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Encyclopedia > Flamenco
Flamenco
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Sporadic except among Andalucians and Gitanos, mostly popular in Spain
Subgenres
Alegrías - Bulerias - Tangos - Fandangos - Farruca - Guajiras - Peteneras - Sevillana - Siguiriyas - Soleares - Tientos - Zambra - and many others, see the palos list below.
Fusion genres
New Flamenco
Other topics
Music of Spain - Music of Andalucia
Cante Chico - Cante Jondo - Cante Intermedio - Falseta
Spanish Dancer by John Singer Sargent 1880 - 1881
Spanish Dancer by John Singer Sargent 1880 - 1881

Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. Flamenco embodies a complex musical and cultural tradition. Although considered part of the culture of Spain in general, flamenco actually originates from one region: Andalusia. However, other areas, mainly Extremadura and Murcia, have contributed to the development of several flamenco musical forms, and a great number of renowned flamenco artists have been born in other territories of the state. The roots of flamenco are not precisely known, but it is generally acknowledged that flamenco grew out of the unique interplay of native Andalucian, Islamic, Sephardic, and Gypsy cultures that existed in Andalucia prior to and after the Reconquest. Latin American and especially Cuban influences have also been important in shaping several flamenco musical forms. Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of Romance languages development in Iberia. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... classical guitar A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the guitar family. ... A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... Renoirs 1909 painting Dancing girl with castanets Castanets Castanets are percussion instrument (idiophone), much used in Moorish, Ottoman, Ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American music. ... Palmas may refer to: Palmas, the capital of the state of Tocantins in Brazil Palmas a centenary small city in the south of the state of Paraná in Brazil. ... A cajón (Spanish for crate, drawer, or box, pronounced ka. ... Alegrías is a flamenco style, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] It may also be broken down into... Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ... ... A form of Flamenco music, probably originating in the Galicia region of north-western Spain. ... Guajira is a style of Cuban acoustic music. ... The Petenera is a flamenco palo in a 12-beat metre, with strong beats distributed as follows: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is therefore identical with the 16th century Spanish dances zarabanda and the jácara. ... Sevillana is a popular flamenco dance from Seville. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... Tiento is a musical form of fantasia with its origins in Renaissance Spain. ... The Zambra, also known as the Zambra Mora is a flamenco dance performed by the Roma people (Gitanos) of Granada which is believed to have evolved from earlier Moorish dances and has some similarities to belly dancing. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. ... Flamenco Nuevo (New Flamenco) is synonymous with contemporary flamenco and is a modern derivitave of traditional flamenco (see the cafés cantantés period, and Rámon Montoya (1880-1949)). Although the most important early pioneers of modern flamenco are widely accepted to be the guitarist Paco de Lucía... // In Spain, several very different cultural streams came together in the first centuries of the Christian era: the Roman culture, which was dominant for several hundred years, and which brought with it the music and ideas of Ancient Greece; early Christians, who had their own version of the Roman Rite... The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music also known as deep song. Cante Jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. ... The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... A Falseta is part of a Flamenco song, much as a sentence is part of a paragraph. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 420 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (793 × 1132 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Singer Sargent (1856 - 1925) Spanish Dancer 1880 - 1881 www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 420 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (793 × 1132 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Singer Sargent (1856 - 1925) Spanish Dancer 1880 - 1881 www. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Capital Mérida Official languages Spanish; Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41,634 km²  8. ... Capital Murcia Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 9th  11 313 km²  2,2% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 10th  1 226 993  2,9%  108,46/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Murcian  murciano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 ISO 3166-2 MU Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religions Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the conquest by Christian kingdoms, mainly Castile, León, Aragón and Portugal, of Muslim controlled areas in the Iberian Peninsula, taking place between 718 and 1492. ... Latin American music, sometimes simply called Latin music in The United States, includes the music of all countries in Latin America and comes in many varieties. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in...


Once the seeds of flamenco were planted in Andalucia, it grew as a separate subculture, first centered in the provinces of Seville, Cádiz and part of Málaga—the area known as Baja Andalucía (Lower Andalusia)—but soon spreading to the rest of Andalucia, incorporating and transforming local folk music forms. As the popularity of flamenco extended to other areas, other local Spanish musical traditions (e.g. the Castilian traditional music) would also influence, and be influenced by, the traditional flamenco styles. For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Location of Málaga Government  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area  - Total 385. ... Central Spain includes the cultural melting pot of Madrid and Castille. ...

Contents

Overview

Many of the details of the development of flamenco are lost in Spanish history. There are several reasons for this lack of historical evidence: The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ...

  • Flamenco sprang from the lower levels of Andalusian society and thus lacked the prestige of art forms among the middle and higher levels at this time of persecution.
  • The turbulent times of the people involved in flamenco culture. The Muslim Moors, the Gitanos and the Jews were all persecuted and the Muslim Moors (moriscos) and Jews were expelled by the Spanish Inquisition in 1492.
  • The Gitanos have been fundamental in maintaining this art form, but they have an oral culture. Their folk songs were passed on to new generations by repeated performances in their social community. Non-gypsy Andalusian poorer classes, in general, were also illiterate.
  • Lack of interest from historians and musicologists. "Flamencologists" have usually been flamenco connoisseurs of no specific academic training in the fields of history or musicology. They have tended to rely on a limited number of sources (mainly the writings of 19th century folklorist Demófilo,[1] and notes by foreign travellers. Bias has also been frequent in flamencology. This started to change in the 1980s, when flamenco slowly started to be included in music conservatories, and a growing number of musicologists and historians began to carry out more rigorous research. Since then, some new data have shed new light on it. (Ríos Ruiz, 1997:14),

There are questions not only about the origins of the music and dances of flamenco, but also about the origins of the very word flamenco. George Borrow writes that the word flemenc [sic] is synonymous with "Gypsy"). For other uses, see moor. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see moor. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Look up Expulsion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Oral culture is a tradition all over the world. ... Folk song redirects here. ... A connoisseur (Fr. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is under construction. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ...


Blas Infante, in his book Orígenes de los Flamencos y Secreto del Cante Jondo, controversially argued that the word flamenco comes from Hispano-Arabic word fellahmengu, which would mean "expelled peasant"[2] after the end of the Moorish reign. Infante links the term to the ethnic Andalusians of Muslim faith, the Moriscos, who would have mixed with the Gypsy newcomers in order to avoid religious persecution. Other hypotheses concerning the term's etymology include connections with Flanders (flamenco also means Flemish in Spanish), believed by Spanish people to be the origin of the Gypsies, or the flameante (arduous) execution by the performers, or the flamingos. [3]. Blas Infante Pérez de Vargas (Casares, España; 5th of July, 1885 - Seville, Spain; 11th of August, 1936). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The term Flemings (Dutch: ) denotes the majority population in Flanders (the northern half of Belgium). ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ...


