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Encyclopedia > Flamethrower
Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war.
Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war.
Front and rear views of man with M2A1-7 United States Army flamethrower

A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of fire. A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... A U.S. riverboat deploying napalm during the Vietnam War from U.S. Naval War College Museum File links The following pages link to this file: Napalm Brown water navy Categories: U.S. Navy images ... Brownwater Navy is a term in American naval speech referring to actions in near shore and riverine enviroments. ... Image File history File links Usafl_rend. ... Image File history File links Usafl_rend. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Some flamethrowers project a stream of ignited flammable liquid; some project a long gas flame. Most military flamethrowers use liquids, but commercial flamethrowers tend to use high-pressure propane and natural gas, which is considered safer. They are used by the military and by people needing controlled burning capacity, such as in agriculture (e.g. sugar cane plantations) or other such land management tasks. Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules which can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, which in turn usually produces kinetic energy, and which also must take the shape of their container. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...

Military flamethrowers

Flamethrowers date from the Byzantines, who used hand-pumped flamethrowers on board their naval ships (see Greek fire). Infantry flamethrowers were of limited range and capacity; the larger naval flamethrowers were used to set alight enemy ships' sails and rigging. The composition of the flammable chemical projected with these primitive flamethrowers is not definitively known. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ...


Modern flamethrowers were used first in World War I; their use greatly increased in WWII. They can be vehicle mounted, as on a tank, or hand-carried by infantry. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The flamethrower is in two elements, back pack and gun. The backpack element usually consists of two or three cylinders. One cylinder holds compressed, inert propellant gas (usually nitrogen), and the other two hold flammable liquid. A three-cylinder system often has two outer cylinders of flammable liquid and a central cylinder of propellant gas to improve the balance of the soldier who carried it. The gas propels the fuel liquid out of the cylinder through a flexible pipe and then into the gun element of the flamethrower system. The gun consists of a small reservoir, a spring-loaded valve, and an ignition system; depressing a trigger opens the valve, allowing pressurized flammable liquid to flow and pass over the igniter and out the gun nozzle. The igniter can be one of several ignition systems; a simple type is an electrically-heated wire coil, another used a small pilot flame, fueled with pressurized gas from the system. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... A pilot light is a small gas flame, usually natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, which is kept alight in order to provide an ignition source for a more powerful gas burner. ...


The flamethrower is a potent weapon with great psychological impact upon unprepared soldiers, delivering a particularly horrendous death — being burnt alive. It is primarily used against battlefield fortifications, bunkers, and other protected emplacements. A flamethrower projects a stream of flammable liquid, rather than flame, which allows bouncing the stream off walls and ceilings to project the fire into blind and unseen spaces, such as inside bunkers or pillboxes. Typically, popular visual media depict the flamethrower as short-ranged, of a few effective meters (due to the common use of propane gas as the fuel in flamethrowers in movies, for the safety of the actors), but contemporary flamethrowers can incinerate targets at 50–80 meters (165–270 feet) distance from the gunner; moreover, an unignited stream of flammable liquid can be fired and afterwards ignited, possibly by a lamp or other flame inside the bunker. Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Flamethrowers pose many risks to the operator. The first disadvantage is its weight, which impairs the soldier's mobility. Flamethrowers are very visible in the battlefield, and so operators become prominent targets for snipers. Historically, flamethrower operators rarely were taken prisoner, especially when their targets survived the impacts of the weapon; in reprisal, captured flamethrower users often were summarily executed. Finally, the flamethrower's effective range is short in comparison with that of other battlefield firearms, i.e. for effective use, flamethrower soldiers must approach their targets too closely, exposing themselves to close enemy fire. For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ...


