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Encyclopedia > Flag of Turkey
Flag of Turkey
Flag of Turkey
Use National flag and ensign.
Proportion 2:3
Adopted 1844: Adoption as flag of the Ottoman Empire
May 29, 1936: Geometric proportions standardized with the Turkish Flag Law
Design A red field defaced with a white crescent moon and five-pointed star slightly left of centre.

The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. The flag is called Ay Yıldız (literally, moon star) or al sancak (red banner) in Turkish. The flag has a complex origin since it is an ancient design, and is practically identical to the last flag of the Ottoman Empire which was adopted in 1844, as part of the Tanzimat reforms. The geometric proportions of the flag were legally standardized with the Turkish Flag Law in 1936. Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The design and description of flags typically uses specialised flag terminology with precise and technical meanings, and is hence a form of jargon. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... Image File history File links FIAV_111111. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... The late Ottoman flag with an eight-pointed star (known as the star of Rub El Hizb (Ûž), a symbol of Islam) and crescent was first used in 1793 by the Ottoman Navy. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ...


The shade of red used in the flag is approximated by Pantone 186, or RGB (227, 10, 23). For the record label, see Pantone Music. ... A representation of additive color mixing—In CRT based (analog electronics) television three color electron guns are used to stimulate such an arrangement of phosphorescent coatings of the glass, the resultant reemission of photons providing the image seen by the eye. ...

Contents

History

Main article: Ottoman flag

The crescent and star, while generally regarded as Islamic symbols today, have long been used in Asia Minor and by the ancient Turks, earlier than the advent of Islam. According to one theory, the figure of crescent has its roots in tamghas, i.e. markings used as livestock brand or stamp, used by nomadic Turkic clans of Central Asia. The late Ottoman flag with an eight-pointed star (known as the star of Rub El Hizb (Ûž), a symbol of Islam) and crescent was first used in 1793 by the Ottoman Navy. ... Islamic symbols are non-textual and non-verbal visual symbols that have been used, or are used, to express identification with Islam or a particular tradition within Islam, to evoke feelings of joy, sadness, devotion, etc. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Oghuz Tamghas A tamgha is a design identifying property or cattle to belong to a specific Turkish clan, usually as a cattle brand or stamp. ... Branding irons Livestock branding is any technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The current design of the Turkish flag is practically identical to the last Ottoman flag, which had acquired its final form in 1844, with the Tanzimat reforms. It is known that the Ottomans used red flags of triangular shape at least since 1383, which came to be rectangular over the course of history. The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ...


Ottomans used several different designs, most of them featuring one or more crescents, for different purposes, such as the flag with green background signifying the Caliphate. During the late imperial period, the distinctive use of the color red for secular and green for religious institutions became an established practice. In 1844, the eight-pointed star was replaced with a five-pointed star and the flag reached the form of the present-day Turkish flag. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Jan. ...


Origin of the flag

The origin of the crescent and star as a symbol dates back to the times of ancient Sumerians and ancient Egypt.[1][2]


It has also been put forth that the crescent moon and star were holy symbols of the pre-Islamic Turkish tribes, while red is the cardinal colour for south in ancient Turkish culture. It has been recently found out in 2004 in Bishkek during archaeological excavations that Göktürks used the crescent and star figure on their coins. The 1500-year-old coin includes three crescent moon figures and a star near a person, possibly a leader[3]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ...


Another possibility regarding the origin of the flag dates it back to the ancient Greek and Roman periods. It is argued that the city of Byzantium was dedicated to the Greek goddess Artemis in 667 BC, whose symbol, the crescent, was used as the symbol of the city and its coins for around 1000 years between 667 BC and 330/381 AD. After the Roman emperor Constantine the Great, who endorsed Christianity, made Byzantium (now known as Nova Roma, which, after Constantine's death in 337, became Constantinople) the new capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD, and Theodosius the Great made Christianity the official Roman state religion by a law in 381 AD, the Star of the Blessed Virgin Mary was added next to the original Crescent of Artemis. This star is also commonly found on the icons of the Greek Orthodox Church to this day. Following the conquest of Constantinople (today's Istanbul) by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453, the crescent-and-star of Constantinople was adopted as the symbol of the Ottoman Empire, which eventually spread to the other Islamic land with the Turkish conquest of these areas starting from 1516; and eventually became regarded as an Islamic symbol. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Diana of Versailles, a Roman copy of a sculpture by Leochares (Louvre Museum) In Greek mythology, Artemis (Greek: (nominative) , (genitive) ) was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. ... Constantine. ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... “Our Lady” redirects here. ... The Diana of Versailles, a Roman copy of a sculpture by Leochares (Louvre Museum) In Greek mythology, Artemis (Greek: (nominative) , (genitive) ) was the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The star and crescent moon, however, were also symbols (not flags) found relating to the Egyptian goddess Isis and also in Babylon and Mesopotamia.[4] Nevertheless, Byzantium was the first governing city-state to use the crescent moon as its official symbol, even though the Turkic tribes passed through Mesopotamia much before coming to Istanbul during their migration from Central Asia. Egyptian goddess Isis Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ... Isis is a goddess in Egyptian mythology. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ...


The origin of the flag is the subject of various legends in the country, some contradicting the historical knowledge about the Ottoman Flag. For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ...