Background

For a complete picture of the possible influences that gave rise to flamenco, attention must be paid to the cultural and musical background of the Iberian Peninsula since Ancient times. Long before the Moorish invasion in 711, Visigothic Spain had adopted its own liturgic musical forms, the Visigothic or Mozarabic rite, strongly influenced by Byzantium. The Mozarabic rite survived the Gregorian reform and the Moorish invasion, and remained alive at least until the 10th or 11th century. Some theories, started by Spanish classical musician Manuel de Falla, link the melismatic forms and the presence of Greek Dorian mode (in modern times called “Phrygian mode”) in flamenco to the long existence of this separate Catholic rite. Unfortunately, owing to the type of musical notation in which these Mozarabic chants were written, it is not possible to determine what this music really sounded like, so the theory remains unproven. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see moor. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Mozarabic chant (also known as Hispanic chant, Old Hispanic chant, Old Spanish chant, or Visigothic chant) is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Mozarabic rite of the Roman Catholic Church, related to but distinct from Gregorian chant. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ... Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ...


Moor is not the same as Muslim. Moor comes from the Latin Mauroi, meaning an inhabitant of North Africa. The Carthaginians, for instance, came from North Africa. Moorish influence in the peninsula goes back thousands of years, but it was the Islamic invasion, by largely Berber armies in 711, that determined the main musical influences from North Africa. They called the Iberian Peninsula Al-Andalus, from which the name of Andalusia derives. The Moorish and Arab conquerors brought their musical forms to the Peninsula, and at the same time, probably gathered some native influence in their music. The Emirate, and later Caliphate of Córdoba became a center of influence in both the Muslim and Christian worlds and it attracted musicians from all Islamic countries. One of those musicians was Zyriab, who imported forms of the Persian music, revolutionized the shape and playing techniques of the Lute (which centuries later evolved into the vihuela and the guitar), adding a fifth string to it, and set the foundations for the Andalusian nuba, the style of music in suite form still performed in North African countries. Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Zyriab (789- 857) (Zorab in Kurdish) was a poet and musician. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... A renaissance-era lute. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ... Spanish guitar redirects here. ... Andalusian classical music is a style of classical music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 10th and 15th centuries. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The presence of the Moors was also decisive in shaping the cultural diversity of Spain. Owing to the extraordinary length of the Reconquest started in the North as early as 722 and completed in 1492 with the conquest of Granada, the degree of Moorish influence on culture, customs and even language varies enormously between the North and the South. Music cannot have been alien to that process. While music in the North of the Peninsula has a clear Celtic influence which dates to pre-Roman times, Southern music is certainly reminiscent of Eastern influences. To what extent this Eastern flavour is owed to the Moors, the Jews, the Mozarabic rite (with its Byzantine influence), or the Gypsies has not been clearly determined. For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Events 3 January - Kinich Ahkal Mo Naab III takes throne of Maya state of Palenque Battle of Covadonga: First victory of a Christian army over a Muslim army in Spain (probable date) War between Wessex and Sussex Births Deaths Empress Gemmei of Japan Categories: 722 ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) and by extension the music of its culture(s) as they continued in the Orthodox Christian parts of the population after the fall of the empire to the rule of the Ottoman Empire. ...


During the Reconquest, another important cultural influence was present in Al-Andalus: the Jews. Enjoying a relative religious and ethnic tolerance due to Islamic law in comparison to Christian countries, they formed an important ethnic group, with their own traditions, rites, and music, and probably reinforced the middle-Eastern element in the culture and music forms of Al-Andalus. Certain flamenco palos like the Peteneras have been attributed a direct Jewish origin. A palo is the name traditionally given in the flamenco environment for the different musical forms that constitute the traditional musical heritage of flamenco. ... The Petenera is a flamenco palo in a 12-beat metre, with strong beats distributed as follows: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is therefore identical with the 16th century Spanish dances zarabanda and the jácara. ...


The influence of the New World

Recent research has revealed that there might have been an influence of Sub-Saharan African music on flamenco's prehistory. This developed from the music and dance of African slaves held by the Spanish in the New World. There are 16th and 17th century manuscripts of classical compositions that are possibly based on African folk forms, such as negrillas, zarambeques, and chaconas. We also find mention of the fandango indiano (Indiano meaning from the Americas, but not necessarily Native American). Some critics support the view that the names of flamenco palos, like the tangos or even the fandango, are derived from Bantoid languages[4], and most theories state that the rhythm of the tangos was imported from Cuba. Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... In music, a chaconne (IPA: ; Italian: ciaccona) is a musical form whose primary formal feature involves variation on a repeated short harmonic progression. ... ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ... Fandangos is a style of flamenco music and dance, probably derived from the jota[]. Philologists link it to the ancient Roman erotic dance known as the cordax (called iconici motus by the poet Horace and the playwright Plautus). ... In the classification of African languages, Bantoid is a branch of the Benue-Congo subfamily of the Niger-Congo phylum. ... Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ...


It might be that during that stay in the New World, the fandango picked up dance steps deemed too inappropriate for European tastes. Thus, the dance for fandango, for chacon, and for zarabanda, were all banned in Europe at one time or another. References to Gypsy dancers can be found in the lyrics of some of these forms, e.g., the chacon. Indeed, Gypsy dancers are often mentioned in Spanish literary and musical works from the 1500s on. However, the zarabandas and jácaras are the oldest written musical forms in Spain to use the 12-beat metre as a combination of terciary and binary rhythms. The basic rhythm of the zarabanda and the jácara is 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12. The soleá and the Seguiriya, are variations on this: they just start the metre in a different beat. [5] The zarabanda is an old Spanish dance related to the sarabande especially popular in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Jacaras are Spanish songs of arab origin, which are accompanied with instuments and are performed during the entracte of a theatrical performance and also as an accompaniment to many types of dance. ... Metre or meter (US) is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western music notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ...


The 18th century: the fandango and the Escuela Bolera

During this period of development, the “flamenco fiesta” developed. More than just a party where flamenco is performed, the fiesta, either unpaid (reunion) or paid, sometimes lasting for days, has an internal etiquette with a complex set of musical and social rules. In fact, some might argue that the cultural phenomenon of the flamenco fiesta is the basic cultural “unit” of flamenco. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


A turning point in flamenco appears to have come about with a change of instruments. In the late 18th Century the favoured guitar became the 6 string single-coursed guitar which replaced the double-coursed 5 string guitar in popularity. It is the 6 string guitar to which flamenco music is inextricably tied. Flamenco became married to the 6 string guitar. For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ...


The rise of flamenco

During the late-eighteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries, flamenco took on a number of unique characteristics which separated it from local folk music and prepared the way to a higher professionalization and technical excellence of flamenco performers, to the diversification of flamenco styles (by gradually incorporating songs derived from folklore or even other sources), and to the popularization of the genre outside Andalusia.


