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Encyclopedia > Flag of Iran
Current flag of the Islamic republic of Iran, introduced in 1980. ratio: 4:7
Current flag of the Islamic republic of Iran, introduced in 1980. ratio: 4:7
State flag of Iran flag 1964-1979. Basic three colours with Lion and Sun, 4:7 ratio
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State flag of Iran flag 1964-1979. Basic three colours with Lion and Sun, 4:7 ratio

The current flag of Iran was adopted on July 29, 1980, and is a reflection of the changes brought to Iran by the Islamic Revolution. The basic design of the flag is three horizontal bands of green above white above red, symbolizing peace, and courage. This basic design has been used since the beginning of the 20th century. A symbol has been placed in the center of the white band which is meant to have multiple meanings, but is essentially a stylized form of the word Allah. The symbol consists of four crescents and a sword. The four crescents are meant to stand for the word Allah (there is indeed some resemblance to the Arabic writing of it). Above the sword (central part) is a tashdid (a diacritical mark for gemination resembling a letter W). The sword represents the Islamic belief in "jihad", the physical and military "religious war" against non-believers. In Arabic writing this is used to double a letter (and it is used when writing Allah); here, it doubles the strength of the sword. The shape of the emblem is chosen to remind people of a tulip, for the memory of the (young) people who died for Iran, building on a traditional belief associating tulips with patriotism and self-sacrifice. The symbol was designed by Hamid Nadimi, and was officially approved by Ayatollah Khomeini on May 9, 1980. It exists in Unicode as U+262B (); the current Unicode specification calls it the Farsi symbol (sic). Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... Image File history File links Iran_flag_with_emblem_1964-1979. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Allāh is the Arabic language word referring to God, the Lord and, literally according to the Quran, to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the Abrahamic religions. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Shadda (Arabic [sign of] emphasis, also called by the verbal noun to the same root, Tashdid emphasis), is one of the diacritics (Harakat) used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). ... A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Designer of the coat of arms of the flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


A further change to the flag following the Revolution has been the addition of writing on the borders between the white, and the green and red bands reading, Allahu Akbar (English: God is great). There are 22 (2x11) copies of this inscription, symbolic of the 22nd day of the 11th month (Bahman) in the Iranian calendar — the date of the Islamic revolution (22 Bahman 1357 = February 11, 1979). The addition of this writing renders the flag non-reversible. This article is about Islamic religious phrase God is most great. For other usages, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ... Bahman is the name of 11th month in Iranian calendar. ... The Iranian calendar (also known as Persian calendar or the Jalaali Calendar) is a solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan. ... February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


Physical requirements for the Iranian flag, the exact shape of the emblem and a compass and straightedge construction are described in the national Iranian standard ISIRI 1 (in Persian). Creating a regular hexagon with a ruler and compass Construction of a regular pentagon Compass and straightedge or ruler-and-compass construction is the construction of lengths or angles using only an idealized ruler and compass. ...

Contents

Historical

Achaemenid Empire (559-323 BCE)

Mithra riding on a lion with the sun rising, without the sword.
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Mithra riding on a lion with the sun rising, without the sword.
The Achaemenid Imperial Standard
The Achaemenid Imperial Standard

During the Achaemenid, especially at the time of Cyrus the Great, the Persian Imperial Flag was made of up of a kinglike image, rectangular in shape, split into four equivalent triangles. Each two of these four train triangles had the same colour. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (534x681, 50 KB) Summary The author promotes using this on your own sites. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (534x681, 50 KB) Summary The author promotes using this on your own sites. ... Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deities or divine concepts (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Image File history File links AchaemenidImperialStandard. ... Image File history File links AchaemenidImperialStandard. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca. ...


The national Iranian Flag was, however, the same as the Derafshe Kaviani as cited earlier. Since the excavations at Persepolis however, archaeologists have found a standard, depicting a hawk (shahbaz) with open wings, regarding which the current belief is that this was the official flag of Iran under the reign of Darius the Great and his heirs. Persepolis Aerial View - After 2500 years, the ruins of Persepolis still inspire visitors from far and near. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ...


Sassanids Dynasty (224-642 CE)

See main article: Derafsh Kaviani Derafsh Kaviani The legendary Flag of Iran is said to be the Derafshe Kaviani. ...

Iran's ancient legendary flag: Derafsh Kaviani
Iran's ancient legendary flag: Derafsh Kaviani

The Flag at this historical juncture was again made of rectangular leather, covered with a thin layer of silk ornamented with jewels, in the center of which there was a four cornered star, pointing to the four corners of the world. This is the same star referred to as Akhtare Kaviani (the Kaviani star) by Ferdowsi in the epics of Shahnameh (the Book of Kings). This Flag was larger than the original Derafshe Kaviani installed on a long javelin, the tip of which was shown above the flag. At the bottom of this flag there were woven strings of yellow, magenta and scarlet, hanging from them were large jewels. The flag was destroyed by Arabs after the decisive Sassanid defeat against invading Muslim Arabs. This image is copyrighted. ... This image is copyrighted. ... Derafsh Kaviani The legendary Flag of Iran is said to be the Derafshe Kaviani. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...


