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Encyclopedia > Flag of Greece
 Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date)
Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date)

The flag of Greece (Greek: Σημαία της Ελλάδος, popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη, the "blue-white") is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. There is a blue canton in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a white cross; the cross symbolises Christianity, the established religion of the majority of the people. According to popular tradition, the nine stripes represent the nine syllables of the phrase "Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος" ("Freedom or Death", " E-lef-the-ri-a i Tha-na-tos"), the five blue stripes for the syllables "Έλευθερία" and the four white stripes "ή Θάνατος". There is also a different theory, that the nine stripes symbolize the nine Muses, the goddesses of art and civilization (nine has traditionally been one of the numbers of reference for the Greeks).[1] The official flag ratio is 2:3.[2] Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links FIAV_111111. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... For other uses see Muse (disambiguation). ...


The blazon of the flag is Azure, four bars Argent; the canton Azure with a Greek cross throughout Argent. The shade of blue used in the flag has varied throughout its history, from light blue to dark blue, the latter being increasingly used since the late 1960s. This is an article about Heraldry. ...


The above patterns were officially adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus in January 1822. Blue and white have many interpretations, symbolizing the colors of the famed Greek sky and sea (combined with the white clouds and waves), traditional colors of Greek clothes in the islands and the mainland, etc. The First National Assembly of Epidaurus (1821–1822) was the first metting of the Greek National Assembly, a national representative political gathering of the Greek revolutionaries. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

History of the Greek flag

See also: List of Greek flags

The origins of the cross-and-stripe pattern of today's national flag are a matter of debate. Flags with stripes had been used earlier, while a flag "with a cross and 16 stripes" has been described as an early revolution flag. This is a list of flags used in Greece // National Flag Presidential Flag Military Flags Historic Flags Category: ...


It has been suggested that the 1822 pattern evolved from a much older design, a virtually identical flag of the powerful Cretan Kallergis family (who provided several key military and political figures in Greek history). The flag was based on their coat of arms, whose pattern in turn is supposedly derived from the standards of their ancestor, Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas. This pattern included the nine stripes of alternating blue and white, and the cross on the canton. For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ...


The stripe-pattern of the Greek flag is visibly similar to that used in several other flags that have appeared over the centuries, most notably that of the British East India Company's pre-1707 flag. However, in such cases of flags derived from much older designs, it is very difficult to prove or trace (possibly mutual) original influences. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


It is quite possible, nevertheless, that foreign flags may have influenced the preferential adoption of the stripe-pattern, apparently already existing, as the Greek sea flag.


Antiquity and Byzantine Empire

The cross was the most historic Byzantine pattern; it first appeared in the 4th century and was used in many flags. Here is a reconstructed version used by the Byzantine navy under the Palaeologus dynasty.
The cross was the most historic Byzantine pattern; it first appeared in the 4th century and was used in many flags. Here is a reconstructed version used by the Byzantine navy under the Palaeologus dynasty.

White and blue have been symbolic Greek colors since antiquity with historic significance; their adoption for the new Greek state was a natural continuation from previous uses. In ancient Greece they were connected with goddess Athena and were used in Alexander the Great's army banners, while Greeks abroad were often recognized by their white clothes with blue details. They were even referred as colors connected with Greeks by Herodotus. During Byzantine times white and blue were the colors of navy and other flags, coats of arms of imperial dynasties, uniforms, Emperors' clothes, Patriarchs' thrones etc. The cross was a symbol of the empire, and was a common pattern in Byzantine flags since the 4th century. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...

During the reign of Nikephoros Phokas (963-969) and his successors, even the imperial red and gold colors were replaced by blue and white, as in this flag bearing the initials for ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christ).
During the reign of Nikephoros Phokas (963-969) and his successors, even the imperial red and gold colors were replaced by blue and white, as in this flag bearing the initials for ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christ).