The first time flamenco is mentioned in literature is in 1774 in the book Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso. During this period, according to some authors, there is little news about flamenco except for a few scattered references from travellers. This led traditional flamencologists, like Molina and Mairena, to call the period of 1780 to 1850 as "The Hermetic Period" or the "private stage of flamenco". According to these flamencologists, flamenco, at this time was something like a private ritual, secretly kept in the Gypsy homes of some towns in the Seville and Cádiz area. This theory started to fall out of favour in the 1990s. José Blas Vega has denied the absence of evidences for this period: For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... José de Cadalso y Vázquez (1741-1782), Spanish author, was born at Cádiz on the 8th of October 1741. ...

Nowadays, we know that there are hundreds and hundreds of data which allow us to know in detail what flamenco was from 1760 until 1860, and there we have the document sources: the theatre movement of sainetes (one-act plays) and tonadillas, the popular songbooks and song sheets, the narrations and descriptions from travellers describing customs, the technical studies of dances and toques, the musical scores, the newspapers, the graphic documents in paintings and engravings; and all of this with no interruptions, in continuous evolution together with the rhythm, the poetic stanzas, and the ambience. (Quoted by Ríos Ruiz 1997) Entremés, is a short and comic theatrical performance of one act, usually played during the interlude of a performance of a long dramatic work, in the 16th and 17th centuries in Spain. ... Entremés, is a short and comic theatrical performance of one act, usually played during the interlude of a performance of a long dramatic work, in the 16th and 17th centuries in Spain. ...

Álvarez Caballero (1998) goes further, stating that if there are no news about flamenco previous to its late 1780 mentions, it is because flamenco simply did not exist. The whole theory about a hermetic stage would then be a fantasy, caused by the aura of mystery surrounding Gypsy culture.


There is disagreement as to whether primitive flamenco was accompanied by any instrument or not. For traditional flamencology, flamenco consisted of unaccompanied singing (cante). Later, the songs were accompanied by flamenco guitar (toque), rhythmic hand clapping (palmas), rhythmic feet stomping (zapateado) and dance (baile). Later theories claim that this is false. While some cante forms are sung unaccompanied (a palo seco), it is likely that other forms were accompanied if and when instruments were available. 19th century writer Estébanez Calderón already described a flamenco fiesta (party) in which the singing was accompanied not only by guitars, but also bandurria and tambourine. Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... A typical accompaniment pattern of a Mozart concert or aria. ... A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... A clap is the sound made by striking together two flat surfaces, as in the body parts of humans or animals. ... The zapateado is a Spanish dance characterized by a lively rhythm puncuated by the clapping of the dancers heels. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... The Spanish term Cantes a palo seco refers to a category of flamenco palos (musical forms) traditionally sung a capella or, in some cases, with some sort of percussion. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bandurria is a plectrum plucked chordophone from Spain, similar to the cittern, primarily used in Spanish folk music. ... “Buben” redirects here. ...


The Golden Age

During the so-called Golden Age of Flamenco, between 1869-1910, flamenco music developed rapidly in music cafés called cafés cantantes, a new type of venue with ticketed public performances. This was the beginning of the "café cantante" period. Flamenco was developed here to its definitive form. Flamenco dancers also became the major public attraction in those cafés. Along with the development of flamenco dance, guitar players supporting the dancers increasingly gained a reputation, and so flamenco guitar as an art form by itself was born. A most important artist in this development was Silverio Franconetti, a non-Gypsy rob seaman of Italian descent. He is reported to be the first "encyclopedic" singer, that is, the first who was able to sing well in all the palos, instead of specializing on a few of them, as was usual at the time. He opened his own café cantante, where he sang himself or invited other artists to perform, and many other venues of this kind were created in all Andalusia and Spain. For other uses, see Reputation (disambiguation). ... Silverio Franconetti, also known simply as Silverio (b. ...


Traditional views on flamenco, starting with Demófilo have often accused this period as the start of the commercial debasement of flamenco. The traditional flamenco fiesta is crowded if more than 20 people are present. Moreover, there is no telling when a fiesta will begin or end, or assurance that the better artists invited will perform well. And, if they do perform, it may not be until the morning after a fiesta that began the night before. By contrast, the café cantante offered set performances at set hours and top artists were contracted to perform. For some, this professionalization led to commercialism, while for others it stimulated healthy competition and therefore, more creativity and technical proficiency. In fact, most traditional flamenco forms were created or developed during this time or, at least, have been attributed to singers of this period like El Loco Mateo, El Nitri, Rojo el Alpargatero, Enrique el Mellizo, Paquirri El Guanté, or La Serneta, among many others. Some of them were professionals, while others sang only at private gatherings but their songs were learned and divulged by professional singers. This article is under construction. ... Enrique Jiménez Fernández (Cádiz, 1848-1906), known as Enrique el Mellizo was a famous flamenco singer, the most influential one in the development of the Cádiz flamenco styles. ... La Serneta(Jerez de la Frontera, 1837-Utrera, 1910) was a famous Spanish flamenco dancer (bailaora). ...


In the 19th century, both flamenco and its association with Gypsies started to become popular throughout Europe, even into Russia. Composers wrote music and operas on what they thought were Gypsy-flamenco themes. Any traveler through Spain “had” to see the Gypsies perform flamenco. Spain - often to the chagrin of non-Andalucian Spaniards - became associated with flamenco and Gypsies. This interest was in keeping with the European fascination with folklore during those decades. This article is about opera as an art form. ...


In 1922, one of Spain's greatest writers, Federico García Lorca, and renowned composer Manuel de Falla, organised the Concurso de Cante Jondo, a folk music festival dedicated to cante jondo ("deep song"). They did this to stimulate interest in some styles of flamenco, which were falling into oblivion as they were regarded uncommercial and, therefore, not apt the cafés cantante. Two of Lorca's most important poetic works, Poema del Cante Jondo and Romancero Gitano, show Lorca's fascination with flamenco and appreciation of Spanish folk culture. However, the initiative was not very influential, and the derivations of fandango and other styles kept gaining popularity while the more difficult styles like siguiriyas and, especially, tonás were usually only performed in private parties. A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 – August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ... An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music also known as deep song. Cante Jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. ... This article is about the art form. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. ...


The "Theatrical" period: 1892-1956

The stage after the Concurso de Cante Jondo in 1922 is known as Etapa teatral (Theatrical period) or Ópera flamenca (Flamenco Opera) period. The name Ópera flamenca was due to the custom, started by impresario Vedrines to call these shows opera, as opera performances enjoyed lower taxes. The cafés cantante entered a period of decadence and were gradually replaced by larger venues like theatres or bullrings. This led to an immense popularity of flamenco but, according to traditionalist critics, also caused it to fall victim to commercialism and economic interests. New types of flamenco shown were born, where flamenco was mixed with other music genres and theatre interludes portraying picturesque scenes by Gitanos and Andalusians.


