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Encyclopedia > Flanders
Vlaanderen
Flanders
Flag of Flanders
Flag
AnthemDe Vlaamse Leeuw
(The Flemish Lion)
Location of Flanders
Location of Belgian Flanders in Europe
Capital Brussels
50°54′N 4°32′E / 50.9, 4.533
Official languages Dutch (Brussels: French and Dutch)
Government Parliamentary Democracy
 -  President Kris Peeters
Area
 -  Total 13,522 km² (161)
5,221 sq mi 
Population
 -  2007 [1] census 6,117,440 
 -  Density 448/km² (23)
1,160.3/sq mi

Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen, French: Flandre, German: Flandern) has historically been a region overlapping parts of modern Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Today, Flanders designates either the Flemish Community, which includes Dutch-speaking residents of the Brussels-Capital Region, or the Flemish Region, which does not. The parliament and government govern both the Community and the Region, even though they are not co-extensive.[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Flanders. ... This is a list of flags used in Belgium. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... De Vlaamse Leeuw (Dutch: The Flemish Lion) is the national anthem of Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking, and largest region and community (in terms of population) of the federal kingdom of Belgium. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Flanders Categories: Images with unknown source ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... This is a list of Minister-Presidents (prime ministers) of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Kris Peeters (May 18, 1962) is a Flemish politician and member of the Christian Democratic and Flemish party who is currently serving as Flemish Minister for Public Works, Energy, the Environment and Nature. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Flanders Flemish Community Categories: Images with unknown source ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ...


West Flanders and East Flanders are two of the five provinces of the Flemish Region, both located in its western part. French Flanders may designate the département called Nord ("North") or the larger Nord-Pas de Calais region in which Nord is located. Zeelandic Flanders, in Dutch Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, refers to a part of the Netherlands located in Zeeland. West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands (no. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ...

Contents

The term "Flanders"

In Belgium

The term "Flanders" has several main meanings:

  • the social, cultural and linguistic, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the "Flemish community" (small "c") (others refer to this as the "Flemish nation") which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians;
  • the constituent governing institution of the federal Belgian state through the institutions named the Flemish Community (capital "C"), exercising the powers on most of those domains for aforementioned community, and the officially Dutch-speaking Flemish Region which has powers mainly on economical matters. The Community absorbed the Region, leading to a single operative body as the Flemish government and a legislative one as the Flemish parliament;
  • the geographical region in the north of Belgium coinciding with the federal Belgian state's constituent part of the Flemish Region that unlike the Community excludes the bilingual Capital Region; historically there had been no distinction between Brussels and the surrounding geographical area;
  • the geographical area comprising the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, parts of a former countship named Flanders.

Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ... // Definitions Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen, French: Flandre or Flandres) has two main designations: a historical region (the County of Flanders), and an administrative region of Belgium (the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community). ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ...

In France

Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... Extent of Dutch in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French term for: North) is a département in the north of France. ...

In the Netherlands

Main article: Zeelandic Flanders

Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands (no. ...

Evolution of the term

Landscape of Bachten de Kupe, in West Flanders
Landscape of Bachten de Kupe, in West Flanders

Vlaanderen literally means Flooded Land[citation needed] or Lowland. The name appeared first around the 8th century. The precise geographical area denominated by "Flanders" has evolved a great deal over the centuries. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 523 KB) Summary Picture taken by myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 523 KB) Summary Picture taken by myself. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ...


In the Middle Ages, the term Flanders was applied to an area in western Europe, the County of Flanders, spread over: The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ...

  • Belgium :
    • the area that is now approximately the Flemish provinces of East Flanders and West Flanders
    • the French-speaking area at the west of the Scheldt river, called Tournaisis (from the now Wallonian town Tournai in the province of Hainaut)
  • France (French Flanders):
    • in French language: La Flandre Lilloise comprising the arrondissements of Lille and Douai, in the north of France, to which it was ceded in the 14th century. Because of French being spoken, the area was also called la Flandre romane (Romance Flanders) or la Flandre gallicante (Gallic Flanders), or incorrectly Flandre-wallonne (Walloon Flanders) though its language was not Walloon but Picard. The city of Lille manifests itself as "Flemish", for instance by the large TGV station Lille-Flandres.
    • the originally Dutch-speaking remainder of what is now the département Nord (Nord-Pas de Calais), called Westhoek or Maritime Flanders, ceded to France in the 17th and early 18th century, during most of which latter century the area was the province of Flanders and that of Artois.

The significance of the County and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early Modern, the term Flanders was associated to the southern part of the Low Countries, the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became increasingly commonplace to refer to the area from De Panne to Maasmechelen, including the Belgian parts of the Duchy of Brabant and Limburg, as "Flanders". East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Hainaut (French; English traditionally Hainault, Dutch: Henegouwen, German: Hennegau, Walloon: Hinnot) is the westernmost province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The arrondissement of Lille is an arrondissement of France, located in the Nord département, of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région. ... Location of Douai. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders Romance Flanders or Gallicant Flanders is the part of the county of Flanders where people speak romance languages (then called Walloon) like varieties of picard. ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders The Walloon Flanders (in French Flandre wallonne) is a part of the County of Flanders. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Picard is a language closely related to French, and as such is one of the larger group of Romance languages. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Extent of Flemish in the Arrondissement of Dunkirk, 1874 and 1972 Nord (French: North) is a département in the north of France. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Westhoek (Dutch for west corner) or Maritime Flanders (French: ) is a region in Belgium and France and includes the following areas: Location of Belgian Westhoek in West Flanders Belgian Westhoek (Dutch: Belgische Westhoek) including the West Flanders arrondissements of Diksmuide, Ypres, and Veurne including the cities of Veurne, Poperinge, Wervik... The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands (no. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ... De Panne: Beach and flats De Panne is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 76. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... Limburg is the easternmost province of Flanders (which is one of the three regions of Belgium), and is located west of the Meuse river. ...


The ambiguity between this eastwardly much wider area and that of the Countship (or the Belgian parts thereof), still remains. In most present-day contexts however, the term Flanders is generally taken to refer to either the political, social, cultural and linguistic community (and the corresponding official institution, the Flemish Community), or the geographical area, one of the three institutional regions in Belgium, namely the Flemish Region. the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ...