Islamic Conquest of Iran

The Sassanid empire collapsed with the emergence of an Islamic Empire in the Middle East. Since Islam strictly prohibited figurative or other expressive symbols as idol worship, all the traditional symbology used in Iranian flags was eliminated. Throughout this period there were no fixed flags within Iran and the use of Islamic banners was common. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


Ghaznavid Dynasty (998-1052 CE)

In 976 AD the Samanid dynasty was routed by Mahmoud Gaznavi (998-1030) who reinstated the use of symbolic expressions on the Iranian flag. The flag developed by Mahmoud Gaznavi contained an inscribed golden moon drawn on a solid black background. Fifty five years later, the moon was replaced by the figure of a lion at the behest of Sultan Masoud Gaznavi, whose decision was merely a reflection of his personal habit of hunting lions. The lion figure remained a fixture on the Iranian flag from that date onwards until the Iranian revolution in 1979 [1]. Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ...


Seljukid empire (1037-1187 CE)

Khwarezmid Empire (1077-1231 CE)

Ilkhanate (1256-1353 CE)

Muzaffarid dynasty (1314-1393 CE)

Chupanid dynasty (1337-1357 CE)

Jalayerid dynasty (1339-1432 CE)

Timurid Empire (1370-1506 CE)

Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1407-1468 CE)

Aq Qoyunlu Turcomans (1378-1508 CE)

Safavid Dynasty (1502-1736 CE)

The Flag of Shah Tahmasb I with a lamb
The Flag of Shah Tahmasb I with a lamb

Among the Safavids, who ruled Iran over 220 years, only two kings, namely Shah Ismail I and Shah Tahmasp I, did not have the lion and the sun figures on their flags. The former opted for a solid green with a full moon at the top, while the latter replaced the lion with the lamb, which represented his birthday month, Farvardin the first month of the Iranian year (Aprl. 19th – Mar. 20th) and Hamal in Syriac calendar. Image File history File links Tahmasb1_Shah_Flag. ... Image File history File links Tahmasb1_Shah_Flag. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ...


In the remaining years of the Safavid rule, green was the official color of the flag with the lion and the sun emblems gold-embroidered on it.


Although the lion was the inseparable part of the flag throughout the Safavid years, its posture changed many times. Often it appeared in a sitting posture, and occasionally in profile. The sun, too was sometimes attached to the lion and sometimes positioned right above and away from it.


Following from the tradition set by Arab invasion of Iran, Safavid flags like their predecessors were always of triangular shape.


Afsharid Dynasty (1730-1805 CE)

Nadir Shah, the founder of Afshari dynasty and a self-styled ruler who salvaged Iran from a feudalistic state to form a unified country, made giant military advances toward India and China (on the eastern frontier), Khwarizm and Samarkand (located on the northern part of Iran), and Kirkuk and Bagdad in today’s Iraq. As such, flags, especially military ones, would come to signify a lot during all these grand scale military adventures. Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


Nadir’s royal flag was made of yellow and red silk with the traditional sun and lion figures. On the other hand, the national flag, formed into a tricolour of green, white and red with a lion’s profile in a walking posture with a half-risen sun, in the radius of which was a Koranic verse meaning, “the Earth is His.”


Nadir Shah’s choice of the three colors of green, white, and red was a groundbreaking decision in the formation of the modern Iranian flag. Until that point all the flags of Iran since the Islamic Conquests had been of a single colour, either red, green, or black. The use of a white base and a trim line was a dramatic break from tradition. At the time the tricolour was used as a trim line around the entire length of the flag. Since then, these colors have been the official colors of the Iranian flag, either royal or national.


Qajar Dynasty (1779-1924 CE)

The Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan
The Flag of Agha Mohammad Khan

Agha Mohammad Khan, the founding father of the Qajar dynasty, brought about some basic changes in the shape and color combination of the Iranian flag as well. For the first time the shape of the flag was changed from triangular to rectangular. Out of personal vendetta with Nadir Shah whom he had fought against, he ordered the established colors be removed and replaced with a solid red color as the background and a white circle in the middle with the sun and the lion. What was outstandingly different here was a sword placed in the hands of the lion. Image File history File links Mohammad_Khan_Flag. ... Image File history File links Mohammad_Khan_Flag. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


Later, Fath Ali Shah Qajar, devised two rather different flags suitable for war and peace purposes. A totally red flag with a sitting lion and the sun on its back served as the war flag; while a green flag with basically the same figures, was used as peace flag. Ironically, the lion on the peace flag was holding the sword. Fath Ali Shah in 1798 Fath Ali Shah (Persian: السلطان فتحعلى شاه قاجار ) (1771 - 1834) was the second Qajar King of Persia. ...


