circuit and provides ease of handling, a means of access to the batteries for replacement, and a clear covering over the lightbulb for its protection. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 228 KB) A 2,000,000 candlepower torch If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 228 KB) A 2,000,000 candlepower torch If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... Paraboloid of revolution Hyperbolic paraboloid In mathematics, a paraboloid is a quadric, a type of surface in three dimensions, described by the equation: (elliptic paraboloid), or (hyperbolic paraboloid). ... A reflector can mean one of several things: a reflecting telescope a device or a part of an antenna that reflects radio waves a device that causes reflection, for example, a mirror or a retroreflector a 1981 album by Pablo Cruise In LAPACK the term reflector with the types block... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... Electrical switches. ... An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ...


Although a relatively simple device, its invention did not occur until the late 19th century because it depended upon the earlier invention of the electric battery and incandescent light bulb.Hi. “Light bulb” redirects here. ... HI or Hi can mean: An informal way to say hello. ...


LED

Electronically regulated, variable output LED flashlight
Electronically regulated, variable output LED flashlight

Recently, flashlights which use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) instead of conventional lightbulbs have become available. LEDs have existed for decades, mainly as low-power indicator lights. In 1999, Lumileds Corporation of San Jose, CA, introduced the Luxeon LED, a high-power white-light emitter. For the first time this made possible LED flashlights with power and running time better than some incandescent lights. The first Luxeon LED flashlight was the Arc LS in 2001. Image File history File linksMetadata SurefireU2JPG.jpg‎ Self-made image of Surefire U2 flashlight. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SurefireU2JPG.jpg‎ Self-made image of Surefire U2 flashlight. ... “LED” redirects here. ... Philips Lumileds is the worlds leading manufacturer of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a pioneer in the use of solid-state lighting solutions for everyday purposes. ... Arc-LS Luxeon LED flashlight. ...


LEDs can be significantly more efficient at lower power levels, hence use less battery energy than normal lightbulbs. Such flashlights have longer battery lifetimes, in some cases hundreds of hours, although the LED efficiency advantage diminishes at higher power levels. LEDs also survive sharp blows that often break conventional lightbulbs.


LED flashlights are often electronically regulated to maintain constant light output as the batteries fade. By contrast a non-regulated flashlight becomes progressively dimmer, sometimes spending much of the total running time below 50 percent brightness level.


A common misconception about LED-based flashlights is that they generate no heat. While lower-power LED flashlights generate little heat, more powerful LED lights do generate significant amounts of heat – although not as radiant energy – as the semiconductor junction inherently dissipates heat. For this reason higher-powered LED flashlights usually have aluminum bodies and can become quite warm during use. The use of aluminum is largely due to its thermal properties, acting as a heatsink for the high-power LED. Very few high-output LED flashlights use a plastic body due to plastic being a thermal insulator rather than a conductor. Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ... A p-n junction is formed by combining N-type and P-type semiconductors together in very close contact. ... A large copper heatsink. ...


HID

Another less common type of flashlight is an HID flashlight, or High Intensity Discharge. It works by passing an electric current through a ball of ionized gas, which glows very brightly.


Some advantages of this design are that they produce more light than an incandescent flashlight using the same amount of electricity, and the bulb will last a longer time and is more shock resistant than a regular incandescent bulb. However, they are more expensive and are usually rather bulky. An example of an HID flashlight is the Surefire Hellfire Weaponlight. The Surefire Hellfire Weaponlight It uses a 35 watt HID or high intensity discharge bulb. ...


Other designs

A headlamp is a flashlight worn on the head for hands-free operation. Powerful headlamps mounted on helmets have been used in mining for decades, but general-purpose ones with fabric straps are now also available. A person wearing a helmet. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ...


Sometimes a light is mounted to a handgun or rifle.[3][4] See also Streamlight and Surefire. Streamlight Scorpion Streamlight M6 Tactical Laser Illuminator mounted on GLOCK 22. ... Surefire U2 digital variable-output LED flashlight Surefire is a California-based company that produces precision tactical flashlights commonly used in the law enforcement and military fields. ...