The risk of a flamethrower soldier being caught in the explosion if enemy gunfire hits the flamethrower is exaggerated in Hollywood films.[1]

It should be noted that flame thrower operators did not usually face a fiery death from the slightest spark or even from having their tank hit by a normal bullet as often depicted in modern war films. The Gas Container [i.e. the pressurizer] is filled with a non-flammable gas that is under high pressure. If this tank were ruptured, it might knock the operator forward as it was expended in the same way a pressurized aerosol can bursts outward when punctured. The fuel mixture in the Fuel Containers is difficult to light which is why magnesium filled igniters are required when the weapon is fired. Fire a bullet into a metal can filled with diesel or napalm and it will merely leak out the hole unless the round was an incendiary type that could possibly ignite the mixture inside. This also applies to the flame thrower Fuel Container.[2] http://visibleearth. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... This article is about the fuel. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ...

The best way to minimize the disadvantages of flame weapons was to mount them on armoured vehicles. The Commonwealth and the United States were the most prolific users of vehicle mounted flame weapons; the British and Canadians fielded the Wasp (a Universal Carrier) at the infantry battalion level, beginning in mid 1944, and, eventually, incorporating them to infantry battalions. Early tank-mounted flamethrower vehicles included the 'Badger' (a converted Ram tank) and the 'Oke', used first at Dieppe; the most famous flame tank was the Churchill Crocodile.[3] The Ram was a Cruiser tank designed and built by Canada in the Second World War, based on the U.S. M3 Medium tank. ... Dieppe is the name of several places and events: Dieppe, France (pop. ... Marine M67 in Vietnam, 1968. ... The Churchill Crocodile during the Second World War The Churchill Crocodile was a British flame-throwing tank of late World War II, it was a variant of the Tank, Infantry, Mk VI (A22) Churchill VII, although the Chuchill IV was initially chosen to be the base vehicle. ...


History

Early history

The concept of throwing fire has existed since ancient times.

Greek fire may have been an early version of the flamethrower.
Greek fire may have been an early version of the flamethrower.

Greek fire, extensively used by the Byzantine Empire, is said to have been invented by Kallinikos (Callinicus) of Heliopolis, probably about 673. The flamethrower found its origins also in the Byzantine Empire, employing Greek fire in a device of a hand-held pump that shot bursts of Greek fire via a siphon-hose and piston, igniting it on a match on its way out, in a manner like its modern versions.[4] Greek fire, used primarily at sea, gave the Byzantines a great military advantage against enemies such as the Arab Empire (which later adopted the use of Greek fire). An 11th century illustration of its use survives in the John Skylitzes manuscript. Greek fire in use, from http://www. ... Greek fire in use, from http://www. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Greek fire was a burning-liquid weapon used by the Byzantine Greeks, typically in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Callinicus or Kallinikos (Καλλίνικος in Greek) is a male personal name. ... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... Events Hlothhere becomes king of Kent Maelduin becomes King of Dalriada Foundation of Ely, England Births Bede, English monk, writer and historian (or 672) Deaths Childeric II, Frankish king of Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy Domangart II, King of Dalriada General Kim Yu-shin of Silla Heads of states Japan - Temmu... Not to be confused with Psiphon. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... The Arab Empire at its greatest extent The Arab Empire usually refers to the following Caliphates: Rashidun Caliphate (632 - 661) Umayyad Caliphate (661 - 750) - Successor of the Rashidun Caliphate Umayyad Emirate in Islamic Spain (750 - 929) Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in Islamic Spain (929 - 1031) Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258... John/Ioannes Skylitzes/Scylitzes (Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης, 1081) was a Byzantine historian of the late 11th century. ...

A Chinese flamethrower from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 AD, Song Dynasty.
A Chinese flamethrower from the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 AD, Song Dynasty.

