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Encyclopedia > Flap consonant
Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
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In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ), but release as a fricative such as or (or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a member of a class of speech sounds that are continuants produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... A consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ...

Contents


Contrast with stops and trills

The main difference between a flap and a stop consonant is that in a flap, there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation, and consequently no release burst. Otherwise a flap is similar to a brief stop. A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ...


Flaps also contrast with trills, where the airstream causes the articulator to vibrate. Trills may be realized as a single contact, like a flap, but are variable, whereas a flap is limited to a single contact.


Tap vs. flap

Many linguists use the terms tap and flap indiscriminantly. Peter Ladefoged proposed for a while that it might be useful to distinguish between them. However, his usage has been inconsistent, contradicting itself even between different editions of the same text. The last proposed distinction was that a tap strikes its point of contact directly, as a very brief plosive, whereas a flap strikes the point of contact tangentially: "Flaps are most typically made by retracting the tongue tip behind the alveolar ridge and moving it forward so that it strikes the ridge in passing." However, he no longer feels this is a useful distinction to make, and prefers to use the word flap in all cases. For linguists that do make the distinction, the coronal tap is transcribed as a fish-hook ar, [ɾ], while the flap is transcribed as a small capital dee, [ᴅ], which is not recognized by the IPA. Otherwise alveolars are typically called taps, and other articulations flaps. No language contrasts a tap and a flap at the same place of articulation. Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (September 17, 1925 – January 24, 2006) was a British-American linguist phonetician who traveled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data. ...


IPA symbols

The flap and tap consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ...

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
ɾ alveolar tap North American English latter /læɾɚ/ "latter"
ɺ alveolar lateral flap Japanese ラーメン /ɺaːmeɴ/ "ramen"
ɽ retroflex flap Warlpiri dupa (?) /ɽupa/ "windbreak"
labiodental flap Karang /ara/ "animal"

The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The Warlpiri language is spoken by about 3000 of the Warlpiri people in Australias Northern Territory. ... Image File history File links Labiodental_flap_(Gentium). ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ...

Types of flaps

Alveolar flaps

Spanish is a good illustration of an alveolar flap, for it contrasts it with a trill: pero /peɾo/ "but" vs. perro /pero/ "dog". In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ...


Retroflex flaps

Most Indic and Dravidian languages have retroflex flaps. In Hindi there are three, a simple retroflex flap as in [bəɽɑː] big, a murmured retroflex flap as in [koɽʱiː] leper, and a retroflex nasal flap in the Hindicized pronunciation of Sanskrit [məɽ̃i] ruby. Some of these may be allophonic. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is an official language of the central government of India. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ...


Lateral flaps

Lateral flaps may be more common than much of the literature would lead one to believe. Many of the languages of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific that don't distinguish r from l may have a lateral flap, but this is generally missed by European linguists, who often aren't familiar with the sound.


However, it is also possible that many of these languages do not have a lateral-central contrast at all, so that even a consistently neutral articulation may be perceived as sometimes lateral [ɺ] or [l], sometimes central [ɾ]. This has been suggested to be the case for Japanese, for example.


The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. (However, the latter is rare and may be a palatalized alveolar lateral flap rather than a separate phoneme.) These contrast with lateral approximants at the same positions, as well as a central retroflex flap [ɽ], alveolar trill [r], and retroflex approximant [ɻ]. Iwaidja, in phonemic spelling Iwaja, is an Australian language with about 150 speakers in northernmost Australia. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


The symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is the basis for the expected (though not officially recognized) symbol for the retroflex lateral flap, The Iwaidja language of Australia has both alveolar and retroflex lateral flaps, and perhaps a palatal lateral flap as well. ...


Image:Lateral flaps.png Image File history File links The official IPA symbol for the alveolar lateral flap is easily extended to an unofficial retroflex lateral flap. ...


Symbols such as these are uncommon, but are becoming more frequent now that font-editing software has become accessible. Note however that besides not being sanctioned by the IPA, there are no Unicode values for them. However, the retroflex lateral flap may be written as a digraph with the right-tail diacritic, [ɺ̢]. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Non-rhotic flaps

The only common non-rhotic flap is the labiodental flap, found throughout central Africa in languages such as Margi. In 2005, the IPA adopted a right-hook vee, Rhotic consonants, or R-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. ... Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a labiodental flap in languages of the Central African Republic and neighboring countries, such as Margi and Kera, as well as in Zimbabwe. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

for this sound. Previously, it had been transcribed with the use of the breve diacritic, [v̆], or other ad hoc symbols. Image File history File links Labiodental_flap_(Gentium). ...


Other flaps are much less common. They include a bilabial flap in Banda, which may be an allophone of the labiodental flap, and a velar lateral flap as an allophone in Kanite and Melpa. These are often transcribed with the breve diacritic, as [w̆, ʟ̆], but other possibilities sometimes seen include the new labiodental flap symbol plus an advanced diacritic for the bilabial, and a [ɹʟ] monogram (by analogy with [ɺ]) for the velar. Non-rhotic flaps are uncommon, but include a bilabial flap in the Banda and some neighboring languages. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... The velar lateral flap is an allophone of the velar lateral approximant in some languages of New Guinea, such as Kanite and Melpa. ... In phonetics, a fronted or advanced sound is one that is pronounced further to the front of the vocal tract than some reference point. ...


If other flaps are found, the breve diacritic could be used to represent them, but would more properly be combined with the symbol for the corresponding voiced plosive, as in the hypothetical palatal and uvular flaps *[ɟ̆, ɢ̆].


External links

  • A Crosslinguistic Lexicon of the Labial Flap

  Results from FactBites:
 
Flap consonant - WikiMirror (741 words)
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
In Hindi there are three, a simple retroflex flap as in [bəɽɑː] big, a murmured retroflex flap as in [koɽʱiː] leper, and a retroflex nasal flap in the Hindicized pronunciation of Sanskrit [məɽ̃i] ruby.
They include a bilabial flap in Banda, which may be an allophone of the labiodental flap, and a velar lateral flap as an allophone in Kanite and Melpa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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