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Encyclopedia > Flannery O'Connor
Flannery O'Connor

Born March 25, 1925(1925-03-25)
Savannah, Georgia
Died August 3, 1964 (aged 39)
Baldwin County, Georgia
Occupation novelist, short story writer, essayist
Genres American Southern Gothic

Mary Flannery O'Connor (March 25, 1925August 3, 1964) was an American novelist, short-story writer and essayist. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Savannah redirects here. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Baldwin County is a county located in the Georgia. ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Southern Gothic is a subgenre of the Gothic writing style, unique to American literature. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... The short story is a literary genre. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ...

Contents

Biography

Flannery O'Connor was the only child of Edward F. O'Connor and Regina Cline O’Connor. Her father was diagnosed with lupus in 1937; he died on February 1, 1941 when Flannery was 15. The disease was hereditary in the O'Connor family. Flannery O'Connor was devastated, and almost never spoke of him in later years. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


O'Connor described herself as a "pigeon-toed only child with a receding chin and a you-leave-me-alone-or-I'll-bite-you complex." When O'Connor was five she taught a chicken to walk backwards, and it was this that led to her first experience of being a celebrity. The Pathé News people filmed "Little Mary O'Connor" with her trained chicken, and showed the film around the country. She said, "That was the most exciting thing that ever happened to me. It's all been downhill from there." Pathé Newsreels were produced from 1910 until mid-1956, when the newsreels in general stopped production. ...


O'Connor attended the Peabody Laboratory School, from which she graduated in 1942. She entered Georgia State College for Women (now Georgia College & State University), in an accelerated three-year program, and graduated June 1945 with a Social Sciences degree. In 1946 Flannery O'Connor was accepted into the prestigious Iowa Writers' Workshop. Georgia College & State University (GCSU) is a public university in Milledgeville, Georgia with over 5,500 students. ... The Program in Creative Writing, more commonly known as the Iowa Writers Workshop, at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa is a prestigious college and graduate-level creative writing program in the United States. ...


In 1949 O'Connor met and eventually accepted an invitation to stay with Robert Fitzgerald (translator of Greek plays and epic poems, including Oedipus Rex and both the Odyssey and the Iliad, and also a respected poet in his own right) and his wife, Sally, in Redding, Connecticut.[1] Robert Stuart Fitzgerald (1910 - 1985) was best known as a translator of ancient Greek and Latin. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oedipus the King Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the Tyrant), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed ca. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Redding is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


In 1951 she was diagnosed with disseminated lupus, and subsequently returned to her ancestral farm (see Andalusia) in Milledgeville. She was only expected to live five more years; she lived nearly 15. At Andalusia, she raised and nurtured some 100 peafowl. Fascinated by birds of all kinds, she raised ducks, hens, geese, and any sort of exotic bird she could obtain, as well as incorporating images of peacocks often in her books. She describes her peacocks in an essay entitled "The King of Birds." Despite her sheltered life, her writing reveals an uncanny grasp of the nuances of human behavior. She was a deeply devout Catholic, living in the mostly Protestant American South. She collected books on Catholic theology and at times gave lectures on faith and literature, traveling quite far despite her frail health. She also had a wide correspondence, including such famous writers as Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop. She never married, relying for companionship on her correspondence and on her close relationship with her mother. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. ... Milledgeville is a city in Baldwin County in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Peacock redirects here. ... Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was a highly regarded mid-twentieth-century American poet. ... Elizabeth Bishop (February 8, 1911 – October 6, 1979), was an American poet and writer. ...


