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Encyclopedia > Flag of Germany
Flag of Germany
Flag of Germany
Name Schwarz-Rot-Gold
Use Civil and state flag and ensign. Civil and state flag, civil and state ensign Normal or de jure version of flag, or obverse side
Proportion 3:5
Adopted 23 May 1949
Design A horizontal tricolour of black, red, and gold.
Variant flag of Germany
Use State flag and ensign and war flag. Vexillological symbol Normal or de jure version of flag, or obverse side
Proportion 3:5
Adopted 7 June 1950
Variant flag of Germany
Use Naval ensign. Naval ensign Normal or de jure version of flag, or obverse side
Proportion 3:5
Adopted 25 May 1956

The flag of Germany is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red and gold. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This is an incomplete list of names used for specific flags, either as officially designated titles or traditional nicknames. ... The design and description of flags typically uses specialised flag terminology with precise and technical meanings, and is hence a form of jargon. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Image File history File links FIAV_110110. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... Gold is a shade of the color yellow closest to that of gold metal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(state). ... The design and description of flags typically uses specialised flag terminology with precise and technical meanings, and is hence a form of jargon. ... The flags of the U.S. states exhibit a wide variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as widely different styles and design principles. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links FIAV_011010. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Germany. ... The design and description of flags typically uses specialised flag terminology with precise and technical meanings, and is hence a form of jargon. ... A naval ensign is the flag used by a countrys navy on their ships. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Image File history File links FIAV_000001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... The national colours of Germany are officially black, red and gold. ...


The black-red-gold tricolour first appeared in the early 19th century and achieved prominence during the 1848 revolution. The short-lived Frankfurt Parliament of 1848–50 proposed the tricolour as a flag for a united and democratic German state. With the formation of the Weimar Republic after World War I, the tricolour was adopted as the national flag of Germany. Following World War II, the tricolour was designated as the flag of both West and East Germany. Both flags were identical until 1959 when socialist symbols were added to the East German flag. Since reunification on 3 October 1990, the black-red-gold tricolour has remained the flag of Germany. Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The flag of Germany has not always used black, red and gold as its colours. After the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation adopted a tricolour of black-white-red as its flag. This flag later became the flag of the German Empire, formed following the unification of Germany in 1871, and was used until 1918. Black, white and red were reintroduced as the German national colours with the establishment of Nazi Germany in 1933. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The colour schemes of black-red-gold and black-white-red have played an important role in the history of Germany and have had various meanings. The colours of the modern flag are associated with the republican-democracy formed after World War II and represent German unity and freedom: not only the freedom of Germany, but also the personal freedom of the German people.[1] The History of Germany begins with the establishment of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Flag variants

See also: Flags of Germany

This is a list of flags used by and in Germany . ...

Civil flag

The German national flag or Bundesflagge (federal flag), containing only the black-red-gold tricolour, was introduced as part of the (West) German constitution in 1949.[2] Following the creation of separate government and military flags in later years, the plain tricolour is now used as the German civil flag and civil ensign. This flag is also used by non-federal authorities to show their connection to the federal government – for example, the authorities of the German states use the German national flag together with their own flag. The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... A civil flag is a version of the national flag that is flown by civilians on non-government installations or craft. ... The civil ensign (a. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...


Government flag

The government flag of Germany is officially known as the Dienstflagge der Bundesbehörden (state flag of the federal authorities) or Bundesdienstflagge for short. Introduced in 1950, the government flag is the civil flag defaced with a badge known as the Bundesschild (federal badge or shield), which overlaps with up to one fifth of the black and gold bands.[3] The Bundesschild is a variant of the coat of arms of Germany, where the main differences are the illustration of the eagle and the shape of the shield: the Bundesschild is rounded, the standard coat of arms is not. The government flag may only be used by federal government authorities and its use by others is an offence, punishable with a fine.[4] Public use of flags similar to the Bundesdienstflagge (e.g. using the actual coat of arms instead of the Bundesschild) is tolerated and such flags are sometimes seen at international sporting events. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ...

Civil flag (hanging)
Civil flag (hanging)
Government flag (hanging)
Government flag (hanging)

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(Hanging). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(Hanging). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(Hanging_state_flag). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(Hanging_state_flag). ...

