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Encyclopedia > Flame
Flame generated by the burning of a candle.
Flame generated by the burning of a candle.

A flame is the product of a highly exothermic reaction (for example, combustion, a self-sustaining oxidation reaction). In other words, a flame is the visible (light emitting) part of a fire. Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 530 KB)Candle wick burning. ... Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 530 KB)Candle wick burning. ... // Flame is the visible part of fire. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ... Conflagration redirects here. ...


The color and temperature of a flame are dependent on the type of fuel involved in the combustion, for example, when a lighter is held to a candle. This applied heat causes the fuel molecules in the wick to vaporize, in this state they can then readily react with oxygen in the air, which gives off enough heat in the subsequent exothermic reaction to vaporize yet more fuel, thus sustaining a consistent flame. The high temperature of the flame tears apart the vaporized fuel molecules, forming various incomplete combustion products and free radicals, these products then react with the oxidizer involved in the reaction. Sufficient energy in the flame will excite the electrons in the pre-combusted products, which results in the emission of visible light (see spectrum below for an explanation of which specific radical species produce which specific colors). As the combustion temperature of a flame increases, (if the flame contains small particles of unburnt carbon or other material) so does the average energy of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the flame (see blackbody). Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Fig. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame. ... It has been suggested that Pillar candle be merged into this article or section. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is defined as transfer of thermal energy [1] Generally, heat is a form of energy transfer associated with the different motions of atoms, molecules and other particles that comprise matter when it is hot and when it is cold. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... e- redirects here. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible light) or, in a technical or scientific context, electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength[1]. The elementary particle that defines light is the photon. ... Electromagnetic radiation can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ...


Other oxidizers besides oxygen can be used to produce a flame. Hydrogen burning in chlorine produces a flame and in the process emits gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) as the combustion product. Another of many possible chemical combinations is hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide which is hypergolic and commonly used in rocket engines. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrazine is the chemical compound with formula N2H4. ... Nitrogen tetroxide (or Dinitrogen tetroxide) (N2O4) is a hypergolic propellant often used in combination with a hydrazine-based rocket fuel. ... Hypergolic rocket fuels spontaneously ignite when their two components come into contact with each other. ... A cold (un-ignited) rocket engine test at NASA A rocket engine is a reaction engine that can be used for spacecraft propulsion as well as terrestrial uses, such as missiles. ...


Flames, or at least portions of them, are often considered to be partial plasmas or a partially ionized gas, but in more general terms a flame is a region of exothermic chemical reaction of high enough temperature to emit visible light. A central region enclosed by such a reaction (but which does not necessarily participate in the reaction itself) is often also considered part of the flame. A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ...


There are different methods of distributing the required components of combustion to a flame. In a diffusion flame, oxygen and fuel diffuse into each other; where they meet the flame occurs. In a premixed flame, the oxygen and fuel are premixed beforehand, which results in a different type of flame. Candle flames (a diffusion flame) operate through evaporation of the fuel which rises in a laminar flow of hot gas which then mixes with surrounding oxygen and combusts. A nearly-turbulent diffusion flame. ... The bright conical flames near the jets of a standard household gas stove are the premixed flame front. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... laminar and turbulent water flow over the hull of a submarine In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion, low momentum convection, and pressure and velocity independence from time. ...


Flame color

Different flame types of a Bunsen burner depend on oxygen supply. On the left a rich fuel mixture with no premixed oxygen produces a yellow sooty diffusion flame and on the right a lean fully oxygen premixed flame produces no soot and the flame color is produced by molecular radical band emission.
Different flame types of a Bunsen burner depend on oxygen supply. On the left a rich fuel mixture with no premixed oxygen produces a yellow sooty diffusion flame and on the right a lean fully oxygen premixed flame produces no soot and the flame color is produced by molecular radical band emission.
Spectrum of the blue (premixed, ie. complete combustion) flame from a butane torch showing molecular radical band emission and Swan bands. Note that virtually all the light produced is in the blue to green region of the spectrum below about 565 nanometers, accounting for the bluish color of sootless hydrocarbon flames.
Spectrum of the blue (premixed, ie. complete combustion) flame from a butane torch showing molecular radical band emission and Swan bands. Note that virtually all the light produced is in the blue to green region of the spectrum below about 565 nanometers, accounting for the bluish color of sootless hydrocarbon flames.
Image of a flame test for sodium. Note that the yellow color in this gas flame does not arise from the blackbody emission of soot particles (as the flame is clearly a blue premixed complete combustion flame) but instead comes from the spectral line emission of sodium atoms, specifically the very intense "sodium D lines".
Image of a flame test for sodium. Note that the yellow color in this gas flame does not arise from the blackbody emission of soot particles (as the flame is clearly a blue premixed complete combustion flame) but instead comes from the spectral line emission of sodium atoms, specifically the very intense "sodium D lines".