Legends

One of the most popular legends regarding the Flag of Turkey is that, in a pool of blood of Turkish warriors, there was a reflection of the crescent moon and a star. Three theories have been put forward regarding the possible location and context of this event, which include:

  • In the year 1071, after the Battle of Manzikert and the defeat of the Byzantine army, the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan was roaming the battlefield, where he saw the reflection of the crescent moon and a star on a pool of blood of Turkish warriors. After he saw this image, he decided that this would be the flag representing the Seljuk Turks. However, the Anatolian (Rum) Seljuk flag is known to have a white double-headed eagle figure (similar to the Byzantine double-headed eagle), which holds a bow and arrow, on a light blue background; therefore this theory is not likely to be true.[citation needed]
  • After the Battle of Kosovo on 28 July 1389, the Ottoman Sultan Murad I was assassinated, and on that night there was a unique moment of Jupiter and the Moon next to each other. If one considers this sight on a pool of blood, the current structure of the Turkish flag can be seen easily.[citation needed]
  • Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Republic of Turkey, walking on a battlefield one night after the Turkish victory in the Battle of Sakarya during the Turkish War of Independence, saw the reflection of the star and crescent formation on a large pool of blood near the Sakarya River.[citation needed] This is obviously not true, due to the fact that the present-day Turkish flag is in continuous use since its adoption as the Ottoman national flag in 1844, which can be documented with thousands of photographs and other sources.

Other theories include: Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 10,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Low Extremely high The Battle of Kosovo (or Battle of Amselfeld; Serbian Cyrillic: Косовски бој or Бој на Косову; Turkish: Kosova Meydan Muharebesi; see... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... The Battle of Sakarya 1921 was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ...

This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, Zağanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, Zağanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (İstanbul). ... Image File history File links Nanobayrak. ... Image File history File links Nanobayrak. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Bilkent University (In Turkish: Bilkent Üniversitesi) was founded on October 20, 1984 by İhsan Doğramacı through the resolution of the foundations which had earlier been established by him. ... Molecular gears from a NASA computer simulation. ...

Legal Basis

The fundamentals of the Turkish flag were laid down by the Turkish Flag Law (Law No. 2994) on May 29, 1936. The Turkish Flag Regulation Law (Law No. 2/7175) dated July 28, 1937, and the Supplementary Regulation (Law No. 11604/2) dated July 29, 1939, were enacted to describe how the definite geometric proportions of the flag should be established. The Turkish Flag Law (Law No. 2893) dated September 22, 1983, and published in the Official Gazette on September 24, 1983, was promulgated six months after its publication. According to Article 9 of Law No. 2893, a statute including the fundamentals of the implementation was also published. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


Construction

Letter Measure Length
G Width 1
A Distance between the centre of the outer crescent and the seam of the white band 1/2 G
B Diameter of the outer circle of the crescent 1/2 G
C Distance between the centres of the inner and outer circles of the crescent 1/16 G
D Diameter of the inner circle of the crescent 0.4 G
E Distance between the inner circle of the crescent and the circle around the star 1/3 G
F Diameter of the circle around the star 1/4 G
L Length 1 ½ G
M Width of the seam band 1/30 G

Note that the above specification is what is given by Turkey's flag law, according to the Flags of the World website. The distance from the virtual line connecting the tips of the crescent to the inner circle is given as 1/3 G. This appears to be an error because it can actually be calculated as 0.34875 G. Flag of Turkey construction sheet. ...


Similarity with the Aceh Independentist Flag

Aceh independentist flag
Aceh independentist flag

The flag used by the independence-seeking rebels in the Indonesian province of Aceh, who have conducted a decades-long struggle against both Dutch colonial rule and the post-1949 Indonesian government, bears an obvious resemblance to the flag of Turkey; presumably dating from the devoutly Muslim inhabitants of 16th century Aceh who declared allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and asked for his support against the encroaching Portuguese and Dutch, upon which the Ottoman Indian Ocean Fleet under Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis arrived at Aceh in 1569.[6] Image File history File links Flag_of_Aceh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Aceh. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... KurtoÄŸlu Hızır Reis was an Ottoman admiral who is best known for commanding the Ottoman naval expedition to Sumatra in Indonesia (1568-1569). ...


See also

Flag of Turkey Since the constitution of Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1929 many newly independent countries in the 20th century, all of them with Turkic, Ottoman and/or Islamic roots and some inspired by the republican Kemalist way of government, adopted flags adorned with the...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Aryan Sun Myths: The Origin Of Religions
  2. ^ Rupert Gleadow: Origin of the Zodiac
  3. ^ 1500 year old coin with crescent moon and star (Turkish)
  4. ^ Aryan Sun Myths: The Origin Of Religions
  5. ^ Flagspot.net: Meaning of the Turkish Flag, retrieved on Dec 6, 2006
  6. ^ "Bayrak yasağını Türk ay-yıldızıyla deldiler", February 10, 2005. (Turkish) 

is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Türk Bayrağı Kanunu, the Turkish text of the Turkish Flag Law No. 2893 dated September 22, 1983, establishing the proportions, production and rules of usage of the flag of Turkey
  • Turkey at Flags of the World

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