The Pen Huo Qi (Fire Throwing Machine) was a Chinese piston flamethrower that used a substance similar to gasoline or naphtha, invented around 919 AD during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Advances in military technology aided the Song Dynasty in its defense against hostile neighbors to the north, including the Mongols. The earliest reference to Greek Fire in China was made in 917 AD, written by the author Wu Ren-chen in his Shi Guo Chun Qiu.[5] In 919 AD, the siphon projector-pump was used to spread the 'fierce fire oil' that could not be doused with water, as recorded by Lin Yu in his Wu Yue Bei Shi, hence the first credible Chinese reference to the flamethrower employing the chemical solution of Greek fire.[6] Lin Yu mentioned also that the 'fierce fire oil' derived ultimately from China's contact in the 'southern seas', Arabia (Da-Shi Guo).[7] In a battle of 932 AD, at the Battle of Lang-shan Jiang (Wolf Mountain River), the naval fleet of the Wen-Mu King was defeated by Qian Yuan-guan because he had used 'fire oil' (huo yóu, 火油) to burn his fleet, signifying the first Chinese use of gunpowder in a battle.[7] The Chinese applied the use of double-piston bellows to pump petrol out of a single cylinder (with an upstroke and downstroke), lit at the end by a slow-burning gunpowder match to fire a continuous stream of flame (as referred to in the Wujing Zongyao manuscript of 1044 AD).[7] In the suppression of the Southern Tang state by 976 AD, early Song naval forces confronted them on the Yangtze River in 975 AD. Southern Tang forces attempted to use flamethrowers against the Song navy, but were accidentally consumed by their own fire when violent winds swept in their direction.[8] Documented also in later Chinese publications, illustrations and descriptions of mobile flamethrowers on four-wheel push carts appear in the Wu Jing Zong Yao, written in 1044 AD (its illustration redrawn in 1601 as well). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (801 × 1170 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (801 × 1170 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... The Pen Huo Qi is a piston based naphtha flamethrower used in 919 in China. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Naphtha (CAS No. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... Southern Tang (also refered to as Nantang) was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China created following the Tang Dynasty from 937-976. ...


Although flamethrowers were never used in the American Civil War, the use of Greek Fire was threatened, and flamethrowers have been in use in most modern conflicts since then.[9] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


20th century

An M67 "Zippo" tank of the U.S.M.C. during the Vietnam war.
An M67 "Zippo" tank of the U.S.M.C. during the Vietnam war.

The English word 'flamethrower' is a loan-translation of the German word Flammenwerfer, since the modern flamethrower was first invented in Germany. The first flamethrower, in the modern sense, usually is credited to Richard Fiedler. He submitted evaluation models of his Flammenwerfer to the German army in 1901. The most significant model submitted was a man-portable device, consisting of a vertical single cylinder 4 feet (1.2 m) long, horizontally divided in two, with pressurized gas in the lower section and inflammable oil in the upper section. On depressing a lever the propellant gas forced the inflammable oil into and through a rubber tube and over a simple igniting wick device in a steel nozzle. The weapon projected a jet of fire and enormous clouds of smoke some 20 yards (18 m). It was a single-shot weapon - for burst firing, a new igniter section was attached each time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x645, 73 KB) Summary A marine M48 tank with flame thrower in Vietnam, 1968. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x645, 73 KB) Summary A marine M48 tank with flame thrower in Vietnam, 1968. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ... Richard Fiedler was a German scientist who invented the flamethrower. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


WWI

It was not until 1911 that the German army accepted the device, creating a specialist regiment of twelve companies equipped with Flammenwerferapparate. Despite this, the weapon went unused in WWI until June 25, 1915, when it was briefly used against the French. On July 30, 1915, it was used against British trenches at Hooge, with limited, but impressive, success. Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Hooge (豪格 hao ge; 1609-1648) was the eldest son of Emperor Hong Taiji of the Manchu Qing Dynasty. ...


The weapon had drawbacks: it was cumbersome and difficult to operate and could only be safely fired from a trench, so limiting its safe use to areas where the opposing army trenches were less than 20 yards apart, which was not a common situation. Nevertheless, the German army continued deploying flamethrowers during the war in more than 300 battles, usually in teams of 6 flamethrowers.