Flame color depends on several factors. Typically the most important being: blackbody radiation and spectral band emission with both spectral line emission and spectral line absorption playing smaller roles. In the most common type of flame, hydrocarbon flames, the most important factor which determines color is oxygen supply and the extent of fuel oxygen "pre-mixture", which determines the rate of combustion and thus the temperature and reaction paths, different color hues are thereby produced. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1668x1500, 87 KB) Ta grafika została stworzona przez Artura Jana Fijałkowskiego (WarX) przy użyciu Wolnego Oprogramowania i udostępniona na zasadach licencji GFDL. Autorem zdjęć jest Garett. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1668x1500, 87 KB) Ta grafika została stworzona przez Artura Jana Fijałkowskiego (WarX) przy użyciu Wolnego Oprogramowania i udostępniona na zasadach licencji GFDL. Autorem zdjęć jest Garett. ... Spectral bands are part of optical spectra of polyatomic systems, including condensed materials, large molecules etc. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3950x2739, 411 KB)[edit] Summary Spectrum of a blue flame from a pocket butane torch clearly showing non-continuum spectral emission. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3950x2739, 411 KB)[edit] Summary Spectrum of a blue flame from a pocket butane torch clearly showing non-continuum spectral emission. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Spectrum of the blue flame from a butane torch showing excited molecular radical band emission and Swan bands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 249 KB) Gas flame used for flame test of sodiumcarbonate. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 249 KB) Gas flame used for flame test of sodiumcarbonate. ... The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... Spectral bands are part of optical spectra of polyatomic systems, including condensed materials, large molecules etc. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


In a laboratory under normal gravity conditions and with a closed oxygen valve, a Bunsen burner burns with yellow flame (also called a safety flame) at around 1,000°C. This is due to incandescence of very fine soot particles which are produced in the flame. With increasing oxygen supply less blackbody-radiating soot is produced due to a more complete combustion and the reaction creates enough energy to excite and ionize gas molecules in the flame, leading to a blue appearance. The spectrum of a premixed (complete combustion) butane flame on the right shows that the blue color arises specifically due to emission of excited molecular radicals in the flame which emit the vast majority of their light well below ~565 nanometers in the blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. Michael Faraday, 19th century physicist and chemist, in his lab. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... A bunsen burner with needle valve. ... Molten glassy material glows orange with incandescence in a vitrification experiment. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... The visible spectrum (or sometimes optical spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to (can be detected by) the human eye. ...


Flame temperatures of common items include a blowlamp at 1,300°C, a candle at 1,400°C [1], or a much hotter oxyacetylene combustion at 3,000°C. An old-fashioned kerosene blowlamp A blowlamp is a simple heating torch, which burns fuel with ambient atmospheric air. ... It has been suggested that Pillar candle be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oxy-fuel welding and cutting. ...


Generally speaking, the coolest part of a diffusion (incomplete combustion) flame will be red, transitioning to orange, yellow, and white the temperature increases as evidenced by changes in the blackbody radiation spectrum. For a given flame's region, the closer to white on this scale, the hotter that section of the flame is. A blue-colored flame only emerges when the amount of soot decreases and the blue emissions from excited molecular radicals become dominant. As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ...

In zero gravity, convection does not carry the hot combustion products away from the fuel source, resulting in a spherical flame front.
In zero gravity, convection does not carry the hot combustion products away from the fuel source, resulting in a spherical flame front.

Recent discoveries by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States have found that gravity also indirectly plays a role in flame formation and composition. [1] The common distribution of a flame under normal gravity conditions depends on convection, as soot tends to rise to the top of a flame (such as in a candle in normal gravity conditions), making it yellow. In microgravity or zero gravity, such as an outer space environment, convection no longer occurs and the flame becomes spherical, with a tendency to become bluer and more efficient. There are several possible explanations for this difference, of which the most likely is the hypothesis that the temperature is sufficiently evenly distributed that soot is not formed and complete combustion occurs. [2] Experiments by NASA in microgravity reveal that diffusion flames in microgravity allow more soot to be completely oxidized after they are produced than do diffusion flames on Earth, because of a series of mechanisms that behave differently in microgravity when compared to normal gravity conditions. [3][4] These discoveries have potential applications in applied science and industry, especially concerning fuel efficiency. Image File history File links Candlespace. ... Image File history File links Candlespace. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... NASA Logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness Weightlessness is the experience (by people and objects) during freefall, of having no weight. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, also simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Convection is the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States Government, responsible for that nations public space program. ... A nearly-turbulent diffusion flame. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... Fuel efficiency sometimes means the same as thermal efficiency, that is, the efficiency of converting energy contained in a carrier fuel to kinetic energy or work. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flaming - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1561 words)
Flaming is the act of posting messages that are deliberately hostile and insulting, usually in the social context of a discussion board (usually on the Internet).
Flaming is said by some to be one of a class of economic problems known as The Tragedy of the Commons, when a group holds a resource (in this case, communal attention), but each of the individual members has an incentive to overuse it.
Whereas a flame war is usually a particular spate of flaming against a non-flamy background, a holy war is a drawn-out disagreement that may last years or even span careers.
Flaming Carrot Comics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (327 words)
Flaming Carrot Comics is a surrealist comic book by Bob Burden originally published by Aardvark-Vanaheim, then by Renegade Comics and Dark Horse Comics between 1984 and 1993.
Flaming Carrot can be seen as a parody of various aspects of the superhero genre (though his origin story is much the same as that of Don Quixote).
The Flaming Carrot lives in Iron City, and was a founding member of a superhero group called Mystery Men.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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