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Encyclopedia > Flag of convenience
The chemical tanker Sichem Princess Marie-Chantal had Panama City as its port of registry when this 2005 picture was taken but as of 2007 it is registered in Valetta with Maltese flag. It was the property of Eitzen Chemical (Singapore) and has the ITF Special Agreement on board.
The chemical tanker Sichem Princess Marie-Chantal had Panama City as its port of registry when this 2005 picture was taken but as of 2007 it is registered in Valetta with Maltese flag. It was the property of Eitzen Chemical (Singapore) and has the ITF Special Agreement on board[1].

A ship is said to be flying a flag of convenience if it is registered in a foreign country "for purposes of reducing operating costs or avoiding government regulations". However, it might very well be simply to take advantage of a country's infrastructure such as a world-wide network of consulates, fast service, etc.[2] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... Home port Port aux Français lettered beneath the ship name on the stern A vessels home port, or hailing port, is its port of origin as shown on its registration documents[1] and lettered on the stern of the ships hull. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... St Johns Co-Cathedral Valletta, population 7048 (official estimate for 2000), is the capital of Malta. ... Eitzen Chemical (OSE: ECHEM) is an international shipping company that owns 72, commercial manages additional 12 and has 31 newbuilding chemical tankers. ...


The term comes from the flag that ships fly to show their country of registration. Under conventions of international law, the country of registration determines the source of law to be applied in admiralty cases, regardless of which court has personal jurisdiction over the parties.[3] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Personal jurisdiction, jurisdiction of (or over) the person, or jurisdiction in personam is the power of a court to require a party (usually the defendant) or a witness to come before the court. ...

Contents

Background

As of 2000, half the world's tonnage of merchant ships were registered under flags of convenience.[4] Some reasons for this include the avoidance of heavy taxes,[5] the ability to hire crews from lower-wage countries,[5] avoidance of environmental regulations,[6] and an overall reduction in the cost of transportation.[5]


A specific example of the type of advantage flying a flag of convenience offers is bypassing the 50% duty the United States government charges on repairs performed on American-flagged ships in foreign ports.[5] The accumulated advantages can be significant, for example in 1999, 28 of Sea-Land's fleet of 63 ships were foreign flagged, saving the company up to 3.5 million dollars per ship per year.[5] Sea-Land Corporation was a United States shipping company that pioneered containerization. ...


On the other hand, some flag of convenience ships are characterized by "poor conditions, inadequately trained crews, and frequent collisions."[6] An illustrative example was the Prestige oil spill in 2002 off the Spanish Northwest coast. The International Transport Workers' Federation points out that FOC vessels frequently fail to pay their crews,[5] have poor safety records,[5] and engage in practices such as abandoning crewmen in distant ports.[5]. It might be argued that these practices occur more in cases such as Liberia, Vanuatu and Belize, rather than well developed open registries such as Panama, Cyprus, Marshall Islands and The Bahamas. Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ... The International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers trade unions, founded in 1896. ...


History

The first flag of convenience was that of Panama[7] and the practice of re-flagging ships grew in popularity during the period from 1920-1933 of Prohibition in the United States.[5] During this time, American rum runners carried illegal alcohol under the Panamanian flag.[5] Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... Rum-running is the business of smuggling or transporting of alcoholic beverages illegally, usually to circumvent taxation or prohibition. ...


Failing to control the Panamanian registry at will, in 1948, the United States helped Liberia create its "open registry."[7] The Liberian registry attracted American oil companies[7] and Greek shipowners[7] who sought to avoid high labor costs.[7] The success of Liberia's registry encouraged the opening of other competing registries.[7]


In the 1970s the United Nations attempted to adopt regulations that would have stopped the practice.[7] However, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries defeated these measures.[7] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


In 2002 in the United States, Democratic senator John Breaux of Louisiana proposed a bill intending to curtail the use of foreign flags as a counter-terrorism measure.[7] The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... John Berlinger Breaux (last name pronounced BRO) was a United States senator from Louisiana from 1987 until 2005. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Opposition