Vertical flags

In addition to the normal horizontal format, many public buildings in Germany use vertical flags. Most town halls fly their town flag together with the national flag in this way – many town flags in Germany exist only in vertical form. The proportions of these vertical flags are not specified. In 1996, a layout for the vertical version of the government flag was established: the Bundesschild is displayed in the centre of the flag, overlapping with up to one fifth of the black and yellow bands.[5] When hung like a banner or draped, the black band should be on the left, as illustrated. When flown from a vertical flagpole, the black band must face the mast.[6]


Military flags

Since the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) are a federal authority, the Bundesdienstflagge is also used as the German war flag on land. In 1956, the Dienstflagge der Seestreitkräfte der Bundeswehr (Flag of the German Navy) was introduced: the government flag ending in a swallowtail.[7] This naval flag is also used as a navy jack. The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... A Maritime flag or Naval Jack is a national flag used exclusively on boats and other watercraft. ...


Design

Specifications for the flag of Germany

In the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany – the German constitution – Article 22 states: "The federal flag shall be black, red, and gold."[2] Following specifications set by the (West) German government in 1950, the flag displays three bars of equal width and has a width-length ratio of 3:5;[3] the tricolour used during the Weimar Republic had a ratio of 2:3.[8] Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_-_dimensions. ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ...


The exact colours used for the German flag were not officially defined at the time of the flag's adoption and have changed since then.[9] The federal cabinet introduced a corporate design for the German government on 2 June 1999, which currently uses the following colours:[10] The Cabinet of Germany (German: Bundeskabinett, Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The official design of the logo and name of a company or institution used on letterheads, envelopes, forms, folders, brochures, etc. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Colour scheme Black Red Gold
RAL 9005
Jet black
3020
Traffic red
1021
Cadmium yellow
HKS 0, 0, 0 5.0PB 3.0/12 6.0R 4.5/14
CMYK 0.0.0.100 0.100.100.0 0.12.100.5
Pantone Black 485 7405*
HTML #000000 #FF0000 #FFCC00

*The value given here is an alternative to the following more-complicated combination: Yellow (765 g), Red 032 (26 g), Black (11 g), Transp. White (198 g) RAL is a color space system developed in 1927 by Reichsausschuß für Lieferbedingungen (und Gütesicherung)—German for Commission for Delivery Terms and Quality Assurance, nowadays called . ... HKS colour fan. ... Cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). ... For the record label, see Pantone Music. ... Web colors are colors used in designing web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. ...


Gold or yellow?

A version of the German flag where the golden band is of a metallic golden colour. This version was sometimes used in official publications before the introduction of the federal government's corporate design in 1999.
A version of the German flag where the golden band is of a metallic golden colour. This version was sometimes used in official publications before the introduction of the federal government's corporate design in 1999.

Vexillology rarely distinguishes between gold and yellow; in heraldry, they are both or. For the German flag, such a distinction is made: the colour used in the flag is gold, not yellow. Image File history File links Schwarz_Rot_Gold. ... Image File history File links Schwarz_Rot_Gold. ... Flag of the Fédération internationale des associations vexillologiques. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Tinctures are the colours used to blazon coats of arms in heraldry. ...


When the black-red-gold tricolour was adopted by the Weimar Republic as its flag, it was attacked by conservatives, monarchists and the far right, who referred to the colours with spiteful nicknames such as Schwarz-Rot-Gelb (black-red-yellow), Schwarz-Rot-Senf (black-red-mustard) or even Schwarz-Rot-Scheiße (black-red-shit).[11] When the Nazis came to power in 1933, the black-white-red colours of pre-1918 Imperial Germany were swiftly reintroduced and their propaganda machine continued to discredit the Schwarz-Rot-Gold, using the same derogatory terms as previously used by the monarchists.[12] Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ...


On 16 November 1959, the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof) stated that the usage of "black-red-yellow" and the like had "through years of Nazi agitation, attained the significance of a malicious slander against the democratic symbols of the state" and is now an offence.[12] As summarised by heraldist Arnold Rabbow in 1968, "the German colours are black-red-yellow but they are called black-red-gold."[13] is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundesgerichtshof or BGH (German for federal court) is the highest appeals court in Germany for cases of civil and criminal law. ...