In history of art, the adjectives Flemish, Dutch and Netherlandish are commonly used to designate all the artistic production in this area. For examples, Flemish Primitives is synonym for early Netherlandish painting, Franco-Flemish School for Dutch School, and it is not uncommon to see Mosan art categorized as Flemish art. This article is an overview of the history of art worldwide. ... The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck, National Gallery, London. ... In music, the Dutch School refers, somewhat imprecisely, to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... Mosan art or Rheno-Mosan art is medieval art from the valleys of the Meuse and Rhine, in present-day Belgium and Rhineland, from the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. ...


History

Early history

Main article: Origins of the Belgae

The area roughly encompassing the later geographical meanings of Flanders, had been inhabited by Celts till a Germanic people had been immigrating by crossing the Rhine either gradually driving them south- or westwards, or rather merging with them. By the first century BCE Germanic languages had become prevalent, and the inhabitants were called Belgæ while the area was the coastal district of Gallia Belgica, the most northeastern province of the Roman Empire at its height. The boundaries were the Marne and Seine in the West, with Brittany, and the Rhine in the East, with Frisia. This changed upon the Count of Rouen's settlement with the King of France, which made a cession of western Flanders and eastern Brittany to the Normans. The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The Belgae were a group of nations or tribes living in north-eastern Gaul, on the west bank of the Rhine, in the 1st century BC, and later also attested in Britain. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the Marne River which flows through the department. ... This article is about the river in France. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Rollo on the Six Dukes statue in the Falaise town square. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


Historical Flanders: County of Flanders

Main article: County of Flanders

Created in the year 862 as a feudal fief in West Francia, the County of Flanders was divided when its western districts fell under French rule in the late 12th century. The remaining parts of Flanders came under the rule of the counts of neighbouring Hainaut in 1191. The entire area passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, in 1477 to the Habsburg dynasty, and in 1556 to the kings of Spain. The western districts of Flanders came finally under French rule under successive treaties of 1659 (Artois), 1668, and 1678. Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Western Francia was the land under the control of Charles the Bald after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. ... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


During the late Middle Ages Flanders' trading towns (notably Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) made it one of the richest and most urbanised parts of Europe, weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export. As a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivalling those of Northern Italy. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Increasingly powerful from the 12th century, the territory's autonomous urban communes were instrumental in defeating a French attempt at annexation (1300–1302), finally defeating the French in the Battle of the Golden Spurs (July 11, 1302), near Kortrijk. Two years later, the uprising was defeated and Flanders remained part of the French Crown. Flemish prosperity waned in the following century, however, owing to widespread European population decline following the Black Death of 1348, the disruption of trade during the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War (1338–1453), and increased English cloth production. Flemish weavers had gone over to Worstead and North Walsham in Norfolk in the 12th century and established the woollen industry. Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Kortrijk Coordinates , , Area 80. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Worstead is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... , Market Cross, North Walsham (photo by S.Mason) North Walsham is a market town and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


Flanders in the Low Countries

Main article: Low Countries

For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...

The Reformation

Martin Luther's 95 Theses, published in 1517, had a profound effect on the Low Countries. Among the wealthy traders of Antwerp, the Lutheran beliefs of the German Hanseatic traders found appeal, perhaps partly for economic reasons in Dutch. The spread of Protestantism in this city was aided by the presence of an Augustinian cloister (founded 1514) in the St. Andries quarter. Luther, an Augustinian himself, had taught some of the monks, and his works were in print by 1518. Charles V ordered the closing of this cloister around 1525. The first Lutheran martyrs came from Antwerp. The reformation resulted in consecutive but overlapping waves of reform: a Lutheran, followed by a militant Anabaptist, then a Mennonite, and finally a Calvinistic movement. These movements existed independently of each other. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The 95 Theses. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... -1... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus re-baptizers[1]) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism...


The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, issued by Charles V, established the Low Countries as the Seventeen Provinces (or Spanish Netherlands in its broad sense) as an entity separate from the Holy Roman Empire and from France. A pragmatic sanction is a sovereigns solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, defaced by 16th century iconoclasm
Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, defaced by 16th century iconoclasm[3]

The schism between the southern Roman Catholics and northern Calvinists resulted in the Union of Atrecht and the Union of Utrecht, respectively. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1228x1637, 767 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flanders Iconoclasm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1228x1637, 767 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flanders Iconoclasm Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... , drawing by Pieter Jansz Saenredam The Cathedral of Saint Martin or Dom Church was the Cathedral of the Province of Utrecht during the Middle Ages. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579) The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed on January 6, 1579 in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ...


Suppression of dissent

One hallmark of the Reformation was the belief that excessive commemoration of the saints and their images had become idolatry. Efforts to end it led to the iconoclasm of 1566 (the Beeldenstorm) – the demolition of statues and paintings depicting saints. This was associated with the ensuing religious war between Catholics and Protestants, especially the Anabaptists. The Beeldenstorm started in what is now the arrondissement of Dunkirk in French Flanders, with open-air sermons (hagepreken) in Dutch. The first took place on the Cloostervelt near Hondschoote. The first large sermon was held near Boeschepe on July 12, 1562. These open-air sermons, mostly of Anabaptist or Mennonite signature, spread through the country. On August 10, 1566 at the end of the pilgrimage from Hondschoote to Steenvoorde, the chapel of the Sint-Laurensklooster (Cloister of Saint Lawrence) was defaced by Protestants. The iconoclasm resulted not only in the destruction of Catholic art, but also cost the lives of many priests. It next spread to Antwerp, and on August 22, to Ghent. One cathedral, eight churches, twenty-five cloisters, ten hospitals and seven chapels were attacked. From there, it further spread east and north, but in total lasted not even a month. The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... The arrondissement of Dunkirk (French Dunkerque) is an arrondissement of France, located in the Nord département, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région. ... Nord (French, the north) is a département in the north of France. ... Hondschoote is a commune of the Nord département, in northern France. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ...


