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Encyclopedia > Flagellate
"Flagellata" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904
"Flagellata" from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904
Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia)
Green alga (Chlamydomonas)
Green alga (Chlamydomonas)

Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. Some cells in animals may be flagellate, for instance the spermatozoa of most phyla. Higher plants and fungi do not produce flagellate cells, but the closely related green algae and chytrids do. Many protists take the form of single-celled flagellates. They are found in most lines of eukaryotes, and it is likely that all surviving eukaryotes evolved from them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2319x3267, 1479 KB) Summary The 13th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Flagellata. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2319x3267, 1479 KB) Summary The 13th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Flagellata. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... Giardia lamblia, a parasitic flagellate that causes giardiasis. ... Giardia lamblia, a parasitic flagellate that causes giardiasis. ... The excavates are a major line of protists, often known as Excavata. ... Chlamydomonas, a single-celled green alga. ... Chlamydomonas, a single-celled green alga. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Schematic diagram of a sperm cell, showing the (1) acrosome, (2) cell membrane, (3) nucleus, (4) mitochondria, and (5) flagellum (tail) A sperm cell, or spermatozoon ( spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Orders Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Blastocladiales Monoblepharidales Neocallimasticales Chytridiomycota is a division of the Fungi kingdom and contains only one class, Chytridiomycetes. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ...


Form and behavior

Eukaryotic flagella are supported by microtubules in a characteristic arrangement, with nine fused pairs surrounding two central singlets. These arise from a basal body or kinetosome, with microtubule roots that are an important part of the cell's brain. In some, for instance, they support a cytostome or mouth, where food is ingested. The flagella often support hairs, called mastigonemes, or contain rods. Their ultrastructure plays an important role in classifying eukaryotes. Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... A cytostome or cell mouth is a part of a cell specialized for phagocytosis, usually in the form of a microtubule-supported funnel or groove. ...


In protists and microscopic animals, flagella are generally used for propulsion. They may also be used to create a current that brings in food. In most things, one or more flagella are located at or near the anterior of the cell eg Euglena. Often there is one directed forwards and one trailing behind. Among animals, fungi, and Choanozoa, which make up a group called the opisthokonts, there is a single posterior flagellum. They are from the phylum Mastigophora. The opisthokonts (Greek opistho- rear, posterior + kontos pole i. ...


Groups of flagellates

Originally the flagellate protozoa were treated as a single class of phylum, the Mastigophora. This was divided into the Phytomastigina or phytoflagellates, which have chloroplasts or are closely related to such forms, and the Zoomastigina or zooflagellates, which do not. Most phytoflagellates were given a separate classification by botanists, treating them in several divisions of algae. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ...


This scheme has generally been abandoned or is retained only for convenience. However, the relationships among the flagellates are still mostly unknown, and their higher classification is confused. Some argue that the Linnaean ranks are not appropriate for such a diverse set of organisms.


Phytoflagellates are found in most groups of algae. Both the green algae and heterokonts include a variety of flagellates in addition to non-motile and multicellular forms. The dinoflagellates, cryptomonads, haptophytes, and euglenids are almost entirely single-celled flagellates. A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Streptophytina (Subdivision) The green algae are the large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged. ... Typical classes Colored groups Chrysophyceae (golden algae) Synurophyceae Actinochrysophyceae (axodines) Pelagophyceae Phaeothamniophyceae Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) Bolidophyceae Raphidophyceae Eustigmatophyceae Xanthophyceae (yellow-green algae) Phaeophyceae (brown algae) Colorless groups Oomycetes (water moulds) Hypochytridiomycetes Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea The heterokonts or stramenopiles are a major line of eukaryotes containing about 10,500... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Typical genera Order Cryptomonadales    Campylomonas    Chilomonas    Chroomonas    Cryptomonas    Falcomonas    Geminigera    Guillardia    Hemiselmis    Plagioselmis    Proteomonas    Storeatula    Rhodomonas    Teleaulax Order Goniomonadales    Goniomonas The cryptomonads are a small group of flagellates, most of which have chloroplasts. ... Orders Class Pavlovophyceae    Pavlovales Class Prymnesiophyceae    Prymnesiales    Phaeocystales    Isochrysidales    Coccolithales The haptophytes, classed either as the Prymnesiophyta or Haptophyta, are a group of algae. ... Major groups Phototrophs    Euglenales    Eutreptiales Osmotrophs    Rhabdomonadales Phagotrophs    ?Heteronematales    ?Sphenomonadales The euglenids (also spelled euglenoids) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, commonly found in freshwater especially when it is rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. ...


Many of the other flagellates make up what are called the excavate taxa. These include the euglenids and a number of important parasites, such as trypanosomes and Giardia. The excavates generally show similarities in the structure of their flagella and typically have a cytostome. However, they may be a paraphyletic group, and in particular may have been ancestral to most or all other eukaryotes. The excavates are a major line of protists, often known as Excavata. ... Genera Blastocrithidia Crithidia Endotrypanum Herpetomonas Leishmania Leptomonas Phytomonas Trypanosoma Wallaceina Trypanosomes are a group of kinetoplastid protozoa distinguished by having only a single flagellum. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Other notable groups including flagellates are the Cercozoa, alveolates (including dinoflagellates), ebriids, and Apusozoa. The Cercozoa are a group of protists, including most amoeboids and flagellates that feed by means of filose pseudopods. ... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... A protist. ... Orders Apusomonadida Ancyromonadida Hemimastigida The Apusozoa comprise several genera of flagellate protozoa. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
P.T.K. Woo: Blood Flagellate Research Unit (856 words)
Patrick Woo has always focused his research on the blood flagellates (Figs.
It is morphologically similar to the intestinal flagellate (Hexamita) in fish, and both parasites are closely related to the Giardia in mammals.
The parasite causes morbidity and mortality in fishes and there have been outbreaks of the disease in salmon cultured in sea cages - in chinook salmon on the west coast of Canada and in Atlantic salmon in Norway.
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Grazing Pressure by a Bacterivorous Flagellate Reverses the Relative Abundance of Comamonas acidovorans PX54 and Vibrio Strain CB5 in Chemostat Cocultures
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Effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in a chemostat.
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