Flag days

The Stadtweinhaus in Münster with banners displayed in mourning (note the black ribbons atop each mast) after the death of former German president Johannes Rau in 2006
The Stadtweinhaus in Münster with banners displayed in mourning (note the black ribbons atop each mast) after the death of former German president Johannes Rau in 2006

Following federal decree on 22 March 2005, the flag must be flown from public buildings on the following dates. Not all of these days are public holidays. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 2. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Johannes Rau (January 16, 1931, Wuppertal – January 27, 2006, Berlin) was a German politician of the SPD. He was the eighth President of the Federal Republic of Germany from July 1, 1999 until June 30, 2004 and prime minister of North Rhine Westfalia from 1978 to 1998. ... Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Date Name Reason
27 January Commemoration Day for the Victims of National Socialism
Tag des Gedenkens an die Opfer des Nationalsozialismus
Anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp, observed by the United Nations as International Holocaust Remembrance Day (half-mast)
1 May International Workers' Day
Tag der Arbeit
n/a
9 May Europe day
Europatag
Anniversary of the Schuman Declaration, leading to the European Union (1950)
23 May Constitution Day Anniversary of the German constitution (1949)
17 June n/a Anniversary of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany
20 July n/a Anniversary of the July 20 plot, the failed assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler by Claus von Stauffenberg (1944)
3 October German Unity Day
Tag der Deutschen Einheit
Anniversary of German reunification (1990)
Two Sundays before the first Advent National day of mourning
Volkstrauertag
In memory of all killed during wartime (half-mast)
Source: Federal Government of Germany[14]

Election days for the Bundestag and the European Parliament are also flag days in some states, in addition to other state-specific flag days. The public display of flags to mark other events — such as the election of the president or the death of a prominent politician (whereupon flags would be at half-mast) — can be declared at the discretion of the Federal Ministry of the Interior.[14] When flags are required to be flown at half-mast, vertical flags are not lowered. A black mourning ribbon is instead attached, either atop the mast (if hung from a pole) or to each end of the flag’s supporting cross-beams (if flown like a banner).[15] is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... International Holocaust Remembrance Day (January 26) is an annual international day of remembrance designated by an official resolution of the United Nations General Assembly on November 1, 2005. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May), ranging from pagan festivals to International Workers Day, its most famous action. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... The Quai dOrsay, home of the French Foreign Office. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-12-10, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Count Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf[1] von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and one of the leading figures of the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill German dictator Adolf Hitler and seize power in Germany. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Day of German Unity (German: Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is a national holiday in Germany, celebrated on October 3, which commemorates the anniversary of German reunification in 1990. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Advent Sunday is the first day of the Liturgical year in the Western Christian churches. ... The Volkstrauertag (people mourning day) is a public holiday in Germany. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... BMI in Berlin The Federal Ministry of the Interior (in German, Bundesministerium des Innern) is a ministry of the German federal government. ...


History

Medieval period

Banners of the Holy Roman Emperor
(left: 14th century, right: 15th–19th century)

The Holy Roman Empire (10th century – 1806, known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after 1512) did not have a national flag, but black and gold were used as colours of the Holy Roman Emperor and featured in the imperial banner: a black eagle on a golden background. After the late 13th or early 14th century, the claws and beak of the eagle were coloured red. From the early 15th century, a double-headed eagle was used.[16] Image File history File links Flag_Germany_Emperors_Banner. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Double-headed eagle emblem of the Eastern Roman Empire. ...


In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte declared the First French Empire. In response to this, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II of the Habsburg dynasty declared his personal domain to be the Austrian Empire and became Francis I of Austria. Taking the colours of the banner of the Holy Roman Emperor, the flag of the Austrian Empire was black and gold. Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, with Napoleon forcing the empire's dissolution in 1806. After this point, these colours continued to be used as the flag of Austria until 1918. Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Civil Flag Ratio: 2:3 State Flag Ratio: 2:3 The flag of Austria has three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red. ...