O'Connor completed over two dozen short stories and two novels while lupus ravaged her body. She died on August 3, 1964, at the age of 39, of complications from lupus at Baldwin County Hospital and was buried in Milledgeville, Georgia. Regina Cline O'Connor outlived her daughter by many years, dying in 1997. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Career

An important voice in American literature, O'Connor wrote two novels and 31 short stories, as well as a number of reviews and commentaries. She was a Southern writer in the vein of William Faulkner, often writing in a Southern Gothic style and relying heavily on regional settings and -- it is regularly said -- grotesque characters. However, she remarked "anything that comes out of the South is going to be called grotesque by the northern reader, unless it is grotesque, in which case it is going to be called realistic" (Mystery and Manners: Occasional Prose 40). Her texts often take place in the South and revolve around morally flawed characters, while the issue of race looms in the background. One of her trademarks is unsubtle foreshadowing, giving a reader an idea of what will happen far before it happens. Finally, she brands each work with a disturbing and ironic conclusion. American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... Southern literature (sometimes called the literature of the American South) is defined as American literature about the Southern United States or by writers from this region. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... Southern Gothic is a subgenre of the Gothic writing style, unique to American literature. ... This article is about the word itself. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Her two novels were Wise Blood (1952) and The Violent Bear It Away (1960). She also published two books of short stories: A Good Man Is Hard to Find and Other Stories (1955) and Everything That Rises Must Converge (published posthumously in 1965). Wise Blood (1952) was the first novel written by Southern author Flannery OConnor. ... The Violent Bear It Away is a novel published in 1955 by American author Flannery OConnor. ... The nine stories included are: Everything That Rises Must Converge Greenleaf A View of the Woods The Enduring Chill The Comforts of Home The Lame Shall Enter Last Revelation Parkers Back Judgement Day ...


A life-long Roman Catholic, her writing is deeply informed by the sacramental, and by the Thomist notion that the created world is charged with God. Yet she would not write apologetic fiction of the kind prevalent in the Catholic literature of the time, explaining that a writer's meaning must be evident in his or her fiction without didacticism. She wrote ironic, subtly allegorical fiction about deceptively backward Southern characters, usually fundamentalist Protestants, who undergo transformations of character that to O'Connor's thinking brought them closer to the Catholic mind. The transformation is often accomplished through pain, violence, and ludicrous behavior in the pursuit of the holy. However grotesque the setting, she tried to portray her characters as they might be touched by divine grace. This ruled out a sentimental understanding of the stories' violence, as of her own illness. O'Connor wrote: "Grace changes us and change is painful." She also had a deeply sardonic sense of humor, often based in the disparity between her characters' limited perceptions and the awesome fate awaiting them. Another source of humor is frequently found in the attempt of well-meaning liberals to cope with the rural South on their own terms. O'Connor uses such characters' inability to come to terms with race, poverty, and fundamentalism, other than in sentimental illusions, as an example of the failure of the secular world in the twentieth century. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of St. ... Apologists are authors, writers, editors of scientific logs or academic journals, and leaders known for taking on the points in arguments, conflicts or positions that are either placed under popular scrutinies or viewed under persecutory examinations. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity...


However, several stories reveal that O'Connor was familiar with some of the most sensitive contemporary issues that her liberal and fundamentalist characters might encounter. She addressed the Holocaust in her famous story "The Displaced Person," and racial integration in "Everything that Rises Must Converge." O'Connor's fiction became increasingly concerned with race as she neared the end of her life. The last story she published before dying was called "Judgment Day", which was a drastically rewritten version of her first published story, titled "The Geranium". For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ...


Her best friend, Betty Hester, received a weekly letter from O'Connor for over a decade. These letters provided the bulk of the correspondence collected in The Habit of Being, a selection of O'Connor's letters that was edited by Sally Fitzgerald. The reclusive Hester was given the pseudonym "A.," and her identity was not known until she killed herself in 1998. Much of O'Connor's best-known writing on religion, writing, and the South is contained in these and other letters. The complete collection of the unedited letters between the two was unveiled by Emory University on May 12, 2007; the letters were given to the university in 1987 with the stipulation that they not be released to the public for 20 years.[2] Betty was a lesbian, and Emory's Steve Enniss speculates that she probably kept the letters from public scrutiny for that reason.[3] The unsealed letters include unflattering remarks about O'Connor's friend William Sessions and the work of other Southern writers. [4] Elizabeth Betty Hester was an American correspondent of major twentieth-century writers, including Flannery OConnor and Iris Murdoch. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ...