WWII

M2A1-7 United States Army flamethrower with parts labelled
M2A1-7 United States Army flamethrower with parts labelled

The flamethrower was extensively used during World War II. In 1940, the Wehrmacht first deployed man-portable flamethrowers to destroy Dutch gun emplacements and fortifications. Subsequently, in 1942, the U.S. Army introduced its own man-pack flamethrower. Image File history File links Usafl_notes_. ... Image File history File links Usafl_notes_. ... A soldier from the U.S. 33rd Infantry Division uses an M2 flamethrower M2A1-7 is a flamethrower used by the American troops during World War II. It has four controls:- - Back of the rear grip: firing safety catch. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The vulnerability of infantry carrying backpack flamethrowers and the weapon's short range led to experiments with tank-mounted flamethrowers (flame tanks). The British hardly used their man-portable systems, relying on special Sherman, Churchill, and Matilda tanks in the European theatre. These tanks proved very effective against German defensive positions, and caused official Axis protests against their use. There are documented instances of German SS units executing, out-of-hand, any captured British flame tank crews. Marine M67 in Vietnam, 1968. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


Australian

See http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-weapons/flamethrowers.htm : history and images


British

The British WWII army flamethrowers, "Ack Packs", had a doughnut-shaped fuel tank with a small spherical pressurizer gas tank in the middle. As a result, some troops nicknamed them "lifebuoys". See description and image and Flamethrower, Portable, No 2. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Flamethrower, Portable, No 2 (nicknamed Lifebuoy from the shape of the fuel tank), also known as the Ack Pack, was a British design of flamethrower for infantry use in the Second World War. ...


German

German troops use a flamethrower in the Eastern Front during the Second World War
German troops use a flamethrower in the Eastern Front during the Second World War

The Germans made considerable use of the weapon (Flammenwerfer 35) during their invasion of western Europe, especially in Holland and France, against fixed fortifications, but it soon fell into disfavor, except in reprisal operations. Yet, on the Eastern Front its battlefield and "scorched earth" tactic uses continued until the end of the war. See the Stroop Report link on article of the 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1026, 115 KB)This image is believed to be in the public domain because it is a photograph originally published or taken over fifty years ago. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1026, 115 KB)This image is believed to be in the public domain because it is a photograph originally published or taken over fifty years ago. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Flammenwerfer 35, or FmW 35 (literally, flames-thrower or thrower of flame) was a German flamethrower used during World War II to clear out trenches and buildings. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Combatants Nazi Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Odilo Globocnik Ludwig Hahn Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman...


WWII German army flamethrowers tended to have one large fuel tank with the pressurizer tank fastened to its back or side. Some WWII German army flamethrowers occupied only the lower part of its wearer's back, leaving the upper part of his back free for an ordinary packful of supplies.


As the Third Reich was deteriorating at the end half of WW2, a smaller compact flamethrower known as the Einstossflammenwerfer 46 was produced due to the lack of materials and funds. The Einstossflammenwerfer 46 was a Flamethrower designed to be cheap and mass produced at the end half of WW2 since Germany was lacking materials and funds. ...


External link with images: http://www.lonesentry.com/articles/portft/


USA

In the Pacific theatre, the US Marines used the backpack-type M2A1-7 flamethrower and M2-2 flamethrowers, finding them especially useful in clearing Japanese trench and bunker complexes. In cases where the Japanese were protected from the flames by deep caves, the burning flames often consumed the available oxygen, suffocating the occupants. The Marines eventually stopped using their infantry-portable systems with the arrival of adapted Sherman tanks with the Ronson system (c.f. flame tank). The U.S. Army rarely used flamethrowers in Europe, though they were available for special employments. United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... A soldier from the U.S. 33rd Infantry Division uses an M2 flamethrower M2A1-7 is a flamethrower used by the American troops during World War II. It has four controls:- - Back of the rear grip: firing safety catch. ... The M2-2 was a man-portable backpack flamethrower that was used in World War II. Although its actual burn time was around 7 seconds and the flame was only effective out to around 33 meters, it was still a decent weapon that had great uses in the war. ... Marine M67 in Vietnam, 1968. ...