War flag of the Holy Roman Empire (13th–14th century)
War flag of the Holy Roman Empire (13th–14th century)

The colours red and white were also significant during this period. When the Holy Roman Empire took part in the Crusades, a war flag was flown alongside the black-gold imperial banner. This flag, known as the "Saint George Flag", was a white cross on a red background: the reverse of the St George's Cross used as the flag of England.[16] Red and white were also colours of the Hanseatic League (13th–17th century). Hanseatic trading ships were identifiable by their red-white pennants and most Hanseatic cities adopted red and white as their city colours (see Hanseatic flags). Red and white still feature as the colours of many former Hanseatic cities such as Hamburg or Gdańsk. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Holy_Roman_Empire_(1200-1350). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Holy_Roman_Empire_(1200-1350). ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A war flag (or military flag) is a variant of a national flag for use by the nations military forces on land. ... St Georges cross The St Georges Cross is a red cross on a white background. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ...


Napoleonic Wars

Jena students in the Lützow Free Corps, painting by Ferdinand Hodler (1909)
Jena students in the Lützow Free Corps, painting by Ferdinand Hodler (1909)

With the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, many of its dukes and princes joined the Confederation of the Rhine, a Napoleonic client state. The confederation had no flag of its own; instead it used the blue-white-red flag of France and the Imperial Standard of its "protector", Napoleon.[17] The Lützow Free Corps (German: Lützowsches Freikorps) was a voluntary force of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Ferdinand Hodler (March 14, 1853 – May 19, 1918) was one of the best-known Swiss painters of the 19th century. ... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


During the Napoleonic Wars, the German struggle against the occupying French forces were significantly symbolised by the colours of black, red and gold. This was largely attributed to the uniforms of the Lützow Free Corps, a volunteer unit of the Prussian Army. The uniforms for this unit were black with red facings and gold buttons. The colour choice here was a pragmatic one, even though it was also a popularisation of the former black-red-gold colours used by the Holy Roman Empire.[18] Members of the corps were required to supply their own clothing and, in order to present a uniform appearance, it was easiest to dye all clothes black. Gold-coloured buttons were widely available and pennons used by the lancers in the unit were red and black. At the time, the colours were symbolised as: Out of the darkness (black) of servitude through bloody (red) conflict to the (golden) light of freedom.[19] As the members of this unit came from all over Germany and were mostly university students and academics, the Lützow Free Corps and their colours gained considerable prominence among the German people.[18] Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Lützow Free Corps (German: Lützowsches Freikorps) was a voluntary force of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ... A pennon is one of the principal varieties of flags carried during the Middle Ages. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of the City of PoznaÅ„ in the uniform of the 15th Uhlan Regiment of PoznaÅ„ from 1939 A lancer (uhlan) was a cavalry soldier who fought with a lance. ...


German Confederation

The 1815/6 Congress of Vienna led to the creation of the German Confederation, a loose union of all remaining German states after the Napoleonic Wars. The Confederation was created as a replacement for the now-extinct Holy Roman Empire, with Francis I of Austria—the last Holy Roman Emperor—as its president. The confederation did not have a flag of its own, although the black-red-gold tricolour is sometimes mistakenly attributed to it.[20] The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors, from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from November 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ...

Hambach Festival (May 1832), contemporary lithograph
Hambach Festival (May 1832), contemporary lithograph

Upon returning from the war, veterans of the Lützow Free Corps founded the Urburschenschaft fraternity in Jena in June 1815. The Jena Urburschenschaft eventually adopted a flag with three equal horizontal bands of red, black, and red, with gold trim and a golden oak branch across the black band, following the colours of the uniforms of the Free Corps.[18] Since the students who served in the Lützow Free Corps came from various German states, the idea of a unified German state began to gain momentum within the Urburschenschaft and similar Burschenschaften that were subsequently formed throughout the Confederation. On 18 October 1817, the fourth anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig, hundreds of fraternity members and academics from across the Confederation states met in Wartburg in Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (in modern Thuringia), calling for a free and unified German nation. The red-black-gold flag of the Jena Urburschenschaft featured prominently at this Wartburg festival and so the colours black, red and gold eventually became symbolic of this desire for a unified German state. Austria, in its determination to maintain the status quo,[21] enacted the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819 that banned all student organisations, officially putting an end to the Burschenschaften. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Urburschenschaft was founded in 1815 in Jena, Saxony, in Germany. ... , For other uses, see Jena (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Burschenschaft German Burschenschaften (abbreviated: B! , plural: B!B! ) are a special type of Studentenverbindungen (student fraternities). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Belligerents French Empire Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Saxony[1] Russia Austria Prussia Sweden Saxony[1] Commanders Napoleon I Jozef Antoni Poniatowski â€  Frederick Augustus Prince of Schwarzenberg Gebhard von Blücher Carl Johan Barclay De Tolly Count Benningsen Strength 195,000[2] 365,000[2] Casualties and losses 38,000... Wartburg 311: in production between 1956 and 1965 Wartburg 312: in production in 1965. ... The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741, when the Saxe-Eisenach line had died out. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Movement of the students on the Wartburg in 1817 The first Wartburg festival (German: Wartburgfest) on October 18, 1817 was an important event in German history that took place at the Wartburg castle at Eisenach. ... The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of social restrictions introduced in Germany by Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria on September, 20 1819. ...


