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Encyclopedia > Flamingo
Flamingo
A Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), with Chilean Flamingos (P. chilensis) in the background
A Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber), with Chilean Flamingos (P. chilensis) in the background
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Phoenicopteriformes
Fürbringer, 1888
Family: Phoenicopteridae
Bonaparte, 1831
Genus: Phoenicopterus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 The Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the Greater Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 The Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is a large species (110-130 cm) closely related to Caribbean Flamingo and Greater Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Max Fürbringer (1846–1920) was a German anatomist. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 _ July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Flamingos or flamingoes [1] (pronunciation ) are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae. They are found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, but are more numerous in the former. There are four species in the Americas while two exist in the Old World. Two species, the Andean and the James's Flamingo, are often placed in the genus Phoenicoparrus instead of Phoenicopterus. Flamingo can refer to The flamingo family of birds The American doo-wop group, The Flamingos, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959) Plastic flamingos are a type of yard art which is apparently popular in some areas of the USA. Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo... Image File history File links Br-Flamingo. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The eastern hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi, 1854 The Andean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus) is a bird species in the Flamingo family restricted to the Chilean Andes. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus jamesi Sclater, 1886 The Jamess Flamingo (Phoenicopterus jamesi), also known as the Puna Flamingo, is a South American flamingo. ... Phoenicoparrus is a genus of bird in the Phoenicopteridae family. ...

Contents

Systematics

Species

Species Geographic location
Greater Flamingo (P. roseus) Old World parts of Africa, S. Europe and S. and SW Asia (most widespread flamingo).
Lesser Flamingo (P. minor) Africa (e.g. Great Rift Valley) to NW India (most numerous flamingo).
Chilean Flamingo (P. chilensis) New World Temperate S. South America.
James's Flamingo (P. jamesi) High Andes in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
Andean Flamingo (P. andinus) High Andes in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
Caribbean Flamingo (P. ruber) Caribbean and Galapagos islands.

Binomial name Phoenicopterus roseus Pallas, 1811 Synonyms Phoenicopterus antiquorum The Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) is the most widespread species of the flamingo family. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus minor Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1798 The Lesser Flamingo (Phoenicopterus minor) is a species in the flamingo family of birds which occurs in Africa (principally in the Great Rift Valley), across to Pakistan and northwest India. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina, 1782 The Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) is a large species (110-130 cm) closely related to Caribbean Flamingo and Greater Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus jamesi Sclater, 1886 The Jamess Flamingo (Phoenicopterus jamesi), also known as the Puna Flamingo, is a South American flamingo. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus andinus Philippi, 1854 The Andean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus) is a bird species in the Flamingo family restricted to the Chilean Andes. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 The Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the Greater Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ...

Evolution

Lesser Flamingos in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Lesser Flamingos in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Andean Flamingos in the Laguna Colorada, Bolivia.
Andean Flamingos in the Laguna Colorada, Bolivia.

The prehistory of the Phoenicopteriformes is far better researched than their systematic affinities (see below). An extinct family of peculiar "swimming flamingos", the Palaelodidae, was initially believed to be the ancestors of the Phoenicopteridae. This is now rejected, as the fossil genus Elornis, apparently a true albeit primitive flamingo, is known from the Late Eocene, before any palaelodid flamingoes have been recorded. A considerable number of little-known birds from the Late Cretaceous onwards are sometimes considered to be flamingo ancestors. These include the genera Torotix, Scaniornis, Gallornis, Agnopterus, Tiliornis, Juncitarsus and Kashinia [2]; these show a mix of characters and are fairly plesiomorphic in comparison to modern birds. There exists a fairly comprehensive fossil record of the genus Phoenicopterus. The systematics of prehistoric Phoenicopteriformes known only from fossils is as followed: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2248x1502, 360 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2248x1502, 360 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... View of the Ngorongoro Crater The Ngorongoro Conservation Area or NCA is a conservation area situated 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2000 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... Laguna Colorada (Red Lagoon) is a shallow salt lake in the southwest of the altiplano of Bolivia, within Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve and close to the border with Chile. ... For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Binomial name Torotix is a Late Cretaceous genus of aquatic bird. ... Binomial name Dames, 1890 Scaniornis is a prehistoric bird genus. ... Gallornis is a genus prehistoric bird from the Cretaceous. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ...