Charles' son, King Philip II of Spain, a devout Catholic and self-proclaimed protector of the Counter-Reformation who was also the duke, count or lord of each of the Seventeen Provinces, suppressed Calvinism in Flanders, Brabant and Holland. What is now approximately Belgian Limburg was part of the Bishopric of Liège and was Catholic de facto. Part of what is now Dutch Limburg supported the Union of Atrecht, but did not sign it. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... In any debate, sometimes the more powerful opponent will try to silence the other rather than trying to defeat their arguments. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries, and a former province of Belgium. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Limburg is the easternmost province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium, and is located west of the Meuse river. ... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ... Limburg is the southern-most of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands, located in the south-east of the country. ...


The Eighty Years' War and its consequences

In 1568 the Seventeen Provinces that signed the Union of Utrecht started a revolt against Philip II: the Eighty Years' War. Spanish troops quickly started fighting the rebels, but before the revolt could be completely defeated, a war between England and Spain had broken out, forcing Philip's Spanish troops to halt their advance. Meanwhile, the Spanish armies had already conquered the important trading cities of Bruges and Ghent. Antwerp, which was then arguably the most important port in the world, also had to be conquered. On August 17, 1585, Antwerp fell. This ended the Eighty Years' War for the (from now on) Southern Netherlands. The United Provinces (the Netherlands proper) fought on until 1648 – the Peace of Westphalia. Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Southern Netherlands (Dutch: , Spanish: , French: ) were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and captured by France (1794-1815). ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ...


While Spain was at war with England, the rebels from the north, strengthened by refugees from the south, started a campaign to reclaim areas lost to Philips II's Spanish troops. They managed to conquer a considerable part of Brabant (the later Noord-Brabant of the Netherlands), and the south bank of the Scheldt estuary (Zeeuws-Vlaanderen), before being stopped by Spanish troops. The front line at the end of this war stabilized and became the current border between present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The Dutch (as they later became known) had managed to reclaim enough of Spanish-controlled Flanders to close off the river Scheldt, effectively cutting Antwerp off from its trade routes. North Brabant (Dutch: Noord-Brabant) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River (Maas) in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta Zeeuws-Vlaanderen is the part of the Netherlands on the left shore of the Scheldt river (here called Westerschelde), nr. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ...


First the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish and later also the closing of the Scheldt were causes of a considerable emigration of Antverpians.[4] Many of the Calvinist merchants of Antwerp and also of other Flemish cities left Flanders and emigrated to the north. A large number of them settled in Amsterdam, which was at the time a smaller port, only of significance in the Baltic trade. In the following years Amsterdam was rapidly transformed into one of the world's most important ports. Because of the contribution of the Flemish exiles to this transformation, the exodus is sometimes described as "creating a new Antwerp". The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Flanders and Brabant, due to these events, went into a period of relative decline from the time of the Thirty Years War.[5] In the Northern Netherlands however, the mass emigration from Flanders and Brabant became an important driving force behind the Dutch Golden Age. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ...


1581–1795: The Southern Netherlands

1609 map of the county of Flanders
1609 map of the county of Flanders

Although arts remained at a relatively impressive level for another century with Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640), Flanders experienced a loss of its former economic and intellectual power under Spanish, Austrian, and French rule, with heavy taxation and rigid imperial political control compounding the effects of industrial stagnation and Spanish-Dutch and Franco-Austrian conflict. Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

1795–1815: French Revolution and Napoleonic France

In 1794 the French Republican Army started using Antwerp as the northernmost naval port of France,[5] which country officially annexed Flanders the following year as the départements of Lys, Escaut, Deux-Nèthes, Meuse-Inférieure and Dyle. Obligatory (French) army service for all men aged 16–25 was one of the main reasons for the people's uprise against the French in 1798, known as the Boerenkrijg (Peasants' War), with heaviest fights in the Campine area. The History of France has been divided into a series of separate historical articles navigable through the list to the right. ... The following is a list of the 130 départements of the Napoleonic Empire, as of 1811. ... Lys is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium. ... Escaut is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium and Netherlands. ... Deux-Nèthes (Dutch: Twee Nethen) is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium and The Netherlands. ... Meuse-Inférieure (Lower Meuse; Dutch: Nedermaas) is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium, Netherlands and Germany. ... Dyle (Dutch: Dijle) is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Belgium. ... Campine (Dutch and Flemish Kempen) is a moor of swamp and sandy peat to the east of Antwerp, a coal-producing region with Turnhout as its main town. ...


1815–1830: United Kingdom of the Netherlands

After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo in Waterloo, Brabant, sovereignty over the Austrian Netherlands – Belgium minus the East Cantons and Luxembourg – was given by the Congress of Vienna (1815) to the United Netherlands (Dutch: Verenigde Nederlanden), the state that briefly existed under Sovereign Prince William I of Orange Nassau, the latter King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, after the French Empire was driven out of the Dutch territories. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands was born. The Protestant King of the Netherlands, William I rapidly started the industrialisation of the southern parts of the Kingdom. The political system that was set up however, slowly but surely failed to forge a true union between the northern and the southern parts of the Kingdom. The southern bourgeoisie mainly was Roman Catholic, in contrast to the mainly Protestant north, large parts of the southern bourgeoisie also primarily spoke French, instead of Flemish, a dialect of the Dutch language. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Waterloo The top of the knoll and the famous lion. ... Historically, Brabant has been the name of several administrative entities in the Low Countries with quite different geographical extent: as Carolingian shire (pagus Bracbatensis), located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle (between 9th-11th century); as landgraviat: the part of the shire between the rivers Dender and Dijle (from 1085... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... The German-speaking Community of Belgium or Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft Belgien in German is one of several federal communities in Belgium. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... Model United Nations activities around the world are coordinated by a wide variety of groups and individuals. ... For other men at some time in history called William I of Orange-Nassau, see William of Orange. ... The term French Empire can refer to: The First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1804 - 1814 or 1815) The Second French Empire of Napoleon III (1852 - 1870) The Second French Colonial Empire (1830 - 1960) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Bourgeois redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


The in 1815 reinstated Dutch Senate (Dutch: Eerste Kamer der Staaten Generaal) the nobility, mainly coming from the south, became more and more estranged from their northern colleagues. Resentment grew both among the Roman Catholics from the south and the Protestants from the north and among the powerful liberal bourgeoisie from the south and their more moderate colleagues from the North. On August 25, 1830 (after the showing of the opera 'La Muette de Portici' of Daniel Auber in Brussels) the Belgian Revolution sparked off and became a fact. On October 4, 1830, the Provisional Authority (Dutch: Voorlopig Bewind) proclaimed the independence which was later confirmed by the National Congress that issued a new Liberal Constitution and declared the new state a Constitutional Monarchy, under the House of Saxe-Coburg. Flanders now became part of the Kingdom of Belgium, which was recognized by the major European Powers on January 20, 1831. The de facto dissidence was only finally recognized by the United Kingdom of the Netherlands on April 19, 1839. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Daniel François Esprit Auber (January 29, 1782 - May 13, 1871), French composer, the son of a Paris print-seller, was born in Caen in Normandy. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... National Congress is a term used by various political parties and legislatures. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after...