The Flannery O'Connor Award for Short Fiction, named in honor of O'Connor, is a prize given annually to an outstanding collection of short stories. The Flannery OConnor Award for Short Fiction is an annual prize awarded by the University of Georgia Press named in honor of the American short story writer and novelist Flannery OConnor. ...


Bibliography

Compilations: Wise Blood (1952) was the first novel written by Southern author Flannery OConnor. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... A Good Man Is Hard To Find is a collection of short stories by American author Flannery OConnor. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The Violent Bear It Away is a novel published in 1955 by American author Flannery OConnor. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The nine stories included are: Everything That Rises Must Converge Greenleaf A View of the Woods The Enduring Chill The Comforts of Home The Lame Shall Enter Last Revelation Parkers Back Judgement Day ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Three by Flannery O'Connor (contains Wise Blood, A Good Man Is Hard To Find, and The Violent Bear It Away), 1964
  • Three by Flannery O'Connor (contains Wise Blood, The Violent Bear It Away and Everything That Rises Must Converge), 1983
  • The Complete Short Stories, 1971
  • Collected Works: Library of America, 1988 (Sally Fitzgerald, ed.). ISBN 978-0-94045037-0. Contains Wise Blood, A Good Man Is Hard To Find, The Violent Bear It Away, and Everything That Rises Must Converge

Unfinished Works: Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ...

  • Fragments exist of an unfinished novel tentatively titled Why Do the Heathen Rage? that draws from several of her short stories, including "Why Do the Heathen Rage?" "The Enduring Chill," and "The Partridge Festival."

Footnotes

  1. ^ Various sources incorrectly cite Ridgefield, Connecticut as Fitzgerald's home from the 1940s into the 1960s. He, in fact, lived on Seventy Acres Road in the adjacent town of Redding, Connecticut. He and Flannery O'Connor used a Ridgefield mailing address on their correspondence because, in those days, rural delivery to that portion of Redding was done by the Ridgefield post office. This has been confirmed by articles that have appeared in The Redding Pilot, the local newspaper, as well as searches through Ridgefield and Redding records.
  2. ^ All Things Considered, May 12, 2007.
  3. ^ Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 10, 2007.
  4. ^ The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 13, 2007.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Flannery O'Connor

O'Connor-Oriented Websites Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

O'Connor Biography

Individual Articles on O'Connor

Persondata
NAME O'Connor, Flannery
ALTERNATIVE NAMES O'Connor, Mary Flannery
SHORT DESCRIPTION American novelist, short story writer
DATE OF BIRTH March 25, 1925
PLACE OF BIRTH Savannah, Georgia
DATE OF DEATH August 3, 1964
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
GM Hopkins andflannery O'Connor (5918 words)
Southern writer Flannery O'Connor and Jesuit poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, though a century apart, were fellow travelers in their belief in, and demonstration of, lit-erature's ability to guide the reader into an experience of God's transcendence.
O'Connor's excitement undoubtedly stemmed from the self-recognition that she had something to say of a prophetic nature to the world; and, that she possessed the imagination to do so aesthetically.
O'Connor explains this manner of writing fiction when she writes, "[A]ny char-acter in a serious novel is supposed to carry a burden of meaning larger than himself" (MM, 167).
Flannery O'Connor (3415 words)
Flannery O'Connor is a Christian writer, and her work is message-oriented, yet she is far too brilliant a stylist to tip her hand; like all good writers, crass didacticism is abhorrent to her.
Mary Flannery O'Connor was born in Savannah, Georgia on March twenty-fifth, 1925 to Catholic parents Edward F. and Regina C. O'Connor, and spent her early childhood at 207 East Charlton Street.
O'Connor is compassionate to her characters in that she gives them the opportunity of receiving grace, however devastating that might be to their fragile self-images, as well as their fragile mortal frames, for in O'Connor, grace often comes at the moment of grisly death.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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