The blue cross on a white field seems to have been the most "consistent" pattern. This design, including the four (blue) B's on the flag quarters has been a very important Byzantine symbol (the four B's represent the standard Byzantine motto, standing for Βασιλεύς Βασιλέων Βασιλεύων Βασιλευόντων, meaning "King of Kings Reigning over those who Rule", at times also interpreted as standing for Βασιλεύ Βασιλέων Βασιλέα Βοήθει, meaning "King of Kings, Save the King" - the B's often shaped in ways simultaneously representing other images). It appeared as early as (according to some sources) the 4th century, mainly as the Byzantine navy flag, apparently in "forked" shape, influencing other Byzantine emblems. It also appeared as one of the imperial flags during the last dynasty of the Empire, the Palaeologi (13th-15th centuries), featuring the blue cross and the four blue B's on a white field, as well as four small diagonal golden "beams". In that respect it differed from Palaeologid personal or dynasty flags that featured the traditional "imperial" colors, gold and/or red. Earlier, during the reign of Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969) and his successors, even those "imperial" colors had changed to blue and white. The official Army flag had become a white eagle on a blue field, while the imperial standard used the same colors, including the cross and/or blue and white stripes. Image File history File links Nikephoros_Phokas_flag. ... Image File history File links Nikephoros_Phokas_flag. ... The Labarum An image of the labarum, with the Greek letters Alpha and Omega inscribed. ... The Double-headed eagle, emblem of the Paleologus dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ...


Ottoman period

The Greek spachides (sipahis) used this flag between 1431-1619, within certain territories. Similar flags were used during the revolution.
Red (for Ottoman Empire) and Blue (for Greeks) are combined in this flag, used by Greek merchant ships during the late Ottoman rule.
Red (for Ottoman Empire) and Blue (for Greeks) are combined in this flag, used by Greek merchant ships during the late Ottoman rule.
This design appeared in the 1769 uprising and was widely used throughout Greece during the 1821 revolution.
This design appeared in the 1769 uprising and was widely used throughout Greece during the 1821 revolution.
Bishop Germanos of Patras blessing the flag of the Greek rebels at the Monastery of Agia Lavra, 1821.
Bishop Germanos of Patras blessing the flag of the Greek rebels at the Monastery of Agia Lavra, 1821.
National flag, land variant (1822-1969; 1975-1978).
National flag, land variant (1822-1969; 1975-1978).

During the Ottoman rule several unofficial flags were used by Greeks, usually employing the double-headed eagle (see below), the cross, depictions of saints and various mottoes. The Greek Spachides cavalry employed by the Ottoman Sultan were allowed to use their own, clearly Christian flag, when within Epirus and the Peloponnese. It featured the classic blue cross on a white field with the picture of St. George slaying the dragon, and was used from 1431 until 1639, when this privilege was greatly limited by the Sultan. Similar flags were used by other local leaders. The closest to a Greek "national" flag during Ottoman rule was the Graikothomaniki pantiera, a flag Greek Orthodox merchants were allowed to fly on their ships, combining stripes with red (for the Ottoman Empire) and blue (for the Greeks) colors. After the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Greek-owned merchant ships could also fly the Russian flag. Image File history File links Spachides. ... Image File history File links Spachides. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ottoman_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ottoman_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1821). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1821). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (726x1000, 570 KB) el:Category:Ελληνική Επανάσταση του 1821 el:Category:Ελληνική ιστορία Licence File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek War of Independence Germanos of Patras Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (726x1000, 570 KB) el:Category:Ελληνική Επανάσταση του 1821 el:Category:Ελληνική ιστορία Licence File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Greek War of Independence Germanos of Patras Metadata This file contains additional... Germanos was an Orthodox Metropolitan of Patras, who, on March 25, 1821, proclaimed national uprising. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Double-headed eagle emblem of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was signed on July 21, 1774, between the Russian Empire (represented by Field-Marshal Rumyantsev) and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. ... Flag of the Russian Federation. ...