Kingdom of Belgium

In 1830, the Belgian Revolution led to the splitting up of the two countries. Belgium was confirmed as an independent state by the Treaty of London of 1839, but deprived of the eastern half of Limburg (now Dutch Limburg), and the Eastern half of Luxembourg (now the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg) . Sovereignty over Zeeuws Vlaanderen, south of the Westerscheldt river delta, was left with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, who was allowed to levy a toll on all traffic to the Antwerp harbour until 1863.[5] This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the Convention of 1839, was signed on April 19, 1839. ...


Rise of the Flemish Movement

Main article: Flemish movement

Flemish flag, as used by the separatist Flemish Movement, tongued and clawed in black The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

World War I and its consequences

Flanders (and Belgium as a whole) saw some of the greatest loss of life on the Western Front of the First World War, in particular from the three battles of Ypres. Due to the hundreds of thousands of casualties at Ypres, the poppies that sprang up from the battlefield afterwards, later immortalised in the Canadian poem "In Flanders Fields", written by John McCrae, have become a symbol for lives lost in war. Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... This article is about the plant. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... A small portion of In Flanders Fields appeared alongside McCraes portrait on a Canadian stamp of 1968, issued to commemorate a half-century since his death. ... Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ...


Flemish feeling of identity and consciousness grew through the events and experiences of war. The German occupying authorities had taken several Flemish-friendly measures. More importantly, the experiences of many Flemish speaking soldiers on the front led by French speaking officers catalysed Flemish emancipation. The French speaking officers barked the orders in French, followed by "et pour les Flamands, la même chose", which basically meant, "Same thing for the Flemish", which obviously did not help the Flemish conscripts, who were mostly uneducated farmers and workers, who didn't speak French at all.[citation needed] The resulting suffering is still remembered by Flemish organizations during the yearly Yser pilgrimage in Diksmuide at the monument of the Yser Tower. The Ijzerbedevaart is a yearly gathering of Flemish nationalists, at the Ijzertoren in Diksmuide. ... Diksmuide (Dixmude in French) is a municipality in the province of West Flanders in Belgium. ... the Ijzertoren, oktober 2004 The IJzertoren is a tower along the Belgian Yser river. ...


Right-Wing Nationalism in the interbellum and World War II

VNV or Vlaamsch Nationaal Verbond (Flemish National Union) was a flamingant party in the 30s. ... The Verdinaso was a fascist political party in Belgium during the 1930s. ... Dietsland refers to the Greater Netherlands, including The Netherlands and Flanders, and sometimes (mostly in more extreme groups) French Flanders and sometimes even the Boer communities of South Africa, in other words, all areas where Dutch is spoken. ... Cyriel Verschaeve (30th April 1874-8th November 1949) was a noted Belgian clergyman and writer (nicknamed the Black Chaplain) who was condemned for collaboration with the Nazis during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Communautary quibbles and the Egmont pact

Main articles: Egmont pact, Voeren, and Brussel-Halle-Vilvoorde

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde (often abbreviated as BHV) is a contentious Belgian electoral district in the center of the country that encompasses both the officially bilingual Brussels-Capital region as well as an officially unilingual Dutch-speaking area,Halle-Vilvoorde, around it. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Recent events

Fake revolution

On 13 Dec, 2006, a spoof news broadcast by the Belgian Francophone public broadcasting station RTBF declared that the Flemish part of Belgium had decided to declare independence from Belgium, and that the King and Queen of Belgium had left immediately on a plane. Images were shown of people celebrating and waving flags in the background. Within minutes of the beginning of the broadcast, the news station was flooded with calls from concerned French speakers. It was only a half hour after the beginning of the broadcast that the disclaimer "This is fiction" was displayed. It was revealed that the programme had been broadcast to stimulate discussion of this subject[6]. December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RTBF official logo RTBF or Radio télévision belge de la communauté française is the national broadcasting organisation of the government of the French-speaking southern part of Belgium, the counterpart to the Dutch-speaking VRT in the northern part of the country. ...


Belgian federal elections

The 2007 elections showed an extraordinary outcome in terms of support for Flemish autonomy. All the political parties that advocated a significant increase of Flemish autonomy increased their share of the votes and seats in the Belgian parliament. This was especially the case for CD&V and N-VA (forming a cartel). In addition, the very assertive Lijst Dedecker gained a spectacular entry in parliament. It got even slightly ahead of the greens (Groen!) which rather disappointed. The outright secessionist Vlaams Belang remained strong, but stalled. The main parties advocating more or less the current Belgian institutiona and only modest increases in Flemish autonomy severely lost (OpenVLD, Groen! and especially SP.A). Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... The Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (New-Flemish Alliance) is a Belgian political party, founded in the autumn of 2001. ... List Dedecker (Dutch: ) is a Belgian political party founded in January 2007 by Senator Jean-Marie Dedecker. ... Green! (Groen!) is the Flemish green party in Belgium. ... Vlaams Belang (English: Flemish Interest) is a political party in Belgium that supports Flemish independence and strict limits on non-European and non-Christian immigration, whereby immigrants need to adopt to the Western culture. ... Green! (Groen!) is the Flemish green party in Belgium. ... Socialist Party - Different or Social Progressive Alternative (Dutch: Socialistische Partij - Anders or Sociaal Progressief Alternatief (sp. ...


These victories for the advocates of much more Flemish autonomy are very much in parallel with opinion polls that show a structural increase in popular support for their agenda.