The dominant palos of this era were the personal fandango, the cantes de ida y vuelta (songs of Latin American origin) and the song in bulería style. Personal fandangos were based on Huelva traditional styles with a free rhythm (as a cante libre) and with a high density of virtuouso variations. The song in bulería style (Canción por bulerías) adapted any popular or commercial song to the bulería rhythm. This period also saw the birth of a new genre, sometimes called copla andaluza (Andalusian couplet) or canción española (Spanish song), a type of ballads with influences from zarzuela, Andalusian folk songs, and flamenco, usually accompanied with orchestra, which enjoyed great popularity and was performed both by flamenco and non-flamenco artists. Owing to its links with flamenco shows, many people consider this genre as "flamenco". Cantes de ida y vuelta is a Spanish expression literally meaning roundtrip songs. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] When performed, the buleria usually starts on... Cantes libres (sing. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... For other uses, see Zarzuela (disambiguation). ...


The leading artist at the time was Pepe Marchena, who sang in a sweet falsetto voice, using spectacular vocal runs reminding of bel canto coloratura. A whole generation of singers was influenced by him and some of them, like Pepe Pinto, or Juan Valderrama also reached immense celebrity. Many classical flamenco singers who had grown with the café cantante fell into oblivion. Others, like Tomás Pavón or Aurelio Sellé, found refuge in private parties. The rest adapted (though often did not completely surrender) to the new tastes: they took part in those mass flamenco shows, but kept singing the old styles, although introducing some of the new ones in their repertoire: it is the case of La Niña de los Peines, Manolo Caracol, Manuel Vallejo, El Carbonerillo and many others. José Tejada Marín (Marchena, Seville, Spain, 1903-Seville, 1976) known as Pepe Marchena, and also as Niño de Marchena in the first years of his career, was a flamenco singer who achieved great success in the ópera flamenca period (1922-1956). ... The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... Coloratura is an old word meaning colouring. ... Juan Valderrama Blanca (May 24, 1916 – April 12, 2004) was a Spanish flamenco and folk singer. ... Pastora Pavón Cruz, known as La Niña de los Peines (Seville, Spain, February 10, 1890 - November 26, 1969), is considered the most important woman flamenco singer of the 20th century. ... Manuel Ortega Juárez. ...


This period has been considered by the most traditionalist critics as a time of complete commercial debasement. According to them, the opera flamenca became a "dictatorship" (Álvarez Caballero 1998), where bad personal fandangos and copla andaluza practically caused traditional flamenco to disappear. Other critics consider this view to be unbalanced (See Ríos Ruiz 1997:40-43): great figures of traditional cante like La Niña de los Peines or Manolo Caracol enjoyed great success, and palos like siguiriyas or soleá were never completely abandoned, not even by the most representative singers of the ópera flamenca style like Marchena or Valderrama. Pastora Pavón Cruz, known as La Niña de los Peines (Seville, Spain, February 10, 1890 - November 26, 1969), is considered the most important woman flamenco singer of the 20th century. ... Manuel Ortega Juárez. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ...


Typical singers of the period like Marchena, Valderrama, Pepe Pinto or El Pena, have also been reappraised. Starting with singers like Luis de Córdoba, Enrique Morente or Mayte Martín, who recorded songs they created or made popular, a high number of singers started to rescue their repertoire, a CD in homage to Valderrama was recorded, and new generations of singers claim their influence. Critics like Antonio Ortega or Ortiz Nuevo have also vindicated the artists of the ópera flamenca period. Enrique Morente Cotelo, known as Enrique Morente, born in Granada, 1942 is a flamenco singer and controversial figure of contemporary flamenco. ... Mayte Martín (born in Barcelona, Spain, April 19, 1965). ...


Musical characteristics

Harmony

Whereas, in Western music, only the major and minor modes are explicitly named by composers, (except as an occasional oddity in jazz and classical music)[6] flamenco has also preserved the Phrygian mode, commonly "Dorian mode" by flamencologists, referring to the Greek Dorian mode, and sometimes also "flamenco mode". The reason for preferring the term "Greek Dorian" is that, as in ancient Greek music, flamenco melodies are descending (instead of ascending as in usual Western melodic patterns). Some flamencologists, like Hipólito Rossy (Rossy 1998: 19–36) or guitarist Manolo Sanlúcar, also consider this flamenco mode as a survival of the old Greek Dorian mode. The rest of the article, however, will use the term "Phrygian" to refer to this mode, as it is the most common denomination in English speaking countries. In music theory, the major scale or Ionian scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Manolo Sanlúcar is a flamenco guitarist born in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in 1945. ...


The Phrygian mode is in fact the most common in the traditional palos of flamenco music, and it is used for soleá, most bulerías, siguiriyas, tangos and tientos, among other palos (Rossy 1998:82). The flamenco version of this mode contains two frequent alterations in the 7th and, even more often, the 3rd degree of the scale: if the scale is played in E Phrygian for example, G and D can be sharp. This such augmentation results in the Phrygian Dominant mode of that key. Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] When performed, the buleria usually starts on... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidilla gitana) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ... Tiento is a musical form of fantasia with its origins in Renaissance Spain. ... In music alteration, an example of chromaticism, is the use of a neighboring pitch in the chromatic scale in place of its diatonic neighbor such as in an altered chord. ... In music theory, a scale degree is the name of a particular note of a scale in relation to the tonic (the first note in the scale). ...

Descending E Phrygian scale in flamenco music, with common alterations in parentheses
Descending E Phrygian scale in flamenco music, with common alterations in parentheses

G sharp is compulsory for the tonic chord. Based on the Phrygian scale, a typical cadence is formed, usually called “Andalusian cadence”. The chords for this cadence in E Phrygian are Am–G–F–E. According to guitarist Manolo Sanlúcar, in this flamenco Phrygian mode, E is the tonic, F would take the harmonic function of dominant, while Am and G assume the functions of subdominant and mediant respectively.[7] Image File history File links E_Phrygian_Scale. ... In Western musical theory a cadence (Latin cadentia, a falling) is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. ... In music theory, the Andalusian cadence is a chord progression commonly found in Flamenco music. ... Manolo Sanlúcar is a flamenco guitarist born in Sanlúcar de Barrameda in 1945. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... A diatonic function, in tonal music theory, is the specific, recognized roles of notes or chords in relation to the key. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ...


When playing using the Phrygian mode, guitarists traditionally use only two basic positions for the tonic chord (music): E and A. However, they often transport these basic tones by using a capo. Modern guitarists, starting with Ramón Montoya, have also introduced other positions. Montoya himself started to use other chords for the tonic in the doric sections of several palos: F sharp for tarantas, B for granaína, A flat for the minera, and he also created a new palo as solo piece for the guitar, the rondeña, in C sharp with scordatura. Later guitarists have further extended the repertoire of tonalities, chord positions and scordatura.[8]. The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... For other uses, see Capo (disambiguation). ... Ramón Montoya (born November 2, 1880, Madrid, Spain; Died 1949), Flamenco guitarist. ... Figure 1. ... The tarantella (tarentule, tarentella, tarantelle, tarentelle, tarantel) is a traditional dance 6/8 or 4/4 time characterised by the rapid whirling of couples. ... Minera is a small village near Wrexham in North Wales. ... This article is under construction. ... A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ...