During the uprising of 1769 the historic blue cross on white field was used again by key military leaders who used it all the way to the revolution of 1821. It became the most popular Revolution, and it was argued that it should become the national flag. The "reverse" arrangement, white cross on a blue field, also appeared as Greek flag during the uprisings. This design had been used earlier as well, in Byzantine emblems, as a local symbol (a similar 16th or 17th century flag has been found near Chania), while Greek volunteers in Napoleon's army in Egypt in 1798 used a white cross on blue incorporated in the canton of the French flag. The Orlov Revolt (1770) was a precursor to the Greek War of Independence (1821), which saw a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese at the instigation of Count Orlov, commander of the Russian Naval Forces of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Combatants Greek guerilla forces Ottoman Empire forces Commanders Kolokotronis Vrionis, Ibrahim Pasha Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution, was a successful war waged by the Greeks between 1821 and 1827 to win independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... The lighthouse in the Venetian harbour, a landmark of Chania Chania (IPA , Greek: Χανιά, also transliterated as Hania, older form Chanea and Venetian: Canea, Godart and Olivier abbreviation: KH, Ottoman Turkish: خانيه Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania Prefecture. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The design and description of flags typically uses specialised flag terminology with precise and technical meanings, and is hence a form of jargon. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ...


A military leader, Yiannis Stathas, used a flag with white cross on blue, on his ship since 1800. The first flag featuring the design eventually adopted was created and hoisted in the Evangelistria monastery in Skiathos in 1807. Several prominent military leaders (including Theodoros Kolokotronis and Andreas Miaoulis) had gathered there for consultation concerning an uprising, and they were sworn to this flag by the local bishop. Skiathos (Greek: Σκιάθος), Latin forms: Sciathos and Sciathus is a city and a small island in the Aegean Sea belonging to Greece. ... Monument of Theodoros Kolokotronis in Athens. ... Andreas Vokos (or Bokos) Miaoulis (1768 - June 24, 1835), Greek admiral and politician, was born in Negropont. ...


Adoption of the flag and historical evolution

In addition to the various cross flags, Greek intellectuals in Europe, as well as local leaders, chieftains and regional councils, designed and used flags with different colors and emblems during the early days of the Greek Revolution. Many of these flags featured saints, the phoenix (symbolizing the rebirth of the Greek nation), mottoes such as "Freedom or Death" (Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος) or the fasces-like emblems of the Philiki Etaireia. The phoenix from the Aberdeen Bestiary. ... Roman fasces. ... // The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía, Greek alphabet: Φιλική Εταιρεία), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ...


Because the European monarchies, allied in the so-called "Concert of Europe", were suspicious towards national or social revolutionary movements such as the Etaireia, the first Greek National Assembly, convening in January 1822, took steps to portray revolutionary Greece as a "conventional", ordered nation-state. As such not only were the regional councils abolished in favor of a central administration, but it was decided to abolish all revolutionary flags and adopt a national flag. Why the particular arrangement (white cross on blue) was selected instead of the more popular blue cross on a white field, remains unknown. The Concert of Europe describes the broad cooperation between Europes great powers after 1815. ... The First National Assembly of Epidaurus (1821–1822) was the first metting of the Greek National Assembly, a national representative political gathering of the Greek revolutionaries. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On March 15, 1822, the Provisional Government, by Decree Nr. 540, laid down the exact pattern: white cross on blue (plain) for the land flag; nine alternate-coloured stripes with the white cross on a blue field in the canton for the naval flag; and blue cross on white in the canton of an otherwise blue flag, for the merchant navy. In 1828 the latter was discontinued, and the cross-and-stripes became the sole sea flag. This design became immediately very popular with Greeks and in practice was often used simultaneously with the national (plain cross) flag. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


King Otto added the royal Coat of Arms (a shield in the Bavarian colors topped by a crown) to the center of the cross for military flags (both land and sea versions). After Otto's abdication in 1862, the royal coat of arms was removed, only to be replaced by a simple royal crown in 1863. A square version of the land flag with St. George in the center was adopted in April 9, 1864 as the Army's colours. Similar arrangements were made for the royal flags, which featured the coat of arms of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg on a square version of the national flag. The exact shape and usage of the flags was determined by Royal Decree on September 27, 1867. By a new Royal Decree, on 31 May 1914, the flag with the crown was adopted for use as a state flag by ministries, embassies and civil services, while the merchant naval flag was allowed for use by private citizens. King Otto of Greece, (Greek: , Othon, Vasileus tis Ellados) also Prince of Bavaria (June 1, 1815 – July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers (the United... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the land force of the modern nation of Greece. ... // Origins The practice of carrying standards, to act both as a rallying point for troops, and to mark the location of the commander, is thought to have originated in Egypt some 5,000 years ago. ... Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (in Danish: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Lyksborg (or Glücksborg)), from Glücksburg in northernmost Germany, is a line of the House of Oldenburg (Danish: Oldenborg), to which the royal houses of Denmark, Norway, and the former royal house of Greece belong. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The flags of the U.S. states exhibit a wide variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as widely different styles and design principles. ...