Several negotiators having come and gone since the last federal elections of 10 June 2007 without diminishing the disagreements between Flemish and Walloon politicians regarding a further State reform, continues to prevent the formation of the federal government. The next Belgian general election is scheduled to take place on Sunday June 24, 2007. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The 2007 Belgian government formation followed the general election of 10 June 2007, and consisted of a period of negotiation in which the Flemish parties Open VLD, CD&V and N-VA and the French-speaking parties MR, FDF and Humanist Democratic Centre tried to form a government coalition. ...


Government and politics

Both the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region are constitutional institutions of the Kingdom of Belgium with precise geographical boundaries. In practice, the Flemish Community and Region together form a single body, with its own parliament and government, as the Community legally absorbed the competences of the Region. Map of Belgium, its four language areasthree regions ; two of the latter have provinces . Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas. ... the Flemish community has jurisdiction over Flanders and over the Dutch language institutions in Brussels. ... The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest or Vlaanderen in Dutch), a contemporary meaning of Flanders, is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium – alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. ...


The area of the Flemish Community is represented on the maps above, including the area of the Brussels-Capital Region (hatched on the relevant map). Roughly, the Flemish Community exercises competences originally oriented towards the individuals of the Community's language: culture (including audiovisual media), education, and the use of the language. Extensions to personal matters less directly associated with language comprise sports, health policy (curative and preventive medicine), and assistance to individuals (protection of youth, social welfare, aid to families, immigrant assistance services, etc.).[7] The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The different levels of education in Flanders Education in Belgium is regulated and for the larger part financed by one of the three communities. ...


The area of the Flemish Region is represented on the maps above. It has a population of around 6 million (excluding the Dutch-speaking community in the Brussels Region, grey on the map for it is not a part of the Flemish Region). Roughly, the Flemish Region is responsible for territorial issues in a broad sense, including economy, employment, agriculture, water policy, housing, public works, energy, transport, the environment, town and country planning, nature conservation, credit, and foreign trade. It supervises the provinces, municipalities, and intercommunal utility companies.[8]


The number of Dutch-speaking Flemish people in the Capital Region is estimated to be between 11% and 15% (official figures do not exist as there is no language census and no official subnationality). According to a survey conducted by the Université Catholique de Louvain in Louvain-La-Neuve and published in June 2006, 51% of respondents from Brussels claimed to be bilingual, even if they do not have Dutch as their first language.[9][10] They are governed by the Brussels Region for economics affairs and by the Flemish Community for educational and cultural issues. Flemings and Flem redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. ...


As of 2005, Flemish institutions such as Flanders' government, parliament, etc. represent the Flemish Community and the Flemish region. The region and the community thus de facto share the same parliament and the same government. All these institutions are based in Brussels. Nevertheless, both bodies (the Community and the Region) still exist and the distinction between both is important for the people living in Brussels. Members of the Flemish parliament who were elected in the Brussels Region cannot vote on affairs belonging to the competences of the Flemish Region. The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ...


The official language for all Flemish institutions is Dutch. French enjoys a limited official recognition in a dozen municipalities along the borders with French-speaking Wallonia, and a large recognition in the bilingual Brussels Region. French is widely known in Flanders, with 59% claiming to know French according to a survey conducted by the Université catholique de Louvain in Louvain-La-Neuve and published in June 2006.[11][12] An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Flanders

Many new political parties during the last half century were founded in Flanders: the nationalist Volksunie of which the extreme-right nationalist Vlaams Blok (Vlaams Belang) split off, and that later dissolved into SPIRIT, moderate nationalism rather left of the spectrum, and the NVA, more conservative moderate nationalism; the alternative/ecological Groen!; the short-lived anarchistic libertarian spark ROSSEM and more recently the conservative-right liberal Lijst Dedecker, founded by Jean-Marie Dedecker. This article is about the politics of Flanders. ... Volksunie was a Belgian political party. ... Note that Flemish Block turned themselves into Flemish Interest (Vlaams Belang) since their condamnation in 2004 The Flemish Block (Dutch: Vlaams Blok) was a Flemish far-right nationalist political party which rejects the state of Belgium, calling for political independence for the Flemish half of the country. ... Vlaams Belang (English: Flemish Interest) is a political party in Belgium that supports Flemish independence and strict limits on non-European and non-Christian immigration, whereby immigrants need to adopt to the Western culture. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... The Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (New-Flemish Alliance) is a Belgian political party, founded in the autumn of 2001. ... Green! (Groen!) is the Flemish green party in Belgium. ... ROSSEM was a Belgian libertine political party founded in 1991 by the maverick Flemish businessman and writer Jean-Pierre Van Rossem. ... List Dedecker (Dutch: ) is a Belgian political party founded in January 2007 by Senator Jean-Marie Dedecker. ... Jean-Marie Dedecker (born Nieuwpoort, 13 June 1952) is a Belgian, Flemish politician of the Flemish Liberals and Democrats (VLD). ...


Flemish nation

Main article: Flemish Movement

For many Flemings, Flanders is more than just a geographical area or the federal institutions (Flemish Community and Region). Some even call it a nation: a people of over 6 million living in the Flemish Region and in the Brussels-Capital Region. Flemings share many political, cultural, scientific, social and educational views. Although most Flemings identify themselves more with Flanders than with Belgium, the largest group defines itself as both Flemish and Belgian. The idea of an independent Flanders finds its root in the romantic nationalism of the 19th century.[citation needed] Flemish flag, as used by the separatist Flemish Movement, tongued and clawed in black The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Administrative divisions

Main article: Provinces of Belgium#Provinces of the Flemish Region
Provinces of Flanders

The Flemish Region covers 13,522 km² (5,221 sq mi) and contains over 300 municipalities. It is divided into 5 provinces: Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ... Belgium is a federal state and is composed of three communities, three regions, and four linguistic regions. ...