There are also palos in major mode, for example, most cantiñas and alegrías, guajiras, and some bulerías and tonás, and the cabales (a major mode type of siguiriyas). The minor mode is less frequent and it is restricted to the Farruca, the milongas (among cantes de ida y vuelta), and some styles of tangos, bulerías, etc. In general, traditional palos in major and minor mode are limited harmonically to the typical two-chord (tonic–dominant) or three-chord structure (tonic–subdominant–dominant) (Rossy 1998:92). However, modern guitarists have increased the traditional harmony by introducing chord substitution, transition chords, and even modulation. The Cantiñas is a group of flamenco palos (musical forms, originated in the area of Cádiz in Andalusia (although some styles of cantiña have developed in the province of Seville). ... Alegrías is a flamenco style, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. ... Guajira is a style of Cuban acoustic music. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] When performed, the buleria usually starts on... Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... A form of Flamenco music, probably originating in the Galicia region of north-western Spain. ... Cantes de ida y vuelta is a Spanish expression literally meaning roundtrip songs. ... A chord substitution is the use of one chord in the place of another in a chord progression. ... In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ...


Fandangos and the palos derived from it (e.g. malagueñas, tarantas, cartageneras) are bimodal. Guitar introductions are in Phrygian mode, while the singing develops in major mode, modulating to Phrygian mode at the end of the stanza. (Rossy 1998:92) ... Malagueñas is one of the traditional styles of flamenco, derived from earlier types of fandango from the area of Málaga, classified among the Cantes de Levante. ... Cartageneras are a flamenco palo belonging to the category of the Cantes de las minas (in English, songs of the mines) or cantes minero-levantinos (eastern miner songs). ...


Traditionally, flamenco guitarists did not receive any formal training, so they just relied on their ear to find the chords on the guitar, disregarding the rules of Western classical music. This led them to interesting harmonic findings, with unusual unresolved dissonances (Rossy 1998:88). Examples of this are the use of minor 9th chords for the tonic, the tonic chord of tarantas, or the use of the 1st unpressed string as a kind of pedal tone. This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... Pedal tones are special notes in the harmonic series of cylindrical-bore brass instruments. ...


Melody

Dionisio Preciado, quoted by Sabas de Hoces[9] established the following characteristics for the melodies of flamenco singing:

  1. Microtonality: presence of intervals smaller than the semitone.
  2. Portamento: frequently, the change from one note to another is done in a smooth transition, rather than using discrete intervals.
  3. Short tessitura or range: The most traditional flamenco songs are usually limited to a range of a sixth (four tones and a half). The impression of vocal effort is the result of using different timbres, and variety is accomplished by the use of microtones.
  4. Use of enharmonic scale. While in equal temperament scales, enharmonics are notes with identical name but different spellings (e.g. A flat and G sharp), in flamenco, as in unequal temperament scales, there is a microtonal intervalic difference between enharmonic notes.
  5. Insistence on a note and its contiguous chromatic notes (also frequent in the guitar), producing a sense of urgency.
  6. Baroque ornamentation, with an expressive, rather than merely aesthetic function.
  7. Greek Dorian mode (modern Phrygian mode) in the most traditional songs.
  8. Apparent lack of regular rhythm, especially in the siguiriyas: the melodic rhythm of the sung line is different from the metric rhythm of the accompaniment.
  9. Most styles express sad and bitter feelings.
  10. Melodic improvisation. Although flamenco singing is not, properly speaking, improvised, but based on a relatively small number of traditional songs, singers add variations on the spur of the moment.

Musicologist Hipólito Rossy adds the following characteristics (Rossy 1998: 94): Microtonal music is music using microtones -- intervals of less than a semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... In music, tessitura (Italian: texture) is a range of pitches compared to the instrument for which it was intended to be used. ... In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... An enharmonic scale is a musical scale in which there is no exact equivalence between a sharpened note and the flattened note it is enharmonically related to. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... In music, an enharmonic is a note which is the equivalent of some other note, but spelled differently. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ... Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode or Doric mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ...

  • Flamenco melodies are also characterized by a descending tendency, as opposed to, for example, a typical opera aria, they usually go from the higher pitches to the lower ones, and from forte to piano, as it was usual in ancient Greek scales.
  • In many styles, such as soléa or siguiriya, the melody tends to proceed in contiguous degrees of the scale. Skips of a third or a fourth are rarer. However, in fandangos and fandango-derived styles, fourths and sixths can often be found, especially at the beginning of each line of verse. According to Rossy, this would be a proof of the more recent creation of this type of songs, which would be influenced by the Castilian jota.

For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... “Fortissimo” redirects here. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidilla gitana) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... In music theory, a scale degree is the name of a particular note of a scale in relation to the tonic (the first note in the scale). ... In music, a step is a linear or successive interval between two pitches which are consecutive scale degrees. ... ... The jota is a dance known throughout Spain, most likely originating in Aragon. ...

Compás

Compás is the Spanish word for metre and time signature in classical music theory. In flamenco, besides having these meanings, it also refers to the rhythmic cycle, or layout, of a palo or flamenco style. When performing flamenco it is important to feel the rhythm — the compás — rather than mechanically count the beats. In this way, flamenco is similar to jazz or blues where performers seem to simply 'feel' the rhythm. Metre or meter (US) is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western music notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ...


Flamenco uses three basic counts or measures: Binary, Ternary and the (unique to flamenco) twelve-beat cycle which is difficult to confine within the classical measure. There are also free-form styles, not subject to any particular metre, including, among others, the palos in the group of the tonás, the saetas, malagueñas, tarantas, and some types of fandangos. Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. ... Malagueñas is one of the traditional styles of flamenco, derived from earlier types of fandango from the area of Málaga, classified among the Cantes de Levante. ... ...

  • Rhythms in 2/4 or 4/4. These metres are used in forms like tangos, tientos, gypsy rumba, zambra and tanguillos[10].
  • Rhythms in 3/4. These are typical of fandangos and sevillanas both of these forms originate in Spanish folk, thereby illustrating their provenance as non-Gypsy styles, since the 3/4 and 4/4 measures are the most common throughout the Western world but not within the ethnic Gypsy, nor Hindi musics.
  • 12-beat rhythms usually rendered in amalgams of 6/8 + 3/4 and sometimes measures of 12/8 in attempts to confine it within the classical constraints. The 12 beat cycle is fundamental in the soleá and buerías palos, for example. However, the various accentuation differentiates these two. These accentuations don't correspond to the classic concept of the downbeat, whereby the first beat in the measure is emphasised. In flamenco, the different ways of performing percussion (including the complex technique of palmas) make it hard to render in traditional musical notation. The alternating of groups of 2 and 3 beats is also common in the Spanish folk or traditional dances of the 16th Century such as the zarabanda, jácara and canarios.