In May 1832, around 30,000 people demonstrated at the Hambach Festival for freedom, unity and civil rights. The colours black, red and gold had become a well-established symbol for the liberal, democratic and republican movement within the German states since the Wartburg Festival and flags in these colours were flown en masse at the Hambach Festival. While contemporary illustrations showed prominent use of a gold-red-black tricolour (an upside-down version of the modern German flag), surviving flags from the event were in black-red-gold. Such an example is the Ur-Fahne, the flag flown from Hambach Castle during the festival: a black-red-gold tricolour where the red band contains the inscription Deutschlands Wiedergeburt (Germany's rebirth). This flag is now on permanent display at the castle.[22]


Revolution and the Frankfurt Parliament

Revolutionaries in Berlin (19 March 1848)
Revolutionaries in Berlin (19 March 1848)

In the Springtime of the Peoples during the Revolutions of 1848, revolutionaries took to the streets, many flying the tricolour. Liberals took power and after prolonged deliberation, a national assembly was formulated. This Frankfurt Parliament declared the black-red-gold as the official colours of Germany and passed a law stating its civil ensign was the black-red-yellow tricolour.[23] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x705, 154 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x705, 154 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 had been a collection of 38 states loosely bound together in the German Confederation. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... The civil ensign (a. ...


In 1850, the Frankfurt Parliament collapsed and the German Confederation was restored under Austrian presidency, who suppressed the actions of the failed Frankfurt Parliament, including the tricolour. Afterwards, the most pressing issue was whether or not to include Austria in any future German nation, as Austria's status as a multi-ethnic empire complicated the dream of a united Greater Germany – the grossdeutsch solution. Alternatively, there was the kleindeutsch (Lesser German) solution for a Germany that encompassed only German lands and excluded Austria. The Prussian-Austrian duality within the Confederation eventually led to the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. During the war, the southern states allied with Austria adopted the black-red-gold tricolour as its flag, and the 8th German Army Corps also wore black-red-gold armbands.[20] The Kingdom of Prussia and its predominately north German allies defeated Austria and made way for the realisation of the Lesser German solution a few years later. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... National assembly meeting in St. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Prussian-dominated Germany

2:3 Flag of the North German Confederation (1866–71) and the German Empire (1871–1918).Also used during the Weimar Republic by foreign services (1922–33)
2:3 Civil and state flag, civil and state ensign Design used in the past, but now abandoned Flag of the North German Confederation (1866–71) and the German Empire (1871–1918).
Also used during the Weimar Republic by foreign services (1922–33)

Following the dissolution of the German Confederation, Prussia formed its unofficial successor, the North German Confederation, in 1867. This coalition consisted of Prussia – by far the largest member state – and 21 other north-German states. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links FIAV_110110. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following...


The question regarding what flag should be adopted by the new confederation was first raised by the shipping sector and its desire to have an internationally recognisable identity. Virtually all international shipping that belonged to the confederation originated from either Prussia or the three former Hanseatic city-states of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck. Based on this, Adolf Soetbeer, secretary of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, suggested in the Bremer Handelsblatt on 22 September 1866 that any planned flag should combine the colours of Prussia (black and white) with the Hanseatic colours (red and white). In the following year, the constitution of the North German Confederation was enacted, where a horizontal black-white-red tricolour was declared to be both the civil and war ensign.[24] Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the flag of the former German state of Prussia. ... The North German Constitution was the constitution of the North German Confederation, which existed from 1867 to 1871. ...