  1. Antwerp (Antwerpen)
  2. Limburg (Limburg)
  3. East Flanders (Oost-Vlaanderen)
  4. Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant)
  5. West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen)

Independently from the provinces, Flanders has its own local institutions in the Brussels-Capital Region, being the Vlaamse GemeenschapsCommissie (VGC), and its municipal antennae (Gemeenschapscentra, community centers for the Flemish community in Brussels). These institutions are independent from the educational, cultural and social institutions which depend directly on the Flemish government. They exert, among others, all those cultural competences that outside Brussels fall under the provinces. Antwerp is the northernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... Limburg is the easternmost province of Flanders (which is one of the three regions of Belgium), and is located west of the Meuse river. ... East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... Flemish Brabant is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie (or VGC, or, in English, the Flemish Community Commission) is the local representative of the Flemish authorities in the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ...


Geography and climate

Antwerpen (Antwerp), Gent (Ghent), Brugge (Bruges) and Leuven are the largest cities of Flanders. Antwerpen has a population of more than 450,000 citizens and is the largest city, Gent has a population of 250,000 citizens, followed by Brugge with 100,000 citizens. Leuven is the smallest city with almost 100,000 citizens. Brussel (Brussels) is a part of Flanders as far as community matters are concerned, but does not belong to the Flemish Region. For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... gent is a morpheme, see contingent, agent, short for gentleman Native spelling for the Belgian city of Ghent This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... gent is a morpheme, see contingent, agent, short for gentleman Native spelling for the Belgian city of Ghent This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Flemish Brabant Arrondissement Leuven Coordinates , , Area 56. ... For other uses, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Flanders has two main geographical regions: the coastal Yser basin plain in the north-west and a central plain. The first consists mainly of sand dunes and clayey alluvial soils in the polders. Polders are areas of land, close to or below sea level that have been reclaimed from the sea, from which they are protected by dikes or, a little further inland, by fields that have been drained with canals. With similar soils along the lowermost Scheldt basin starts the central plain, a smooth, slowly rising fertile area irrigated by many waterways that reaches an average height of about five metres (16.4 ft) above sea level with wide valleys of its rivers upstream as well as the Campine region to the east having sandy soils at altitudes around thirty metres[13] Near its southern edges close to Wallonia one can find slightly rougher land richer of calcium with low hills reaching up to 150 m (492 ft) and small valleys, and at the eastern border with the Netherlands, in the Meuse basin, there are marl caves (mergelgrotten). Its exclave around Voeren between the Dutch border and the Walloon province of Liège attains a maximum altitude of 288 m (945 ft) above sea level.[14][15] Categories: France geography stubs | Belgium geography stubs | Belgian rivers | French rivers ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... Campine (Dutch and Flemish Kempen) is a moor of swamp and sandy peat to the east of Antwerp, a coal-producing region with Turnhout as its main town. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province Limburg Arrondissement Tongeren Coordinates , , Area 50. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ...


The climate is maritime temperate, with significant precipitation in all seasons (Köppen climate classification: Cfb; the average temperature is 3 °C (37 °F) in January, and 18 °C (64 °F) in July; the average precipitation is 65 millimetres (2.6 in) in January, and 78 millimetres (3.1 in) in July). For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Economy

Total GDP of the Flemish Region in 2004 was € 165,847 million (Eurostat figures). Per capita GDP at purchasing power parity was 23% above the EU average. GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...


Flanders was one of the first continental European areas to undergo the Industrial Revolution, in the 19th century. Initially, the modernization relied heavily on food processing and textile. However, by the 1840s the textile industry of Flanders was in severe crisis and there was famine in Flanders (1846–50). After World War II, Antwerp and Ghent experienced a fast expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries. Flanders also attracted a large majority of foreign investments in Belgium, among others thanks to its well-educated and industrious labour force. The 1973 and 1979 oil crises sent the economy into a recession. The steel industry remained in relatively good shape. In the 1980s and 90s, the economic centre of the Belgium continued to shift further to Flanders. Nowadays, the Flemish economy is mainly service-oriented, although its diverse industry remains a crucial force. Flemish productivity per capita is between 20 and 25% higher than that in Wallonia. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Belgian city. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Petro redirects here. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... (Redirected from 1979 oil crisis) The 1979 (or second) energy crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ...


Flanders has developed an excellent transportation infrastructure of ports, canals, railways and highways. Antwerp is the second-largest European port, after Rotterdam. Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...


In 1999, the euro, the single European currency, was introduced in Flanders. It replaced the Belgian franc in 2002. The Flemish economy is strongly export oriented, in particular of high value-added goods. The main imports are food products, machinery, rough diamonds, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, clothing and accessories, and textiles. The main exports are automobiles, food and food products, iron and steel, finished diamonds, textiles, plastics, petroleum products, and nonferrous metals. Since 1922, Belgium and Luxembourg have been a single trade market within a customs and currency union—the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union. Its main trading partners are Germany, the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and Spain. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code BEF User(s) Belgium, Luxembourg ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 40. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency among them, for example, the East Caribbean Dollar. ... The Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) was created by a treaty signed on 25 July 1921 between Belgium and Luxembourg. ...


Demographics

The highest population density is found in the area circumscribed by the Brussels-Antwerp-Gent-Leuven agglomerations that surround Mechelen and is known as the Flemish Diamond, in other important urban centres as Bruges and Kortrijk to the west, and notable centres Turnhout and Hasselt to the east. As of April 2005, the Flemish Region has a population of 6,058,368 and about 15% of the 1,018,029 people in the Brussels Region are also considered Flemish.[16] The Flemish Diamond (in Dutch: Vlaamse Ruit) is a name of an area consisting of the central provinces of Flanders, Belgium. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Kortrijk Coordinates , , Area 80. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Flemish Region Community Flemish Community Province Antwerp Arrondissement Turnhout Coordinates , , Area 56. ... Hasselt municipality and district in the province Limburg Hasselt is a Belgian city and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. ...