  • Palaelodidae
    • Stout-legged Flamingo (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Palaelodus (Middle Oligocene -? Middle Pleistocene)
    • Giant Flamingo (Late Oligocene - Early Pliocene)
  • Phoenicopteridae
    • Elornis (Middle? Eocene - Early Oligocene) - includes Actiornis
    • Phoenicopteridae gen. et sp. indet. (Camacho Middle? - Late Miocene? of San José, Uruguay) - see Ubilla et al. (1990)
    • Prehistoric species of Phoenicopterus:
      • Phoenicopterus croizeti (Middle Oligocene - Middle Miocene of C Europe)
      • Phoenicopterus floridanus (Early Pliocene of Florida)
      • Phoenicopterus stocki (Middle Pliocene of Rincón, Mexico)
      • Phoenicopterus copei (Late Pleistocene of W North America and C Mexico)
      • Phoenicopterus minutus (Late Pleistocene of California, USA)
      • Phoenicopterus aethiopicus

Species (type) (disputed) (disputed) (disputed) (disputed) Synonyms Probalearica Lambrecht, 1933 Paloelodus (lapsus) Palaeolodus (lapsus) Palaelodus is an extinct genus of birds distantly related to flamingos. ... Species (type) (disputed) Synonyms Megapalaelodus Wetmore, 1951 Megapaloelodus is an extinct genus of birds distantly related to flamingos. ... For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ... For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ...

Relationships

The identity of the closest relatives of the flamingos is a rather contentious issue. Traditionally, the long-legged Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyletic assemblage, have been considered the flamingos' closest relatives and the family was included in the order. Usually the spoonbills and ibises of the Threskiornithidae were considered their closest relatives within this order. Nevertheless, relationships to the Anseriformes (waterfowl) were considered as well (Sibley et al. 1969), especially as flamingos and waterfowl are parasitized by feather lice of the genus Anaticola (Johnson et al. 2006). Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Genera and Species See text. ... Genera Threskiornis Pseudibis Thaumatibis Geronticus Nipponia Bostrychia Theristicus Cercibis Mesembrinibis Phimosus Eudocimus Plegadis Lophotibis Ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae. ... Subfamilies Threskionithinae Plateinae The family Threskiornithidae includes about 30 species of large terrestrial and wading birds, falling into two subfamilies, the ibises and the spoonbills. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Bird louse refers to any chewing louse (paraphyletic suborder Mallophaga) which parasitizes birds. ...

Flamingos at Chester Zoo.
Flamingos at Chester Zoo.

To reflect the uncertainty about this matter, flamingos began to be placed in their own order later on. Other scientists proposed flamingos as waders most closely related to the stilts and avocets, Recurvirostridae[citation needed]. The peculiar presbyornithids were used to argue for a close relationship between flamingos, waterfowl, and waders (Feduccia 1976), but they are now known to be unequivocal waterfowl with a peculiarly derived morphology paralleling waders and flamingos. Chester Zoo is a Zoological Garden located in the North of England. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... † See also Avocet The stilts are waders in the same bird family as the Avocets. ... Species Recurvirostra avosetta Recurvirostra americana Recurvirostra novaehollandiae Recurvirostra andina Himantopus himantopus Himantopus mexicanus Himantopus novaezelandiae Cladorhynchus leucocephalus Recurvirostridae is a family of birds in the wader suborder Charadrii. ... Genera see text Presbyornithidae were a family of waterbirds with an apparently global distribution that lived until the Earliest Oligocene, but are now extinct. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ...

Flamingo and offspring.
Flamingo and offspring.