King Frederick William IV of Prussia was satisfied with the colour choice: the red and white were also taken to represent the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Imperial elector state that was a predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia.[18] The absence of gold from the flag also made it clear that this German state did not include the "black and gold" monarchy of Austria. Following the Franco-Prussian War, the remaining southern German states allied with the North German Confederation, leading to the unification of Germany and the elevation of the Prussian monarch to Emperor of this new state in 1871. In its constitution, the German Empire retained black, white and red as its national colours,[25] with the tricolour previously used by the North German Confederation officially adopted as its flag in 1892. Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... This article is about the 1871 German Empire. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


The black-white-red tricolour remained the flag of Germany until the end of the German Empire in 1918, in the final days of World War I. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Weimar Republic

2:3 Civil and state flag Design used in the past, but now abandoned Flag of Weimar Germany (1919–33)
"Let the old flags fly", election poster for the right-wing DNVP, 1932
"Let the old flags fly", election poster for the right-wing DNVP, 1932

Following the declaration of the German republic in 1918 and the ensuing revolutionary period, the so-called Weimar Republic was founded in August 1919. To form a continuity between the anti-autocratic movement of the 19th century and the new democratic republic, the old black-red-gold tricolour was designated as the national German flag in the Weimar Constitution in 1919.[26] As a civil ensign, the black-white-red-tricolour was retained, albeit with the new tricolour in the top left corner. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(2-3). ... Image File history File links FIAV_110000. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


This change was not welcomed by many people in Germany, who saw this new flag as a symbol of humiliation following Germany's defeat in World War I. In the Reichswehr, the old colours continued to be used in various forms. Many conservatives wanted the old colours to return, while monarchists and the far right were far more vocal with their objections, referring to the new flag with various derogatory names (see Gold or yellow? above). As a compromise, the old black-white-red flag was reintroduced in 1922 to represent German diplomatic missions abroad.[8] Reichswehr flag (1921-1935). ...


The symbols of Imperial Germany became symbols of conservative protest and were often used by nationalist organisations (e.g. Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten). This included the Reichskriegsflagge (war flag of the Reich), which has been revived in the present for similar use. Many right-wing political parties during the Weimar period — such as the DNVP (see poster) and the Nazi Party — used the imperial colours, a practice that has continued today with the NPD. The Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten (English: Steel Helmet, League of Frontline Soldiers) was one of the many paramilitary organizations that arose after the defeat of World War I in the Weimar Republic. ... Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1871–1892 Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1903–1919 Die Reichskriegsflagge (Reich War Flag) was the official name of the war flag used by the Wehrmacht from 1871 to 1945 and Kriegsmarine from 1892 to 1945. ... 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


On 24 February 1924, the organisation Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold was founded in Magdeburg by the member parties of the Weimar Coalition (Centre, DDP, SPD) and the trade unions. This organisation was formed to protect the fragile democracy of the Weimar Republic, which was under constant pressure by both the far right and far left. Through this organisation, the black-red-gold flag became not only a symbol of German democracy, but also of resistance to political extremism. This was summarised by the organisation's first chairman Otto Hörsing, who described their task as a "struggle against the swastika and the Soviet star".[27] is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... This article is about the German city. ... The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly which met at Weimar in 1919, and were the... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions. ... This article is about the symbol. ... Red star on the Soviet flag The five-pointed red star (a pentagram without the inner pentagon) is a symbol of Communism and Socialism and represents the five fingers of the workers hand, as well as five of six inhabited continents. ...


In the face of the increasingly violent conflicts between the communists and the national socialists, the growing polarisation of the German population and a multitude of other factors, the Weimar Republic collapsed in 1933 with the Nazi seizure of power (Machtergreifung) and the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German chancellor. Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...