The (Belgian) laicist constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the various government generally respects this right in practice. Since independence, Catholicism, counterbalanced by strong freethought movements, has had an important role in Belgium's politics, since the 20th century in Flanders mainly via the Christian trade union (ACV) and the Christian Democrat party (CD&V). According to the 2001 Survey and Study of Religion,[17] about 47 percent of the Belgian population identify themselves as belonging to the Catholic Church while Islam is the second-largest religion at 3.5 percent. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, considered more religious than Wallonia, showed 55% to call themselves religious, 36% believe that God created the world.[18] (See also Religion in Belgium). In France and some other French-speaking countries, laïcité (pronounced /laisite/ IPA/X-SAMPA) is a prevailing conception of the separation of church and state and the absence of religious interference into government affairs (and conversely). ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... ACV is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Arcata-Eureka Airport, an airport in McKinleyville, California, United States with the IATA airport code ACV. Confederation of Christian Trade Unions, a Belgian trade union called Algemeen Christelijk Vakverbond in Dutch. ... Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish) is a political party in Belgium, formerly called Christelijke Volkspartij (CVP) (Christian Peoples Party). ... In Belgium, Roman Catholicism is the majority religion, accounting for between 75% and 80% of the population, although as of 2004 only about 10% to 20% of the population regularly goes to church. ...


According to Npdata, 9.7% of the Flemish population is of foreign descent. 4.5% European (including 1.8% Dutch, 0.6% Italian and 0.4% French), and 5.1% from outside the European union, (including 1.8% Moroccan and 1.5% Turks). The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... EU redirects here. ...


Education is compulsory from the ages of six to 18, but most Flemings continue to study until around 23. Among the OECD countries in 1999, Flanders had the third-highest proportion of 18–21-year-olds enrolled in postsecondary education. Flanders also scores very high in international comparative studies on education. Its secondary school students consistently rank among the top three for mathematics and science. However, the success is not evenly spread: ethnic minority youth score consistently lower, and the difference is larger than in most comparable countries. Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Post-secondary education is a form of secondary education that is taken after first attending a secondary school, such as a high school. ...


Mirroring the historical political conflicts between the freethought and Catholic segments of the population, the Flemish educational system is split into a laïque branch controlled by the communities, the provinces, or the municipalities, and a subsidised religious—mostly Catholic—branch controlled by both the communities and the religious authorities—usually the dioceses. It should however be noted that—at least for the Catholic schools—the religious authorities have very limited power over these schools. Smaller school systems follow 'methodical pedagogies' (Steiner, Montessori, Freinet, ...) or serve the Jewish and Protestant minorities. In economics, a subsidy (also known as a subvention) is a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Steiner is a German surname that is derived from the word Stein, meaning stone. ... The Montessori method is a methodology for nursery and elementary school education, first developed by Dr. Maria Montessori. ... Célestin Freinet (15 October 1896–8 October 1966) was a noted French pedagogue, and educational reformer. ...


Language and culture

The standard language is in Flanders the same as in the Netherlands, i.e., Dutch. The Dutch dialects spoken in Belgium and the standard language with influences from these dialects, are often referred to as Flemish (Dutch: Vlaams). Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Flemings and Flem redirect here. ... Flemish flag, as used by the separatist Flemish Movement, tongued and clawed in black The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Flemish (Vlaams in Dutch), as the general adjective relating to Flanders, can refer to the speech of the Flemings, inhabitants of Flanders, though for the Flemish Community[1], Algemeen Nederlands (Common Dutch) is the official name of the standard language hence in English referred to as standard Dutch. ...


At first sight, Flemish culture is defined by its language and its gourmandic mentality. Some claim Flemish literature does not exist, because it is said to be 'readable' by both the Dutch as well as Flemings. This is correct for the vast majority of the literature written by Flemings, although one might argue a distinct Flemish literature already began in the 19th century, when most of the European Nation-states arose, with writers and poets such as Guido Gezelle, who not only explicitly referred to his writings as Flemish, but actually used it in many of his poems, and strongly defended it: Flemish Literature is literature from Flanders. ... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Guido Gezelle (1830-1899) was a poet and Roman Catholic priest writing in the Dutch language area of Belgium. ...

Original
"Gij zegt dat ‘t vlaamsch te niet zal gaan:
‘t en zal!
dat ‘t waalsch gezwets zal boven slaan:
‘t en zal!
Dat hopen, dat begeren wij:
dat zeggen en dat zweren wij:
zoo lange als wij ons weren, wij:
‘t en zal, ‘t en zal,
‘t en zal!"

Translation
"You say Flemish will disappear:
It will not!
that Walloonish rantings will prevail:
It will not!
This we hope, this we crave:
this we say and this we swear:
as long as we defend ourselves, we:
It will not, It will not,
It will not!"

This distinction in literature is also made by some experts, such as Kris Humbeeck, professor in Literature of the University of Antwerp here. Nevertheless, the near totality of Dutch-language literature read (and appreciated to varying degrees) in Flanders is the same as in the Netherlands. Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


Some other writers representative of Flemish culture are Ernest Claes, Stijn Streuvels and Felix Timmermans. Their novels mostly describe rural life in Flanders in the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. They were widely read by the elder generation but are considered somewhat old fashioned by present day critics.
Some famous flemish writers from the early 20th century wrote in French, like nobel-prize winner (1911) Maurice Maeterlinck and Emile Verhaeren.
Still widely read and translated into other languages (including English) are the novels of authors like Willem Elsschot, Louis Paul Boon and Hugo Claus. The younger generation is represented by novelists like Tom Lanoye, Herman Brusselmans and the poet Herman de Coninck. Andreas Ernestus Josephus Claes (October, 24th 1885 in Zichem - September, 2nd 1968 in Elsene) was a Flemsih author. ... Stijn Streuvels, born Franciscus (Frank) Petrus Maria Lateur, is a Belgian writer. ... Leopold Maximiliaan Felix Timmermans (July 5, 1886 – January 24, 1947) is the most translated author of Flanders. ... Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck, Belgian author Count Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (August 29, 1862 - May 6, 1949) was a Belgian poet, playwright, and essayist. ... Emile Verhaeren (May 21, 1855- November 27, 1916) was a Belgian poet writing in the French language, and one of the chief founders of the school of Symbolism. ... Belgian stamp honoring the writer Willem Elsschot (7 May 1882 - 31 May 1960), was a Flemish writer and poet (pseudonym of Alfons-Jozef De Ridder). ... Louis Paul Boon (15 March 1912 - 10 May 1979) was a Flemish journalist and novelist who is considered one of the major 20th century writers in the Dutch language. ... Hugo Maurice Julien Claus (born April 5, 1929 in Bruges, Belgium) is a prolific Flemish novelist, poet, playwright, painter and film director. ... Tom Lanoye (born August 27, 1958 in Sint-Niklaas) is a Fleming novelist and poet. ... Herman Brusselmans (born 9th October 1957 in Hamme, Belgium) is a Flemish novelist and poet. ... Herman de Coninck (21 February 1944–22 May 1997) was a Flemish poet, essayist, journalist and publisher. ...