USSR

Some Soviet Army flamethrowers had three backpack fuel tanks side by side. Some descriptions seem to say that its user could fire three shots, each emptying one of the tanks. This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Unlike the flamethrowers of the other powers during WWII, the Soviets were the only ones to consciously attempt to camouflage their flamethrowers, The ROKS-2 flamethrower which was done by disguising the "gun" as a standard issue rifle, such as the Mosin Nagant, and the fuel tanks as a standard infantryman's rucksack, to try to stop snipers from specifically targeting flamethrower operators. This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The tone or style of this article may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Mosin-Nagant (Russian: ) is a bolt-action, five-round, magazine fed, military rifle that was used by the armed forces of Imperial Russia and later the Soviet Union and various Eastern bloc nations. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ...

U.S. soldier firing a flamethrower during the Vietnam War
U.S. soldier firing a flamethrower during the Vietnam War

Image File history File links Flamethrower_in_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flamethrower_in_Vietnam. ...

After 1945

The United States Marines used flamethrowers in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Flamethrowers have not been in the U.S. arsenal since 1978, when the Department of Defense unilaterally stopped using them. They have been deemed of questionable effectiveness in today's combat and use of flame weapons are always a public relations issue. They are not banned in any international treaty the U.S. has signed. Thus, the US decision to remove flamethrowers from its arsenal is entirely voluntary. Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... // The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address to Congress in 1807. ...


Private ownership

In the United States, private ownership of a flamethrower is not restricted by federal law, but is restricted in some of its states, such as California, by state laws (c.f. California Health and Welfare Codes 12750-12761, Flamethrowing Devices) CA H&W Code on line Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a nation. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ...


In California, unlicensed possession of a flame-throwing device —statutorily defined as "any nonstationary and transportable device designed or intended to emit or propel a burning stream of combustible or flammable liquid a distance of at least 10 feet" H&W 12750 (a)— is a misdemeanor punishable with a county jail term not exceeding one year OR with a fine not exceeding $10,000 (CA H&W 12761). Licenses to use flamethrowers are issued by the State Fire Marshal, and he may use any criteria for issuing or not issuing that license that he deems fit, but must publish those criteria in the California Code of Regulations, Title 11, Section 970 et seq. CA Regs (CA H&W 12756) (definitions and scope, administration, enforcement and penalties) A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...


Other uses

Flamethrowers also are used by people needing controlled burns, as in agriculture and other land management tasks. In ripe canebrakes of sugar cane, they are used to burn up the dry dead leaves which clog harvesters, and incidentally also kill any lurking venomous snakes. Flamethrowers are also sometimes used for igniting controlled burns of grassland or forest, although more commonly a driptorch or a flare (fusee) is used. Canebrake is an English noun meaning an area of land with a thick dense growth of sugarcane, bamboo, or similar plant material. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Harvester can refer to: A bioinformatic metasearch engine. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... Using a driptorch to ignite a prescribed fire A driptorch is a tool used in wildland firefighting, controlled burning, and other forestry applications to intentionally ignite fires. ... A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ...


Flamethrowers were used against Africanized honey bee (killer bee) swarms in the 1970's. [citation needed] Africanized bees are hybrids of the African honeybee, Apis mellifera scutellata (or possibly ), with various European honeybees such as the Italian bee A. m. ...


U.S. troops used flamethrowers on the streets of Washington D.C. to clear snow (as mentioned in a December 1998 article in San Francisco Flier), one of several clearance methods used for the surprisingly large amount of snow that fell before the presidential inauguration of John F. Kennedy. A history article on the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers notes, "In the end, the task force employed hundreds of dump trucks, front-end loaders, sanders, plows, rotaries, and flamethrowers to clear the way".[1] The massive effort by city, military, and others even included 1700 Boy Scouts. The work paid off the next day, January 20, 1961, with JFK's successful inauguration. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... A dump truck or production truck is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or dirt) for construction. ... A loader clearing a landslide. ... A sander is a power tool used to smooth wood and automotive or wood finishes. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... Boy Scout Memorial in Presidents Park Scouting in the District of Columbia has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Flamethrowers are also used for special effects, such as concerts and special events; particularly, the band Rammstein's lead singer Till Lindemann is known to use a flamethrower during live performances. Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... For other uses, see Ramstein. ... Till Lindemann (b. ...