On March 25, 1924, with the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic, the crowns were removed from all flags. On February 20, 1930, the national flag's proportions were established at a 2:3 ratio, with the arms of the cross being "one fifth of the flag's width". The national ("land") flag was to be used by ministries, embassies, and in general by all civil and military services, while the naval flag was to be used by naval and merchant vessels, consulates and private citizens. With the restoration of the monarchy, on October 10, 1935, the crown was restored on the flags. The crown was again removed by the military dictatorship in 1967, and the naval flag was established as the sole national flag in 1969, using a dark shade of blue. On August 18, 1970, the flag ratio was changed to 7:12. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The history of the Hellenic Republic constitutes three discreet periods in Greek History: 1827 - 1832, 1924 - 1935 and 1974 - present. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the metapolitefsi, the land flag was restored for a while (Law 48/1975 and Presidential Decree 515/1975) until 1978, when the sea flag was re-adopted as the sole national flag, with the 2:3 ratio (Law 851/21-12-1978 "On the national Flag, War Flags and the Distinguishing Flag of the President of the Republic"). The land flag survives now mostly in military flags, as laid down by the Presidential Decree 348/17-4-1980. The Army's flag, as mentioned, features St. George, and the Air Force, similarly of square shape, the archangel Michael. The simple cross pattern is still used in the National Emblem of Greece, as the Navy's jack and in rank flags. School flags also follow the military pattern. The land flag continues to be flown in the Old Parliament in Athens, and can still be seen displayed by private citizens. In official use, the flagpole is topped by a white cross. The Greek Flag Day is on October 27. The Metapolitefsi (Greek: Μεταπολίτευση, translated as polity or regime change) refers to the period in Greek history after the fall of the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 and includes the transitional period from the fall of the dictatorship to the Greek legislative elections of 1974 as well as the democratic... Hellenic Air Force ensign The Hellenic Air Force (HAF) (Greek: (ΠΑ), Polemikí Aeroporía) is the air force of Greece. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ... The National Emblem of Greece consists of a blue escutcheon with a white cross totally surrounded by two laurel branches. ... Flags are particularly important at sea, where they can mean the difference between life and death, and consequently where the rules and regulations for the flying of flags are strictly enforced. ... The Parliament in session, at the end of the 19th century The Old Parliament building (Greek: , Palaia Voulē) at Stadiou Street in Athens, housed the Greek parliament between 1875 and 1932. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The double-headed eagle

Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church, featuring the double-headed eagle
Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church, featuring the double-headed eagle

It may look surprising that one of the most recognizable (other than the cross) and beloved Greek symbols, the double-headed eagle, is not a part of the modern Greek flag or coat of arms (although it is officially used by the Greek Army, by the Church of Greece, and was incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926). One suggested explanation is that, upon independence, an effort was made for political - and international relations - reasons to limit expressions implying efforts to recreate the Byzantine empire. Yet another theory is that this symbol was only connected with a particular period of Greek history (Byzantine) and a particular form of rule (imperial). More recent research has justified this view, connecting this symbol only to personal and dynastic emblems of Byzantine Emperors. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Double-headed eagle emblem of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... The Church of Greece is one of the fifteenth autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ...