The Family Name "Fleming"

The Family Name "Fleming" or "Flemming" is common in England, Scotland, Ireland and later-settled English-speaking countries, and also occurs in Scandinavian countries such as Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The wide distribution of the name indicates a long-standing Flemish diaspora. Look up Fleming in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Flemming is a surname, and may refer to: Arthur Flemming Brian Flemming Dave Flemming Hugh John Flemming James Kidd Flemming Jane Flemming Kate Flemming Thomas Flemming Walther Flemming Fleming Categories: | ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


See also

Look up Flanders in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... Belgium has a multi-party political system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. ... The different levels of education in Flanders Education in Belgium is regulated and for the larger part financed by one of the three communities. ... This is a list of Minister-Presidents (prime ministers) of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... The Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroep, or VRT, is a publicly-funded broadcaster of radio and television in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). ... VTM or Vlaamse Televisie Maatschappij is the main commercial television station in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking north of Belgium. ... The Flemish Primitives were a group of painters active primarily in the Southern Netherlands in the 15th and early 16th centuries. ... vinkenzetting in Belgium Vinkenzetting, (from the Dutch for finch-sitting), also called vinkensport (finch-sport) is a 400 year-old sport in which male Chaffinches are made to compete for the most number of bird calls in an hour. ... Flanders is home to several science and technology institutes. ... Flemish flag, as used by the separatist Flemish Movement, tongued and clawed in black The Flemish Movement (Dutch: Vlaamse Beweging) is a popular term used to describe the political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language in Flanders, and...

External links

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Flanders

References

  1. ^ "Structuur van de bevolking – België / Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest / Vlaams Gewest / Waals Gewest (2000-2006)" (asp) (in Dutch). FOD/SPF Economie (Federal Government Service Economy) - Algemene Directie Statistiek en Economische Informatie (© 1998/2007). Retrieved on 15 May, 2007.
  2. ^ The capital city of Flanders is Brussels. "The Flemish Community". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-06-25.
  3. ^ http://www.domkerk.nl/domchurch/history.html
  4. ^ Footnote: An Antverpian, derived from Antverpia, the Latin name of Antwerp, is an inhabitant of this city; the term is also the adjective expressing that its substantive is from or in that city or belongs to it.
  5. ^ a b c "Antwerp — History". Find it in Flanders. Tourism Flanders & Brussels, Flanders House, London, UK. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  6. ^ http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Fictional_documentary_about_Flemish_independence_causes_consternation_in_Belgium
  7. ^ "The Communities". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  8. ^ "The Regions". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  9. ^ (French) Report of study by the Université Catholique de Louvain
  10. ^ (Dutch) Article at Taaluniversum.org summarising report
  11. ^ *http://regards.ires.ucl.ac.be/Archives/RE042.pdf Report of study by Universite Catholique de Louvain (in French)]
  12. ^ *Article at Taaluniversum.org summarising report (in Dutch)
  13. ^ The altitude of Mechelen, approximately in the middle of the central plain forming the large part of Flanders, is 7 m (23 ft) above sea level. Already closer to the higher southern Wallonia, the more eastern Leuven and Hasselt reach altitudes up to about 40 m (131 ft) "Kingdom of Belgium map (politically outdated)". Retrieved on 15 May, 2007.
  14. ^ Ir. Jan Strubbe in collaboration with Dr. Frank Mostaert and Ir. Koen Maeghe. "Flood management in Flanders with special focus on navigable waterways". Ministry of the Flemish Community, department Environment and Infrastructure (Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium, Flanders Hydraulics Research, Administratie Waterwegen en Zeewezen). “Flanders is covered by the three major catchment basins (Yser, Scheldt and Meuse). This rather lowlying nearly flat region (2 to 150 m/6–492 ft altitude above sea-level) ...”
  15. ^ Myriam Dumortier, Luc De Bruyn, Maarten Hens, Johan Peymen, Anik Schneiders, Toon Van Daele, Wouter Van Reeth, Gisèle Weyembergh and Eckhart Kuijken (2006). "Biodiversity Indicators 2006 - State of Nature in Flanders (Belgium)". Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Brussels. “The altitude ranges from a few meters above sea-level in the Polders to 288 m (945 ft) above sea-level in the south eastern exclave.”
  16. ^ Official statistics of Belgium
  17. ^ "Belgium". International Religious Freedom Report 2004. US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-28.
  18. ^ Inquiry by 'Vepec', 'Vereniging voor Promotie en Communicatie' (Organisation for Promotion and Communication), published in Knack magazine 22 November 2006 p. 14 [The Dutch language term 'gelovig' is in the text translated as 'religious', more precisely it is a very common word for believing in particular in any kind of God in a monotheistic sense, and/or in some afterlife].
is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) at the United States Department of State is one of four bureaus that comprise the Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Flanders - LoveToKnow 1911 (3125 words)
East Flanders lies east and north-east of the western province, and extends northwards to the neighbourhood of Antwerp.
On the break-up of the Carolingian empire the river Scheldt was by the treaty of Verdun (843) made the line of division between the kingdom of East Francia (Austrasia) under the emperor Lothaire, and the kingdom of West Francia (Neustria) under Charles the Bald.
In his time the long contest between Flanders and Holland for the possession of the island of Zeeland was brought to an end by a treaty signed on the 6th of March 1323, by which West Zeeland was assigned to the count of Holland, the rest to the count of Flanders.
Flanders. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (1034 words)
It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs., Belgium; Nord and Pas-de-Calais depts., France; and (to a small extent) Zeeland prov., the Netherlands.
Their prosperity and the prosperity of Flanders as a whole depended on the growing cloth industry, which had been introduced in the 10th cent., and on the transit trade at such major ports as Bruges (later superseded by Antwerp) and Ghent.
Flanders joined (1576) in the revolt of the Netherlands against Philip II of Spain, but by 1584 the Spanish under Alessandro Farnese had recovered the county.
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