The use of a flag of convenience in order to take advantage of another nation's laxer registration standards is frowned upon for two reasons: The practice causes nations with stricter requirements to lose income and the safety and working conditions of shipboard employees may suffer. However, many nations under the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) require minimum standards for vessels entering their national waters. In the case of the United States, the Coast Guard requires inspections on at least an annual basis and may deny entry to American waters based on defects not corrected. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Cheap registration fees, low taxes, and freedom from labor laws or safety standards are motivating factors for many flags of convenience. Fishing boat owners who use a flag of convenience can also ignore their home countries' conservation agreements. To quote William Langewiesche's The Outlaw Sea: Labor law or labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the relationship between and among employers, employees, and labor organizations, often dealing with issues of public law. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... William Langewiesche is an American author and journalist, and was a professional airplane pilot for many years. ...

"No one pretends that a ship comes from the home port painted on its stern, or that it has ever been anywhere near. Panama is the largest maritime nation on earth, followed by bloody Liberia, which hardly exists. No coastline is required either. There are ships that hail from La Paz, in landlocked Bolivia. There are ships that hail from the Mongolian desert. Moreover, the registries themselves are rarely based in the countries whose names they carry: Panama is considered to be an old-fashioned "flag" because its consulates handle the paperwork and collect the registration fees, but "Liberia" is run by a company in Virginia, "Cambodia" by another in South Korea, and the proud and independent "Bahamas" by a group in the City of London.[8]"

A vessels home port, or hailing port, is its port of origin as shown on its registration documents[1] and lettered on the stern of the ships hull. ... Motto: Los discordes en concordia, en paz y amor se juntaron y pueblo de paz fundaron para perpetua memoria Location of La Paz within Bolivia Coordinates: , Country Departament Province Pedro Domingo Murillo Province Founded October 20, 1548 Incorporated (El Alto) 20th century Government  - Mayor Juan Del Granado Area  - Total 470... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ...

Support

Supporters of flags of convenience argue that where a vessel is engaged in international trade it should be free to register in the jurisdiction which best suits its commercial model. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


Jurisdictions which are criticised as offering flags of convenience also often have relatively sophisticated maritime codes, and courts which are versed in maritime law and admiralty matters. Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ...


Registering vessels in such jurisdictions where they can be mortgaged effectively and the mortgagee's property rights respected facilitates the financing of such vessels. Forcing vessels to register in jurisdictions with unsophisticated maritime laws or where mortgaging the vessel is difficult to do effectively, or worse yet, where the vessel becomes vulnerable to compulsory acquisition causes unnecessary disruption and increased expense in an already volatile international shipping market. Eminent domain (US), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to expropriate private property without the owners consent, either for its own use or by delegation of the taking power...


Ultimately, the higher costs of registering ships in traditional registries is passed on to individual consumers every time that they pay for goods or services which require maritime transport. Restrictive, bureaucratic and expensive registries such as the U.S. flag add hugely to the expense of shipping and have arguably resulted in a small, old and inefficient merchant fleet (see The Jones Act). Tax-efficient flags of convenience enable both lower costs of registration and the maintenance of proper technical, safety and environmental standards, which are influenced not just by the flag that the vessel flies but also by its classification society, insurers, managers and the port state authorities of the countries where it calls to trade.


Supporters note that similar criticisms are rarely raised with regard to aircraft registrations, to which similar considerations apply, but which employ fewer people, and form part of a less unionised industry.[citation needed] A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...


List of flags of convenience

Countries listed as having a flag of convenience by the ITF
Countries listed as having a flag of convenience by the ITF