Nazi Germany

3:5 Flag of the National Socialist German Workers Party (1920–45)National flag of Germany (1933–45)
3:5 Design used in the past, but now abandoned Flag of the National Socialist German Workers Party (1920–45)
National flag of Germany (1933–45)
3:5 Used jointly with the swastika flag (1933–35), then banned as "reactionary"
3:5 Design used in the past, but now abandoned Used jointly with the swastika flag (1933–35), then banned as "reactionary"

With the establishment of Nazi-ruled Germany on 5 March 1933, the black-red-gold flag was swiftly scrapped: a ruling on 12 March reintroduced the old black-white-red imperial tricolour and established the banner of the Nazi Party as the two national flags of Germany.[28] In 1935, one year after the death of Reich President Paul von Hindenburg and Hitler's self-elevation to the position of Führer, the dual flag arrangement ended with the exclusive use of the Nazi flag as the national flag of Germany,[29] while the old black-white-red flag was banned as "reactionary".[30] Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The Presidential Palace (Reichspräsidentenpalais) in Berlin. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Nazi propaganda poster. ...


The design of the Nazi flag was introduced by Hitler as the party flag in the summer of 1920: a flag with a red background, a white disk, and a black swastika in the middle. In addition to the flag forming a link to Imperial Germany via its colour choice, the national socialist flag had additional meaning, according to Hitler in Mein Kampf: white for nationalism, red for socialism, and the swastika to symbolise the superiority of the Aryan race and antisemitism. Albert Speer stated in his memoirs that "in only two other designs did he (Adolf Hitler) execute the same care as he did his Obersalzberg house: that of the Reich War Flag and his own standard of Chief of State".[31] This article is about the symbol. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Haus Wachenfeld during its conversion into the Berghof The Berghof was Adolf Hitlers home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Germany. ... Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1871–1892 Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1903–1919 Die Reichskriegsflagge (Reich War Flag) was the official name of the war flag used by the Wehrmacht from 1871 to 1945 and Kriegsmarine from 1892 to 1945. ... Personal Standard for Adolf Hitler (in use from 1934 to 1945) Adolf Hitlers personal standard was designed after Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg died on 2 Aug 1934. ...


An off-centred disk version of the swastika flag was used as the civil ensign on German-registered civilian ships and was used as the jack on Kriegsmarine (the name of the German Navy, 1933–45) warships.[32] Nazi ensigns had a through and through image, so the "left-facing" and "right-facing" version were each present on one side. The Nazi flag on land was right-facing on both sides while the centred-disk flag was commonly used by civilians and the German armed forces aside from the navy. There is still debate as to whether the off-centred disk flag was the official national flag from 1935 to 1945.[33] The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... An image may be through and through in the following cases: ink or paint penetrating to the other side inlaying with another material, stained glass, patchwork, woodwork, linoleum, marble, etc. ...


From 1933 to at least 1938, before any official swastika flag went into use, it had to take part in a ceremony where it touched the Blutfahne (blood flag), the swastika flag used by Nazi paramilitaries during the failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. This lengthy ceremony took place at every Nuremberg Rally. It is unknown whether this tradition was continued after the last Nuremberg rally in 1938. Consecration by Adolf Hitler of the Blutfahne at the 1938 Nuremburg rally. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys leader Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the Kampfbund... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ...

 A proposed flag for Germany that would have been used had the July 20 plot succeeded (1944)
Design was proposed in the past, but never officially adopted A proposed flag for Germany that would have been used had the July 20 plot succeeded (1944)

On 20 July 1944, the German Resistance failed in their attempt to assassinate Hitler. If the assassination had been successful, the Resistance would have then attempted to take power in Germany via Operation Walküre (Valkyrie), disband the Nazi regime and seek peace with the Allies. Josef Wirmer, a co-conspirator in the July 20 Plot, had developed a new national flag to be used for this new post-Nazi state: a Nordic Cross Flag in black-red-gold.[34] After the July 20 Plot failed, the conspirators were executed and the flag was never used. Image File history File links FIAV_proposal. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (Memorial to the German Resistance, Berlin) The German Resistance refers to those individuals and groups in Nazi Germany who opposed the regime of Adolf Hitler between 1933 and 1945. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... The Valkyries Vigil, by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Robert Hughes. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Josef Wirmer (born 19 March 1901 in Paderborn; died 8 September 1944 in Berlin) was a German jurist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. ... The Nordic flags. ... This is a list of members of the July 20 plot, a coup détat which involved a failed attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ...