Converted Flamethrower 40s, which fire a 0.5% solution of CN gas in water, have been used as riot control weapons. In 1940 Swiss police started using converted backpack liquid-firing flamethrowers as riot control weapons called Umgebaute Flammenwerfer 40 (Converted Flamethrower 40), which fire a powerful jet of water solution of CN gas, probably 0. ... Not to be confused with hydrogen cyanide, HCN. CN, or chloroacetophenone, is a substance used as a riot control agent. ... French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ...


In fiction

Due to the flamethrower's spectacular effect it is often used in action movies and video games, even where in reality it would not be used.


Hollywood seems to have no difficulty getting hold of flamethrowers; however, for the safety of the actors, they often are filled with propane gas instead of liquid fuel. This produces a visually similar (though rarely identical) flame effect, but without the spray of fuel, splatter of flame, dense smoke, and area effect of the genuine fuel. In the Omaha Beach sequence of Saving Private Ryan, the exploding flamethrower was filled with enough propane gas to burst the containers and produce spectacular flames. The explosion seen occurred seconds after the tank burst - it was caused by blowing vaporized propane onto the explosion (the cloud is visible in the finished film as a billowing white cloud in front of the actor). ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy-Award-winning film set in World War II, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat. ...


The same basic effect was created by Stan Blackwell and his crew during the FOX drama 24's fifth season. This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see 24 (disambiguation). ...


In the film The Running Man, the 'Stalker' named 'FIREBALL' uses a Flame-thrower to hunt and kill criminal 'runners' in the shows gauntlet zones. His Flame Thrower is combined together with a Jet Pack that allows him to fly and move around the game zones at speed. The Running Man (1982) is a science fiction novel by Stephen King, written under the pseudonym of Richard Bachman. ... For the game, see Jetpack (computer game). ...


Behind the scenes in filmmaking flamethrowers are used as tools in simulating fires, explosions, volcanic eruptions, and other special effects. A film being made in Warsaw, Bracka street Filmmaking is the process of making a film, from an initial story idea or commission through scriptwriting, shooting, editing and finally distribution to an audience. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ...


See also

For other meanings, see fougasse (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Meng Huo You(Chinese:猛火油)some translated it as wild-fire oilChampa in the Song hui-yao:A draft translation is the practice of using petroleum as incendiary weapon in Ancient China. ... The Song Dynasty (960–1279) was a period of Chinese history and human history in general that provided some of the most prolific advancements in early science and technology, much of it through talented statsemen drafted by the government (see Imperial examinations). ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ canadiansoldiers.com flamethrower article. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  2. ^ Gordon, David. Weapons of the WWII Tommy
  3. ^ canadiansoldiers.com flamethrower article. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  4. ^ Needham, Volume 5, 77.
  5. ^ Needham, Volume 5, 80.
  6. ^ Needham, Volume 5, 81.
  7. ^ a b c Needham, Volume 5, 82.
  8. ^ Needham, Volume 5, 89.
  9. ^ History of Incendiary Weapons, and their use in the American Civil War

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.. 

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
IGN: Halo 3: Burn, Baby! Burn! (887 words)
Bungie originally planned to include the flamethrower in Halo 2, but decided its removal was necessary.
The M7057/DP is a standard chemical flamethrower, which projects and ignites a stream of a volatile, semi-liquid fuel.
Flamethrowers are cumbersome and relatively difficult to use (psychologically as well as mechanically).
First World War.com - Weapons of War - Flamethrowers (766 words)
The flamethrower, which brought terror to French and British soldiers when used by the German army in the early phases of the First World War in 1914 and 1915 (and which was quickly adopted by both) was by no means a particularly innovative weapon.
The flamethrower was inevitably refined over the intervening centuries, although the models seen in the early days of World War One were developed at the turn of the 20th century.
By the close of the war flamethrower use had been extended to use on tanks, a policy carried forward to World War Two.
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