In recent years, molecular and anatomical studies have yielded confusing results: Sibley & Monroe[citation needed] placed flamingos within their expanded (and certainly paraphyletic, as is now known) Ciconiiformes. On the other hand, since long it has been the grebes (Podicipedidae), rather than Ciconiiformes, ducks, or stilts, that were time and again indicated as the closest relatives of flamingos, and there is currently renewed interest in this hypothesis[citation needed]. Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ...




Bold text In a 2004 study comparing DNA sequences of intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene (FGB-int7), the Neognathae (all living birds except the ratites and tinamous) excluding waterfowl and Galliformes were shown to be divided into two subgroups of uneven size. The first and smaller one, Metaves, contains flamingos and grebes, alongside the hoatzin, pigeons, sandgrouse, the Caprimulgiformes, the Apodiformes, tropicbirds, mesites, sunbittern and kagu. Interestingly, most of these groups have traditionally been difficult to place on the family tree of birds. According to this study, all other birds belong to the second subgroup of Neoaves, the Coronaves (Fain & Houde 2004). part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Orders Anseriformes, waterfowl Galliformes, fowl Gaviiformes, loons Podicipediformes, grebes Procellariiformes, albatrosses, petrels, and allies Sphenisciformes, penguins Pelecaniformes, pelicans and allies Ciconiiformes, storks and allies Phoenicopteriformes, flamingos Accipitriformes, eagles, hawks and allies Falconiformes, falcons Turniciformes, button-quail Gruiformes, cranes and allies Charadriiformes, plovers and allies Pteroclidiformes, sandgrouse Columbiformes, doves and pigeons... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... Genera The Tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Binomial name Ophisthocomus hoazin (Muller, 1776) The Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) is an odd species of tropical bird which is found in the swamps associated with the Amazon and Orinoco rivers of South America. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families see text The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Species 3, see text 0mgg t1z R @ll liez Tropicbirds are a group of three closely related pelagic cows of tropical oceans: The Red-Billed Tropicbird, the Red-Tailed Tropicbird, and the White-Tailed Tropicbird. ... Genera Mesitornis Monias The mesites are a small group of birds of uncertain affinities often alternatively placed with the Rallidae. ... Binomial name Eurypiga helias (Pallas, 1781) The Sunbittern (Eurypiga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas. ... Binomial name Verreaux & DesMurs, 1860 The Kagu or Cagou (Rhynochetos jubatus) is a long-legged blue-greyish bird, the only member of the family Rhynochetidae. ...


These birds live in groups.

Arcuate bill is well adapted to bottom scooping
Arcuate bill is well adapted to bottom scooping

But their molecular data was insufficient to resolve inter-Metaves relationships to satisfaction; the flamingo FGB-int7 sequence is apparently most similar to that of some species of nighthawks, strongly suggesting a case of convergent evolution on the molecular level. The conclusions that one can draw from this study are twofold: first, that flamingos are Metaves (if that group is not based on molecular convergence, for which there are some indications), and second, that FBG-int7 is unsuitable to determine their relationships beyond that. It is interesting to note, however, that among all the groups which have been proposed as sister taxa of the flamingos, only the grebes are Metaves. The relationships of the flamingos still cannot be resolved with any certainty, but presently a close relationship with grebes appears somewhat more likely than other proposals. For this clade, the taxon Mirandornithes ("miraculous birds" due to their extreme divergence and apomorphies) has been proposed. In summary, all this confusion serves to show that all lines of "evidence" - molecular, morphological, ecological and parasitological - are liable to yield erroneous "proof" and that no method can be considered generally superior. Any future attempt to finally resolve the flamingos' relationships, therefore, would have to employ total evidence to support it and carefully weigh the data against alternative proposals. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 908 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 908 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Genera Nyctiprogne Podager Lurocalis Chordeiles Nighthawks are birds of the nightjar family in the New World subfamily Chordeilinae. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Physiology

Lesser Flamingos in flight
Lesser Flamingos in flight

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2255x1498, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2255x1498, 190 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flamingo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create...