The International Transport Workers' Federation maintains a list of 32 registries it considers to be FOC registries. In developing the list, the ITF considers "ability and willingness of the flag state to enforce international minimum social standards on its vessels,"[9] the "degree of ratification and enforcement of ILO Conventions and Recommendations,"[9] and "safety and environmental record."[9] The following registries are on the ITF list: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 406 pixelsFull resolution‎ (4,000 × 2,029 pixels, file size: 738 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 406 pixelsFull resolution‎ (4,000 × 2,029 pixels, file size: 738 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Registry Ships Registered[10] Foreign Ships[10] Percent Foreign[10] Site Notes
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 1,011[11] 984[11] 97% Antigua and Barbuda International Shipping Register 858 of these are German-owned[11]
Civil ensign of the Bahamas Bahamas 1,177[12] 1,093[12] 93% Bahamas Maritime Authority 259 Norwegian ships, 232 Greek, and 121 U.S.[12] Flag-state self assessment.
Flag of Barbados Barbados 58[13] 57[13] 98% Barbados Maritime Ship Registry 29 Norwegian ships[13]
Flag of Belize Belize 285[14] 225[14] 79% IMMARBE 103 Chinese, 36 Russian[14]
Flag of Bermuda Bermuda (UK) 132[15] 116[15] 88% Bermuda Department of Maritime Administration 27 U.S., 21 German[15]
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia 24[16] 10[16] 42% Bolivia is a landlocked nation
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia 544[17] 407[17] 75% ISROC China 128, Russia 105.[17]
Cayman Islands 132[18] 130[18] 98% MACI
Flag of the Comoros Comoros 121[19] 72[19] 60% Maritime Administration of the Union of Comoros
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 884[20] 777[20] 88% Republic of Cyprus Department of Merchant Shipping 337 Greek ships, 214 German[20]
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 1[21] 0[21] 0%
French International Ship Register (FIS) 61[22] 13[22] 21% le RIF
German International Ship Register (GIS) 394[23] 4[23] 1%
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia 222[24] 188[24] 85% Syria 43, Turkey 30[24]
Civil ensign of Gibraltar Gibraltar (UK) 180[25] 165[25] 92% Gibraltar Registry of Shipping Germany 108[25]
Flag of Honduras Honduras 136[26] 43[26] 32%
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 10[27] 10[27] 100% Jamaica Ship Registry
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 39[28] 4[28] 10%
Flag of Liberia Liberia 1,687[29] 1,611[29] 95% LISCR Germany 587, Greece 267, Japan 102, Russia 77, Taiwan 69.[29] *Flag State Self Assessment.
Civil ensign of Malta Malta 1,220[30] 1,162[30] 95% Malta Maritime Authority Greece 495, Turkey 123[30]
Flag of the Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 795[31] 730[31] 92% IRI Greece 199, Germany 194, U.S. 143.[31]
Civil ensign of Mauritius Mauritius 6[32] 4[32] 66% Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Land Transport & Shipping
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia 61[33] 49[33] 80% Mongolia Ship Registry Mongolia is a landlocked nation
Flag of Burma Myanmar 34[34] 9[34] 26%
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles 152[35] 143[35] 93% Germany 60, Netherlands 54[35]
Flag of North Korea North Korea 232[36] 60[36] 26%
Flag of Panama Panama 5,473[37] 4,922[37] 90% Autorídad Maritima de Panamá Japan 2007, China 420, Taiwan 308, Switzerland 226, Hong Kong 169, UAE 105, U.S. 94[37]
Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 8[38] 3[38] 38%
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 589[39] 529[39] 90% SVG Maritime Administration China 103[39]
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 22[40] 7[40] 32% Merchant Shipping Division
Flag of Tonga Tonga 16[41] 4[41] 25% International registry suspended in 2002.[42]
Flag of Vanuatu Vanuatu 51[43] 51[43] 100% VMSL Japan 28[43]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Antigua_and_Barbuda. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_the_Bahamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Barbados. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belize. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bermuda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_the_Cayman_Islands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Comoros. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Equatorial_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_Gibraltar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Honduras. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Marshall_Islands. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_Mauritius. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mongolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands_Antilles. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sao_Tome_and_Principe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_Grenadines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vanuatu. ...