They are also common in Latin American countries. Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ... Tiento is a musical form of fantasia with its origins in Renaissance Spain. ... Rumba Flamenca, Rumba Flamenco, Flamenco Rumba, or Gypsy Rumba is a style of Rumba music from Southern Spain. ... The Zambra, also known as the Zambra Mora is a flamenco dance performed by the Roma people (Gitanos) of Granada which is believed to have evolved from earlier Moorish dances and has some similarities to belly dancing. ... ... Sevillanas is a type of folk music, sung and written in Seville (Andalusia)in Spain. ...


12-beat amalgams are in fact the most common in flamenco. There are three types of these, which vary in their layouts, or use of accentuations:

  • The soleá
  • The seguiriya
  • The bulería
  1. peteneras and guajiras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  2. The seguiriya, liviana, serrana, toná liviana, cabales: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 The seguiriya is measured in the same way as the soleá but starting on the 8th beat
  3. soleá, within the cantiñas group of palos which includes the alegrías, cantiñas, mirabras, romera, caracoles and soleá por bulería (also “ bulería por soleá”): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. For practical reasons, when transferring flamenco guitar music to sheet music, this rhythm is written as a regular 3/4. The Bulerías is the emblematic palo of flamenco, today its 12 beat cycle is most often played with accents on the 1, 4, 8, and 9th beats. The accompanying palmas are played in groups of 6 beats, giving rise to a multitude of counter rhythms and percussive voices within the 12 beat compás

The compás is fundamental to flamenco, it is the basic definition of the music, and without compás, there is no flamenco. Compás is therefore more than simply the division of beats and accentuations, it is the backbone of this musical form. In private gatherings, if there is no guitarist available, the compás is rendered through hand clapping (palmas) or by hitting a table with the knuckles. This is also sometimes done in recordings especially for bulerías. The guitar also has an important function, using techniques like strumming (rasgueado) or tapping the soundboard. Changes of chords also emphasize the most important downbeats. When a dancers are present, they use their feet as a percussion instrument. The Petenera is a flamenco palo in a 12-beat metre, with strong beats distributed as follows: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is therefore identical with the 16th century Spanish dances zarabanda and the jácara. ... Guajira is a style of Cuban acoustic music. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidilla gitana) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... The Cantiñas is a group of flamenco palos (musical forms, originated in the area of Cádiz in Andalusia (although some styles of cantiña have developed in the province of Seville). ... Alegrías is a flamenco style, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] It may also be broken down into... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] When performed, the buleria usually starts on... This article is in need of attention. ...


Forms of flamenco expression

Flamenco is expressed through the toque -- the playing of the flamenco guitar, the cante (singing), and the baile (dancing)


Toque

Main article: Flamenco guitar

The flamenco guitar (and the very similar classical guitar) is a descendent from the lute. The first guitars are thought to have originated in Spain in the 15th century. The traditional flamenco guitar is made of Spanish cypress and spruce, and is lighter in weight and a bit smaller than a classical guitar, to give the output a 'sharper' sound. The flamenco guitar, in contrast to the classical, is also equipped with a barrier, called a golpeador. This is often plastic, similar to a pick guard, and protects the body of the guitar from the rhythmic finger taps, called golpes. The flamenco guitar is also used in several different ways from the classical guitar, including different strumming patterns and styles, as well as the use of a capo in many circumstances. A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... Spanish guitar redirects here. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... Binomial name Cupressus sempervirens L. The Mediterranean Cypress Cupressus sempervirens is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southeast Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon and western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Typical guitar pickguard (Fender-style) and everything needed for installation. ... Golpe has multiple meanings, as described below: A Flamenco guitar technique where one uses the fingers to tap on the soundboard of the guitar A Coup détat This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For other uses, see Capo (disambiguation). ...


Cante

Main article: Cante flamenco
Flamenco performance by the La Primavera group
Flamenco performance by the La Primavera group

Foreigners often think that the essence of flamenco is the dance. However, the heart of flamenco is the song (cante). Although to the uninitiated, flamenco seems totally extemporaneous, these cantes (songs) and bailes (dances) follow strict musical and poetic rules. The verses (coplas) of these songs often are beautiful and concise poems, and the style of the flamenco copla was often imitated by Andalucian poets. Garcia Lorca is perhaps the best known of these poets. In the 1920s he, along with the composer Manuel de Falla and other intellectuals, crusaded to raise the status of flamenco as an art form and preserve its purity. But the future of flamenco is uncertain. Flamenco is tied to the conditions and culture of Andalusia in the past, and as Spain modernizes and integrates into the European community, it is questionable whether flamenco can survive the social and economic changes. The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... Download high resolution version (868x760, 57 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (868x760, 57 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Federico García Lorca Federico García Lorca (June 5, 1898 - August 19, 1936) was a Spanish poet and dramatist, also remembered as a painter, pianist, and composer. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ...


Cante flamenco can be categorized in a number of ways. First, a cante may be categorized according to whether it follows a strict rhythmic pattern ("compas") or follows a free rhythm ("libre"). The cantes with compas fit one of four compas patterns. These compas-types are generally known by the name of the most important cante of the group. Thus

  1. Solea
  2. Siguiriya
  3. Tango
  4. Fandango

The solea group includes the cantes: solea; romances, solea por bulerias, alegrias (cantinas); La Cana; El Polo


Baile

El baile flamenco is a highly-expressive solo dance, known for its emotional sweeping of the arms and rhythmic stomping of the feet. While flamenco dancers (bailaores and bailaoras) invest a considerable amount of study and practice into their art form, the dances are not choreographed, but are improvised along the palo or rhythm. In addition to the percussion provided by the heels and balls of the feet striking the floor, castanets are sometimes held in the hands and clicked together rapidly to the rhythm of the music, or clicking using just fingers. Sometimes, folding fans are used for visual effect. For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... Renoirs 1909 painting Dancing girl with castanets Castanets The castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), much used in Moorish music, Roma music, Spanish music and Latin American music. ...


Palos

Main article: Palo (flamenco)
Performers in Seville
Performers in Seville

Flamenco music styles are called palos in Spanish. There are over 50 different palos flamenco, although some of them are rarely performed. A palo can be defined as musical form of flamenco. Flamenco songs are classified into palos based on several musical and non-musical criteria such as its basic rhythmic pattern, mode, chord progression, form of the stanza, or geographic origin. The rhythmic patterns of the palos are also often called compás. A compás (the Spanish normal word for either time signature or bar) is characterised by a recurring pattern of beats and accents. A palo is the name traditionally given in the flamenco environment for the different musical forms that constitute the traditional musical heritage of flamenco. ... Image File history File links FlamencoSevilla. ... Image File history File links FlamencoSevilla. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... A palo is the name traditionally given in the flamenco environment for the different musical forms that constitute the traditional musical heritage of flamenco. ... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... This article is about modes as used in music. ... A chord progression (also chord sequence and harmonic progression or sequence), as its name implies, is a series of chords played in order. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each measure and what note value constitutes one beat. ... In musical notation, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ...