Diet

Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, and the large rough-surfaced tongue. The flamingo's characteristic pink colouring is caused by the Beta carotene in their diet. The source of this varies by species, but shrimp and blue-green algae are common sources; zoo-fed flamingos may be given food with the additive canthaxanthin, which is often also given to farmed salmon.Flamingos produce a "milk" like pigeon milk due to the action of a hormone called prolactin (see Columbidae). It contains more fat and less protein than the latter does, and it is produced in glands lining the whole of the upper digestive tract, not just the crop. Both parents nurse their chick, and young flamingos feed on this milk, which also contains red and white blood cells, for about two months until their bills are developed enough to filter feed. Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... Canthaxanthin is a food additive used for farmed salmon raised in environments where astaxanthin sources are not available. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ...


[3]

Caribbean Flamingos, many standing on one leg, in Lago de Oviedo, Dominican Republic.
Caribbean Flamingos, many standing on one leg, in Lago de Oviedo, Dominican Republic.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 341 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 511 pixels, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 341 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 511 pixels, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Phoenicopterus ruber Linnaeus, 1758 The Caribbean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the Greater Flamingo and Chilean Flamingo, with which it is sometimes considered conspecific. ...

Legs

Flamingos frequently stand on one leg. The reason for this behavior is not fully known. One common theory is that tucking one leg beneath the body may conserve body heat [4], but this has not been proven. It is often suggested that this is done in part to keep the legs from getting wet, in addition to conserving energy. As well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom.


Young flamingos hatch with grey plumage, but adults range from light pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria and beta carotene obtained from their food supply. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly coloured and thus a more desirable mate. A white or pale flamingo, however, is usually unhealthy or malnourished. Captive flamingos are a notable exception; many turn a pale pink as they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild. This is changing as more zoos begin to add prawns and other supplements to the diets of their flamingos. Animal husbandry Animals that live under human care are in captivity. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ...


Feeding

Flamingo are feeding at Lake Nakuru, Kenya
Flamingo are feeding at Lake Nakuru, Kenya

Flamingos produce a "milk" like pigeon milk due to the action of a hormone called prolactin (see Columbidae). It contains more fat and less protein than the latter does, and it is produced in glands lining the whole of the upper digestive tract, not just the crop. Both parents nurse their chick, and young flamingos feed on this milk, which also contains red and white blood cells, for about two months until their bills are developed enough to filter feed. Image File history File links Flamingos at Lake Nakuru in Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flamingos at Lake Nakuru in Kenya. ... Lake Nakuru National Park is 168 km² It is very close to the second largest city in Kenya, Nakuru. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Dove and Pigeon redirect here. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Conservation status

Flamingo at National Zoo Washington, DC.
Flamingo at National Zoo Washington, DC.

]]

Moche Ceramic Depicting Flamingo. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Moche Ceramic Depicting Flamingo. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

Scientists have discovered that [flamingos] are dying by the thousands along the Rift Valley lakes of Kenya and Tanzania. However, they are baffled about the reason. Possible causes include avian cholera, botulism, metal pollution, pesticides or poisonous bacteria, say researchers. Also, fears for the future of the Lesser Flamingo — Phoeniconaias minor — have also been raised by plans to pipe water from one of their key breeding areas, the shores of Lake Natron. The lakes are crucial to the birds' breeding success because the flamingos feed off the blooms of cyanobacteria that thrive there.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... African Rift Valley. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Lake Natron, here from 300 km overhead, changes colors with the seasons. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ...


Most scientific attention has focused on the environmental changes to the lakes. Water levels have lowered and concentrations of salt in the water have increased. This increases the risk of toxic bacteria growing there. Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ...


Culinary use

In Ancient Rome, flamingo tongues were considered a delicacy.[citation needed] Also, Andean miners have killed flamingos for their fat, believed to be a cure for tuberculosis.[1] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Other

The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature.[6] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted flamingos in their art. [7] The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Some are blue, due to the lack of shrimp in their diet, but abundance of blue-green algae in their ecosystem.[citation needed]


Footnotes

  1. ^ Both forms of the plural are attested, according to the Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ The supposed "Cretaceous flamingo" Parascaniornis is actually a Baptornis and not a close relative to any living bird.
  3. ^ Are flamingos pink because they eat shrimps?. Retrieved on 2007-05-15.
  4. ^ American Flamingo article at WhoZoo
  5. ^ Mystery threat to pink flamingos - The Hindu, 2006-10-09
  6. ^ Benson, Elizabeth, The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. 1972
  7. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
"The chief difficulty Alice found at first was in managing her flamingo" - John Tenniel's illustration to "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".
"The chief difficulty Alice found at first was in managing her flamingo" - John Tenniel's illustration to "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".