See also

Nautical Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag State refers to that authority under which a country exercises regulatory control over the Commercial vessel which is registered under its flag. ... Port State refers to that authority under which a country exercises regulatory control over the commercial vessel which is registered under another country’s flag. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... USMM redirects here. ... Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eitzen page
  2. ^ , Flag of convenience. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company (2004). Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  3. ^ BA Hamzah (July 7, 2004). Ports and Sustainable Development: Initial Thoughts (PDF) 4. United Nations Institute for Training and Research. Retrieved on 2007-05-07.
  4. ^ The Economist, Bolivia Waves the Flag, May 27, 2000.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Working, Russell (May 22, 1999). "Flags of Inconvenience; Union Campaigns Against Some Foreign Ship Registry". New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-04. 
  6. ^ a b Dempsey and Helling, 1980.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Economist, Brassed Off: How the war on terrorism could change the shape of shipping, May 16, 2002.
  8. ^ Langweiesche's analysis of the Bahamas is not strictly accurate; the Bahamas Maritime Authority is based in Freeport, Bahamas, but the Authority has a representative office in London to enable searches of its registers to be conducted to facilitate the financing and insuring of Bahamian registered vessels, near the offices of Lloyd's of London. It also has offices in New York and Tokyo for the same reason.[citation needed].
  9. ^ a b c International Transport Workers' Federation. What are Flags of Convenience?. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  10. ^ a b c 1,000 GRT and greater.
  11. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Antigua and Barbuda, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  12. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Bahamas, The, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  13. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Barbados, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  14. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Belize, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  15. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Bermuda, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  16. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Bolivia, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  17. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Cambodia, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  18. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Cayman Islands, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  19. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Comoros, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  20. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Cyprus, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  21. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Equatorial Guinea, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  22. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,France, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  23. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Germany, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  24. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Georgia, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  25. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Gibraltar, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  26. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Honduras, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  27. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Jamaica, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  28. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Lebanon, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  29. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Liberia, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  30. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Malta, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  31. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Marshall Islands, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  32. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Mauritius, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  33. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Mongolia, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  34. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Myanmar, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  35. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Netherlands Antilles, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  36. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,North Korea, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  37. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Panama, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  38. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,São Tomé and Príncipe, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  39. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  40. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Sri Lanka, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  41. ^ a b CIA World Factbook,Tonga, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.
  42. ^ Tonga suspends registry. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  43. ^ a b c CIA World Factbook,Vanuatu, Transportation. Access date 2007-05-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Council of Lloyds be merged into this article or section. ... The International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers trade unions, founded in 1896. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alderton, A.F.; Winchester, N. (2002). "Globalisation and De-Regulation in the Maritime Industry". Marine Policy 26 (1): 35-43. 
  • Alderton, A.F.; Winchester, N. (September 2002). "Regulation, Representation and the Flag Market". Journal of Maritime Research. 
  • Alderton, A.F.; Winchester, N. (2002). "Flag States and Safety, 1997-1999". Maritime Policy and Management 29 (2): 151-162. 
  • Dempsey, P.S.; Helling, L.L. (September 1, 1980). "Oil pollution by ocean vessels - an environmental tragedy: the legal regime of flags of convenience, multilateral conventions, and coastal states". Denver Journal of International Law Policy 10 (1): 37-87. 

The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers trade unions, founded in 1896. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Transport Workers Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers trade unions, founded in 1896. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives, the lower house of Congress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Flag of convenience
  • FAO Fisheries Report on Illegal Fishing
  • Report on Prestige disaster
  • Flag of Convenience Cyprus: Prestige Oil Spill
  • Defending Our Oceans-facts about Flag of convience and its role in pirate fishing
  • Honduras Cuts Ship Registry
  • History of Liberian Ship Registry
  • Landlocked Mongolia's Seafaring Tradition
  • Conflict diamonds evade UN sanctions
  • A kind of it’s own Ship Registration in the Netherlands Antilles
  • Advantages of the Panamanian Registry
  • International Maritime Organization's White List
  • Flags That Hide the Dirty Truth
  • List of flag State comments on detentions for the years 2000, 2001 and 2002
  • Foreign Flag Crewing Practices (2007)
  • More Troubled Waters: Fishing, Pollution, and FOCs

  Results from FactBites:
 
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FOCs provide a means of avoiding labour regulation in the country of ownership, and become a vehicle for paying low wages and forcing long hours of work and unsafe working conditions.
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The FOC Campaign is the joint responsibility of the Seafarers' and Dockers' Sections and it is the Fair Practices Committee (FPC) which has, since 1952, provided the key forum by which both sections' representatives have come together to review the day to day running and effectiveness of the Campaign.
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