To really understand the different palos, it is also important to understand their musical and cultural context:

  • The mood intention of the palo (for example, dancing - Alegrías, consolation - Soleá, fun - Bulerias, etc.). Although palos are associated with type of feeling or mood, this is by no means rigid.
  • The set of typical melodic phrases, called falsetas, which are often used in performances of a certain palo.
  • The relation to similar palos.
  • Cultural traditions associated with a palo (ie: men's dance - Farruca)

Some of the forms are sung unaccompanied, while others usually have a guitar and sometimes other accompaniment. Some forms are danced while others traditionally are not. Amongst both the songs and the dances, some are traditionally the reserve of men and others of women, while still others could be performed by either sex. Many of these traditional distinctions are now breaking down; for example, the Farruca is traditionally a man's dance, but is now commonly performed by women too. Many flamenco artists, including some considered to be amongst the greatest, have specialised in a single flamenco form. Alegrías is a flamenco style, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] It may also be broken down into... A Falseta is part of a Flamenco song, much as a sentence is part of a paragraph. ... A form of Flamenco music, probably originating in the Galicia region of north-western Spain. ...


The classification of flamenco palos is not entirely uncontentious, but a common traditional classification is into three groups. The deepest, most serious forms are known as cante jondo (or cante grande), while relatively light, frivolous forms are called cante chico. Other non-musical considerations often factor into this classification, such as whether the origin of the palo is considered to be gypsy or not. Forms which do not fit into either category but lie somewhere between them are classified as cante intermedio. However, there is no general agreement on how to classify each palo. Whereas there is general agreement that the soleá, seguiriya and the tonás must be considered cante jondo, there is wide controversy on where to place cantes like the fandango, malagueña, or tientos. Many flamenco fans tend to disregard this classification as highly subjective, or else they considered that, whatever makes a song cante grande is not the song itself but the depth of the interpreter. An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music also known as deep song. Cante Jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. ... The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... The cante flamenco (flamenco song) is one of the three main components within the expression of flamenco, along with toque (playing the flamenco guitar) and baile (dance). ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidilla gitana) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. ... Fandangos is a style of flamenco music and dance, probably derived from the jota[]. Philologists link it to the ancient Roman erotic dance known as the cordax (called iconici motus by the poet Horace and the playwright Plautus). ... María Rodríguez and the group El Chiguao interpretating Malagueñas The Malagueña is a typical folk music from the venezuelan east. ... Tiento is a musical form of fantasia with its origins in Renaissance Spain. ...


The classification below reflects another traditional classification of cantes more based on rhythmic pattern, but also taking the origin into account.


Toná Palos (usually known as Cantes a palo seco)

  • Debla
  • Martinetes
  • Carceleras
  • Saetas
  • Tonás
  • Trilla

The Spanish term Cantes a palo seco refers to a category of flamenco palos (musical forms) traditionally sung a capella or, in some cases, with some sort of percussion. ... Martinetes are a flamenco palo belonging to the group of the tonás or cantes a palo seco. ... Tonás is the name given to a palo or type of flamenco songs. ...

Palos based on the Soleá rhythm

Soleá, soleares is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... The alboreá or albolá is a flamenco palo which is sung only in Gypsy marriage rites, and many Gypsies refuse to sing it outside this context or in the presence of non-Gypsies. ... A bulerias is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] or 1 2 [3] 4 5 6 [7] [8] 9 [10] 11 [12] When performed, the buleria usually starts on... Luis Maravilla (Luis Lopez Tejera) Flamenco guitarist. ... Polo is the name of a flamenco palo or musical form. ... The Cantiñas is a group of flamenco palos (musical forms, originated in the area of Cádiz in Andalusia (although some styles of cantiña have developed in the province of Seville). ... Alegrías is a flamenco style, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. ... The Petenera is a flamenco palo in a 12-beat metre, with strong beats distributed as follows: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. It is therefore identical with the 16th century Spanish dances zarabanda and the jácara. ... Romances is a bolero album by Luis Miguel, released in 1997. ... Soleares, or soleá is one of the most basic forms or palos of Flamenco music, probably originated around Cádiz or Seville in Andalusia, the most southern region of Spain. ... Juan Serrano was a sixteenth century navigator who sailed with Ferdinand Magellan during the first circumnavigation of the world (1517-1519). ...

Palos derived from Fandango

  • Fandangos de Huelva
  • Fandangos orientales (from Eastern Andalusia and Murcia)
    • Fandangos abandolaos, including:
    • Fandangos libres (free of rhythmic pattern):
      • Granaínas
      • Media Granaína
      • Malagueñas
      • Cantes de las minas (songs originated in mining areas): Minera, Tarantos, Tarantas, Cartageneras, Murciana, Levantica, Cantes de madrugá
  • Fandangos personales (personal creations)

This page is about the flamenco style; for other meanings, see Fandango (disambiguation). ... Verdiales are a Flamenco music style, and song form belonging to Canté Chico. ... Cantes libres (sing. ... Malagueñas is one of the traditional styles of flamenco, derived from earlier types of fandango from the area of Málaga, classified among the Cantes de Levante. ... Minera is a small village near Wrexham in North Wales. ... Tarantas may refer to Tarantas (flamenco), a style of flamenco from Almería, derived from the Andalusian fandango Tarantella, a traditional Italian dance or song Tarantass, a horse-drawn Russian carriage Category: ... Cartageneras are a flamenco palo belonging to the category of the Cantes de las minas (in English, songs of the mines) or cantes minero-levantinos (eastern miner songs). ...

Seguiriya Palos

Siguiriyas (also seguiriyas, seguidillas) is a form of flamenco music belonging to the cante jondo category. ... Carlos Montoya was a prominent Flamenco guitarist. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...

Palos with a Tango rhythm

A form of Flamenco music, probably originating in the Galicia region of north-western Spain. ... Sabicas (Agustín Castellón Campos) was a Flamenco guitarist who was born in 1912 in Pamplona, Spain and died in 1990 in New York. ... Mariana Islands (sometimes called The Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called the Ladrone Islands) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the Pacific Ocean. ... Tiento is a musical form of fantasia with its origins in Renaissance Spain. ... Tangos is a flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the Rumba. ...

Palos de "Ida y vuelta"

Other palos with a tango rhythm are often considered as "Ida y vuelta", that is, originated in Spanish America.