Greek scholars have tried to make links with ancient symbols: the eagle was a common design representing power in ancient city-states, while there was an implication of a "dual-eagle" concept in the tale that Zeus left two eagles fly east and west from the ends of the world, eventually meeting in Delphi, thus proving it to be the center of the earth. However, there is virtually no doubt that its origin is a blend of Roman and Eastern influences. Indeed, the early Byzantine Empire inherited the Roman eagle (extended wings, head facing right) as an imperial symbol. During his reign, Emperor Isaac I Comnenus (1057–1059) modified it as double-headed, influenced by traditions about such a beast in his native Paphlagonia in Asia Minor (in turn reflecting possibly much older local myths). Many modifications followed in flag details, often combined with the cross. After the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantine Greeks in 1261, two crowns were added (over each head) representing - according to the most prevalent theory - the newly recaptured capital and the intermediate "capital" of the empire of Nicaea. There has been some confusion about the exact use of this symbol by the Byzantines; it is quite certain that it was a "dynastic" and not a "state" symbol (a term not fully applicable at the time, anyway), and for this reason, the colors connected with it were clearly the colors of "imperial power", i.e., imperial purple and gold. Isaac coin. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... This article is about the color. ...


After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople nonetheless, the double-headed eagle became a strong "national" symbol of reference for the Greeks (much less, though, than the cross), featured in several flag designs, especially during uprisings and revolts. Most characteristically, the Orthodox Church kept, and is to this date still using Byzantine flags with the eagle, usually black on yellow/gold background. But after the Ottoman conquest this symbol also found its way to a "new Constantinople" (or Third Rome), i.e. Moscow. Russia, deeply influenced by the Byzantine Empire, saw herself as its heir and adopted the double-headed eagle as its imperial symbol. It was also adopted by the Serbs, the Montenegrins, the Albanians and a number of Western rulers, most notably in Germany and Austria. “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †,[1] Mehmed II, Zağanos Pasha Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article: All verses in Greek The Hymn to Liberty (Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν Ímnos is tin Eleftherían) is a poem written by Dionýsios Solomós in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas, set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Official site of the Greek Army: Η καθιέρωση της ελληνικής σημαίας.
  2. ^ Presidency of the Hellenic Republic, The Flag

Additional references

  • N. Zapheiriou, "The Greek Flag from Antiquity to Present", Eleutheri Skepsis, Athens 1995 (reprint of original 1947 publication)
  • E. Kokkoni and G. Tsiveriotis, "Greek Flags, Signs and Emblems", Athens 1997.
  • I. Nouchakis, "Our Flag", Athens 1908.

External links


nana baird The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... This gallery of sovereign-state flags shows the flags of sovereign states in the list of sovereign states. ... This overview contains the flags of dependent territories. ... This overview contains the flags of self-proclaimed states that have declared their independence, exert control over (at least part of) the claimed territory and population, but have not been acknowledged as independent states by the international community at large. ... This gallery contains the flags of states that were (at least de facto) independent in the past. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... This gallery of sovereign state coats of arms shows the coat of arms of sovereign states in the list of sovereign states. ... This overview shows the coat of arms of dependent territories. ... This overview contains the coats of arms of self-proclaimed states that have declared their independence, exert control over (at least part of) the claimed territory and population, but have not been acknowledged as independent states by the international community at large. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Flag of Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1618 words)
The flag of Greece is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white.
In 1828 the latter was discontinued, and the cross-and-stripes became the sole sea flag.
The flag was based on their coat of arms, whose pattern in turn dates to one of the standards of their ancestor, Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas (Nikephoros Phokas, 963-969 AD).
Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7062 words)
Greece, (Greek: Ελλάδα, Elláda (IPA: [e̞ˈlaða]), or Ελλάς, Ellás (IPA: [e̞ˈlas])), officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, Ellinikí Dimokratía), is a country in southern Europe, situated on the southern end of the Balkan peninsula.
Greece consists of a large mainland at the southern end of the Balkans; the Peloponnesus peninsula (separated from the mainland by the canal of the Isthmus of Corinth); and numerous islands (around 3,000), including Crete, Rhodes, Kos, Euboea, the Dodecanese and the Cycladic groups of the Aegean Sea as well as the Ionian Sea islands.
Greece is a global leader in shipping (ranking first in terms of ownership of vessels and third by tonnage and flag registration) [5].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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