Most flashlights are cylindrical in design, with the lamp assembly attached to one end. However, early designs came in a variety of shapes. Many resembled lanterns of the day, consisting largely of a box with a handle and the lamp attached to the front. Some others were made to have a similar appearance to candles. It is possible that future developments of battery and LED technology will bring interesting new designs. For instance, one very small light consists of a few LEDs with a switch, designed to be an endcap for a 9-volt battery. Stone lantern in a Chinese Garden A chōchin invites customers into an okonomiyaki restaurant in Japan A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... “LED” redirects here. ... Some different battery sizes. ...


High-end flashlights

GatLight V1 Luxeon LED flashlight. Dimensions: 3.1" x 1.0"
GatLight V1 Luxeon LED flashlight. Dimensions: 3.1" x 1.0"

High end lights often go for as much as several hundreds of pounds/euros/dollars. Using metals such as titanium, steel, or even silver, and often being limited in production they often end up as collector's items trading at many times their original sales price. Such flashlights are very advanced, using special batteries, have adjustable brightness levels, waterproof ratings, and are very bright. As a unique example of a high end manufacturer, with non-cylindrical, unique design, Lumencraft was one of the first manufacturer to create designs that cater more towards a higher end design and art-conscious market rather than the tactical military and law enforcement markets. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... GatLight V1 Luxeon LED flashlight. ...


Other power sources

Since batteries can be a burdensome cost in developed countries, let alone in the third world, the development of self-powered flashlights is a welcome advance. Some use solar panels to recharge their batteries during the day.


Mechanical power

Dynamo light (partly disassembled)
Dynamo light (partly disassembled)

Some flashlights have an electrical generator built into them. One type of dynamo-powered flashlight has a winding crank connected to a stepper motor that feeds several diode bridges with their outputs connected in parallel feeding a field effect transistor that charges a capacitor that connects to one or more LEDs. Others generate electricity using electromagnetic induction. They use a strong permanent magnet that can freely slide up and down a tube, passing through a coil of wire as it does. Shaking the flashlight will charge a capacitor or a rechargeable battery that supplies a current to a light source, typically a light-emitting diode or, more rarely, an incandescent light bulb. Image File history File linksMetadata Knijpkat_996637. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Knijpkat_996637. ... Interior of a dyno torch A mechanically powered flashlight is one of several varieties of flashlights that do not use batteries, but rather depend on mechanical movement by the user to generate enough electrical current to power a miniature incandescent bulb or light-emitting diode. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ... Three bridge rectifiers. ... Large power N-channel field effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Magnet (disambiguation). ... See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... “LED” redirects here. ... “Light bulb” redirects here. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Flashlight

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... GatLight V1 Luxeon LED flashlight. ... Interior of a dyno torch A dyno torch is a pocket torch (or flashlight in AE) without batteries. ... Maglite flashlight Closeup of a Maglite (Solitaire model) Maglite (also known as MAGLITE, MAG-LITE) is a brand of tactical flashlight created by Mag Instrument, Inc. ... A penlight A penlight is a small, pen-sized flashlight, usually containing two AA batteries or AAA batteries. ... Surefire U2 digital variable-output LED flashlight Surefire is a California-based company that produces precision tactical flashlights commonly used in the law enforcement and military fields. ... Streamlight Scorpion Streamlight M6 Tactical Laser Illuminator mounted on GLOCK 22. ... Arc-LS Luxeon LED flashlight. ... Philips Lumileds is the worlds leading manufacturer of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a pioneer in the use of solid-state lighting solutions for everyday purposes. ... A pepper-spray flashlight is a device which combines a strong flashlight with a pepper-spray device, sometimes including a laser for aiming for the purpose of allowing the user to (1) provide a psychological deterrent since the potential attacker may believe the device is a gun with laser sight...

References

  1. ^ Steve Hathcock. Give Me a Light. Island Breeze. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  2. ^ Brooke Schumm. Nonrechargeable Batteries. The Electrochemistry Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  3. ^ http://www.handgunsmag.com/tactics_training/lights_072804/
  4. ^ http://www.policeone.com/writers/columnists/JohnMeyer/articles/98209/

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • http://www.flashlightmuseum.com/ — flashlight Museum
  • http://www.flashlightnews.org/ — flashlight industry news
  • http://www.flashlightreviews.com/ — flashlight reviews website

 
 

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