During Fath Ali Shah's reign a third flag would also be introduced for diplomatic and protocol purposes. This third flag would be white and also utilise the lion and sword. In a painting depicting the Iranian special envoy to the Russian royal court, Abolhassan Shirazi, having audience with Czar, a white flag with the lion, sun and sword figures, is carried by the Iranian delegation. Fath Ali Shah is also credited with the introduction of a crown figure positioned on top of the sun.


At this same time another great flag was introduced by one of the great Qajar beurocrats, Amir Kabir. The flag he introduced was similar to that of the diplomatic flag of Fath Ali Shah except it was a tricolour and rectangular as opposed to triangular. Amir Kabir's flag contained a ten centimeter green band on top of the white flag and a red band on the bottom. Fath Ali Shah successfully requested that Amir Kabir's flag should not carry an image of the crown that existed on all other state flags at the time. Amir Kabir (امیرکبیر in Persian), also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir_Nezam (میرزا تقی‌خان امیرنظام), was the chancellor of Persia under Nasereddin Shah. ...


The tricolour of the Amir Kabir flag eventually became the defacto standard while the Fath Ali Shah flags gradually fell from use.


The Qajar dynasty also saw the Iranian Constitutional Revolution which formalised the state of the Iranian flag. Following the reign of Mozaffar-od Din Shah Qajar the first and second Iranian Parliaments decided in the Article 5 of the constitution that: “the official colors of the Iranian flag are green, white, and red along with the lion and the sun signs.” A Revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ... Mozzafar-al-Din Shah (Persian: مظفرالدين شاه قاجار)(also Mozaffareddin Shah) (1853 – 1907) was the fifth Qajar dynasty Shah of Persia. ...


However, no details were determined as to the order of these colors or the location of the signs. This last ommison was due to the presence of some radical Muslim clergies in the Parliament, who would believed that the use of an animated figure on the flag was against Islam.The secular MPs had to resort to some lengthy justifications to convince the radical muslim MPs to finally ratify the clause. For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


It was also decided that the three colours should have symbolic meanings: Green, as the color of Islam, red a symbol of the blood of martyrs, and white the universal symbol of peace and the primary color of the Zoroasterianism, the ancient religion of the pre-Islamic Iran. References were also made to the importance Iranian people attach to the month of Mordad,

Flag of Reza Shah from 1925-1964, 1:3 ratio
Flag of Reza Shah from 1925-1964, 1:3 ratio

corresponding to Asad in Syrian calendar and Imam Ali’s title (“Asadullah”, the lion of God) creating a form of Islamic justification for the presence of the Lion and Sun. Image File history File links Reza_shah_flag. ... Image File history File links Reza_shah_flag. ... Reza Shah the Great, also Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran (Persian: رضا پهلوی) (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, was Shah of Persia from December 15, 1925 until 1935, at which time he became the first modern Shah of Iran, until September 16, 1941. ...

Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979 CE)

The Pahlavi Dynasty maintained the same flag as the Qajar Dynasty; however, the Qajar crown riding on the top of the flag was changed to a Pahlavi crown. Furthermore, in 1957 (1336 H.J.), Manouchehr Ighball, the prime minister of the time, issued a directive setting standards for the flag's exact measurements. The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ...


See also

Irans coat of arms The coat of arms of Iran features a stylized Arabic script of the word Allahu Akbar (God is great. ... The Achaemenid Imperial Standard Flags, standards and banners have always been important national and imperial symbols for Iranians, both in war and peace. ...

Sources


National flags National coats of arms
Flags of sovereign states Coats of arms of sovereign states
Flags of dependent territories Coats of arms of dependent territories
Flags of unrecognized states Coats of arms of unrecognized states
Flags of micronations Coats of arms of micronations
Flags of formerly independent states

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iran (853 words)
The ratio is based on measurements taken from a desk flag, a "hall" flag, and from the brochures provided by the embassy.
According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the number 22 was chosen because the Islamic Revolution (known as the 1979 revolution in western chronology) overthrew the previous regime on the 22nd of the 11th month of the Iranian Calendar.
Finally, while certainly Persian (Farsi) is the national language of Iran and and native to most of its population (minorities include Arabic speakers in Khuzestan), I'd bet, whithout looking it up, that the 22 times repeated writing on the national flag of Iran is indeed in Arabic language, being a religious utterance.
Flag of Iran - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1905 words)
The current flag of Iran was adopted on July 29, 1980, and is a reflection of the changes brought to Iran by the Islamic Revolution.
Physical requirements for the Iranian flag, the exact shape of the emblem and a compass and straightedge construction are described in the national Iranian standard ISIRI 1 (in Persian).
The flag he introduced was similar to that of the diplomatic flag of Fath Ali Shah except it was a tricolour and rectangular as opposed to triangular.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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