The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Binomial name Baptornis advenus Marsh, 1877 Baptornis (diving bird) is an extinct genus of primitive bird. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... Image File history File links Alice_par_John_Tenniel_30. ... Image File history File links Alice_par_John_Tenniel_30. ... John Tenniel illustrated the first editions of the Alice books. ... 1889 Self-portrait Sir John Tenniel (February 28, 1820 – February 25, 1914) was an English illustrator. ... Alice in Wonderland redirects here. ...

References

  • Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004): Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58(11): 2558-2573. doi:10.1554/04-235 PDF fulltext
  • Feduccia, Alan (1976): Osteological evidence for shorebird affinities of the flamingos. Auk 93(3): 587-601. PDF fulltext
  • Hilty, Steven L. (2003): Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
  • Johnson, Kevin P.; Kennedy, Martyn & McCracken, Kevin G. (2006): Reinterpreting the origins of flamingo lice: cospeciation or host-switching? Biol. Lett. 2: 275–278. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0427 PDF fulltext
  • Sibley, Charles G.; Corbin, Kendall W. & Haavie, Joan H. (1969): The Relationships of the Flamingos as Indicated by the Egg-White Proteins and Hemoglobins. Condor 71(2): 155-179. PDF fulltext
  • Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Mullarney, Killian & Grant, P. J. (1999): Collins bird guide. HarperCollins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6
  • Ubilla, M.; Perea, D.; Tambussi, C. & Tonni, E. (1990): Primer registro fósil de Phoenicopteridae (Aves: Charadriiformes) para el Uruguay (Mio-Plioceno). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 62: 61-68.
  • Pictures of Flamingos from Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia
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Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Auk is a quarterly journal and the official publication of the American Ornithologists Union, having been continuously published by that body since 1884. ... The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books dealing with the identification of groups of birds. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Condor is the quarterly journal of the Cooper Ornithological Society. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), Rondeau Provincial Park, 2005; de: Zitronenwaldsänger Photograph: Mdf first upload in en wikipedia on 23:23, 24... Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... Families Enaliornithidae Baptornithidae Hesperornithidae Synonyms Odontornithes Marsh, 1873 (partim) Odontolcae Marsh, 1875 Gaviomorphae Cracraft, 1982 (partim) Hesperornithes are an extinct and highly specialized subclass of Cretaceous toothed birds. ... A bird hybrid is basically a bird that has two different species as parents. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Since 1500, over 140 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families see text The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ... // The following are the regional bird lists by continent. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, prepared as a skin (shmoo), skeleton, and spread wing Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Flamingo - MSN Encarta (456 words)
The greater flamingo breeds in standing water or on low islands in shallow ponds, salt pans, and lagoons, building a conical mound of mud topped by a slight depression in which the one egg (rarely two) is laid.
The greater flamingo is classified as Phoenicopterus ruber, its vivid red subspecies as Phoenicopterus ruber ruber, and its paler subspecies as Phoenicopterus ruber roseus.
The Chilean flamingo is classified as Phoenicopterus chilensis, the Andean flamingo as Phoenicopterus andinus, James's flamingo as Phoenicopterus jamesi, and the lesser flamingo as Phoenicopterus minor.
Flamingo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1237 words)
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus and family Phoenicopteridae.
An extinct family of peculiar "swimming flamingos", the Palaelodidae, was initially believed to be the ancestors of the Phoenicopteridae.
Notable exceptions are the flamingos in captivity, many of which turned a pale pink as they are not fed foods containing sufficient amounts of carotene.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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