  • Colombianas
  • Guajiras - (Sabicas. 35 seconds,158Kb)
  • Milonga
  • Rumba
  • Vidalitas

Sabicas (Agustín Castellón Campos) was a Flamenco guitarist who was born in 1912 in Pamplona, Spain and died in 1990 in New York. ... Milonga is a South American form of music, as dance, as the term for the place where tango is danced. ... In Cuba, Rumba is a generic term covering a variety of musical rhythms and associated dances. ...

Other palos of difficult classification

  • Campanilleros
  • Bambera
  • Sevillanas
  • Nanas
  • Zambras
  • Zorongo

A Campanillero is a flamenco cante or song form. ... This article is under construction. ... Sevillana is a popular flamenco dance from Seville. ...

Flamenco artists

Flamenco occurs in two types of settings. The first, the juerga is an informal gathering where people are free to join in creating music. This can include dancing, singing, palmas (hand clapping), or simply pounding in rhythm on an old orange crate or a table. Flamenco, in this context, is very dynamic: it adapts to the local talent, instrumentation, and mood of the audience. One tradition remains firmly in place: singers are the most important part.


The professional concert is more formal and organized. The traditional singing performance has only a singer and one guitar, while a dancing performance usually included two or three guitars, one or more singers (singing in turns, as in traditional flamenco singers always sing solo), and one or more dancers. A guitar concert used to include a single guitarist, with no other support, though this is now extremely rare except for a few guitarists like Dylan Hunt or, occasionally, Gerardo Núñez. The so-called New flamenco has included other instruments, like the now ubiquitous cajón, flutes or saxophones, piano or other keyboards, or even the bass guitar and the electric guitar. Camarón de la Isla was one artist who popularized this style. In music, a solo is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung by a single performer (solo is an Italian word literally meaning alone). ... Kevin Sorbo as Dylan Hunt in Andromeda Dylan Hunt is the name of two fictional characters created for television by Gene Roddenberry. ... Jerez de la Frontera (Cádiz), 1961. ... Flamenco Nuevo (New Flamenco) is synonymous with contemporary flamenco and is a modern derivitave of traditional flamenco (see the cafés cantantés period, and Rámon Montoya (1880-1949)). Although the most important early pioneers of modern flamenco are widely accepted to be the guitarist Paco de Lucía... A cajón (Spanish for crate, drawer, or box, pronounced ka. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... Two different electric guitars. ... Camarón de la Isla (born December 5, 1950, Cádiz, Spain; Died July 2, 1992, Barcelona, Spain), stage name of flamenco singer José Monge Cruz. ...


A great number of flamenco artists are not capable of performing in both settings at the same level. There are still many artists, and some of them with a good level, who only perform in juergas, or at most in private parties with a small audience. As to their training in the art, traditional flamenco artists never received any formal training: they learnt in the context of the family, by listening and watching their relations, friends and neighbours. Since the appearance of recordings, though, they have relied more and more on audiovisual materials to learn from other famous artists. Nowadays, dancers and guitarists (and sometimes even singers) take lessons in schools or in short courses organized by famous performers. Some guitarists can even read music or learn from teachers in others styles like classical guitar or jazz, and many dancers take courses in contemporary dance or Classical Spanish ballet. Spanish guitar redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


An overview of the various flamenco artists can be found in the following categories:

  • Category: Flamenco singers
  • Category: Flamenco guitarists
  • Category: Flamenco dancers
  • Category: Flamenco bands

Sources

  • ÁLVAREZ CABALLERO, Ángel: El cante flamenco, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, Second edition, 1998. ISBN 84-206-9682-X (First edition: 1994)
  • ÁLVAREZ CABALLERO, Ángel: La Discografía ideal del cante flamenco, Planeta, Barcelona, 1995. ISBN 84-08-01602-4
  • COELHO, Víctor Anand (Editor): "Flamenco Guitar: History, Style, and Context," in The Cambridge Companion to the Guitar, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp. 13-32.
  • MAIRENA, Antonio & MOLINA, Ricardo: Mundo y formas del cante flamenco, Librería Al-Ándalus, Third Edition, 1979 (First Edition: Revista de Occidente, 1963)
  • MARTÍN SALAZAR, Jorge: Los cantes flamencos, Diputación Provincial de Granada, Granada, 1991 ISBN 84-7807-041-9
  • MANUEL, Peter. “Flamenco in Focus: An Analysis of a Performance of Soleares.” In Analytical Studies in World Music, edited by Michael Tenzer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 92-119.
  • ORTIZ NUEVO, José Luis: Alegato contra la pureza, Libros PM, Barcelona, 1996. ISBN 84-88944-07-1
  • RÍOS RUIZ, Ayer y hoy del cante flamenco, Ediciones ISTMO, Tres Cantos (Madrid), 1997, ISBN 84-7090-311-X
  • ROSSY, Hipólito: Teoría del Cante Jondo, CREDSA, Barcelona, 1998. ISBN 84-7056-354-8 (First edition: 1966)

See also

Portal:Guitar
Visit the Guitar Portal

Image File history File links E-Guitare-horiz. ... Camarón de la Isla (born December 5, 1950, Cádiz, Spain; Died July 2, 1992, Barcelona, Spain), stage name of flamenco singer José Monge Cruz. ... Paco de Lucía is an internationally recognized Spanish flamenco guitarist, and leading exponent of the New Flamenco style. ... A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, also known as the Golden Age of Arab Rule in Spain, refers to a period of history during the Muslim occupation of Spain in which Jews were generally accepted in Spanish society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed. ... The Convivencia (711-1492) was a time of peace, not of the entire iberian peninsula nor anywhere during the entire age, after the arab invasion of Spain (711) where the three prominent religious groups, the muslims, the christians and the jews lived in peace with major economic success in comparison... Picados -- the flamenco scales of a guitar or guitar playing technique by which the musician plays scale passages by alternating the index and middle fingers. ... A palo is the name traditionally given in the flamenco environment for the different musical forms that constitute the traditional musical heritage of flamenco. ... Silverio Franconetti, also known simply as Silverio (b. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Flamenco Dance, Guitar, Music, Pictures … (459 words)
Flamenco is a genuine Spanish art form, or, to be more exact, a genuine Southern Spanish art.
From 1910 to 1955 flamenco singing was marked by the ópera flamenca, with an easier kind of music such as fandangos and cantes de ida y vuelta-the latter clearly showing South American influences.
You have not heard authentic flamenco if you have not been in a juerga, with a small group of friends, at midnight somewhere in the south of Spain, where there is nothing around but the voice, the guitar and the body of a dancer moving in the moonlight.
FLAMENCO by All About Spain (515 words)
Flamenco is a genuine Spanish art, and to be more exact an genuine Southern Spanish art.
Flamenco dance arrived to its climax, being the major attraction for the public of those cafés cantantes.
The Flamenco guitar that formerly was just featuring the dancers arrived to be a soloistical art form, great virtuoso Paco de Lucia being the pioneer of that development.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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