At the end of World War II, the first law enacted by the Allied Control Council abolished all Nazi symbols and repealed all relevant laws.[35] The possession of swastika flags is forbidden in many Western countries since then, particularly in Germany.
Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... This article is about the symbol. ...


After World War II

2:3 The C-Pennant (1946–49)
2:3 Civil ensign Design used in the past, but now abandoned The C-Pennant (1946–49)

After the defeat of Germany in World War II, the country was placed under Allied administration. Although there was no national German government and no German flag, German ships were required by international law to have a national ensign of some kind. As a provisional civil ensign of Germany, the Council designated the international signal pennant representing the letter C ending in a swallowtail, known as the C-Pennant (German: C-Doppelstander). The Council ruled that "no ceremonial shall be accorded this flag which shall not be dipped in salute to warships or merchant ships of any nationality".[36] Similarly, the Japanese civil ensign used immediately following World War II was the signal pennant for the letter E ending in a swallow-tail. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_(1946-1949). ... Image File history File links FIAV_000100. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... The civil ensign (a. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet in signals to or from ships. ... The national flag of Japan, known as Nisshōki (日章旗 sun flag) or Hinomaru (日の丸 sun disc) in Japanese, is a base white flag with a large red disc (representing the rising sun) in the center. ...


West of the Oder-Neisse line, the German states were reorganised along the lines of the zones of occupation and new state governments were established. Within the American zone, the northern halves of the former states of Württemberg and Baden were merged to form Württemberg-Baden in 1946. As its flag, Württemberg-Baden adopted the black-red-gold tricolour.[37] The choice of these colours was not based on the historical use of the tricolour, but the simple addition of gold to Württemberg's colours of red and black.[38] Coincidentally, Baden's colours were red and yellow, so the colour choice could be mistaken for a combination of the two flags. In 1952, Württemberg-Baden became part of the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg, whose flag is black and gold. The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... Württemberg-Baden is a former state of West Germany. ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density...


Two other states that were created after the war, Rhineland-Palatinate (French zone) and Lower Saxony (British zone), chose to use the black-red-gold tricolour as their flag, defaced with the state's coat of arms.[39][40] These two states were formed from parts of other states and no colour combinations from these previous states were accepted as a new state flag. This led to the use of the black-red-gold for two reasons: the colours did not relate particularly to any one of the previous states, and using the old flag from the Weimar Republic was intended to be a symbol of the new democracy.[41][42] The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...


Divided Germany

3:5 Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949–today)Flag of the German Democratic Republic (1949–59)
3:5 Civil and state flag, civil and state ensign Normal or de jure version of flag, or obverse side Flag of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949–today)
Flag of the German Democratic Republic (1949–59)

With relations deteriorating between the Soviet Union and the United States, the three western Allies met in March 1948 to merge their zones of occupation and allow the formation of a new German nation. This was the Federal Republic of Germany, previously known as West Germany, now simply as Germany. Meanwhile, the eastern Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic, commonly known as East Germany. Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links FIAV_110110. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


During the preparation of the new constitution for West Germany, discussions regarding its national symbols took place in August 1948 during a meeting at Herrenchiemsee. Although there were objections to the creation of a national flag before reunification with the east, it was decided to proceed. This decision was primarily motivated by the proposed constitution by the eastern SED in November 1946,[43] where black-red-gold were suggested as the colours for a future German republic.[44] Schloss Herrenchiemsee One of the fountains in the gardens of Schloss Herrenchiemsee Herrenchiemsee 2005 Herrenchiemsee is a complex of royal buildings on the Herreninsel, an island in the middle of Bavarias largest lake, the Chiemsee, 60 km south east of Munich. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ...

Design was proposed in the past, but never officially adopted Two variants of Josef Wirmer’s 1944 "Resistance" design, created by his brother Ernst. The top flag was proposed by conservative parties as a flag for West Germany (1948).

While there were suggestions for the new flag for West Germany,[45] the final choice was between two designs, both using black-red-gold. The Social Democrats proposed the reintroduction of the old Weimar flag, while the conservative parties such as the CDU/CSU and the German Party proposed a suggestion by Ernst Wirmer, a member of the Parlamentarischer Rat (parliamentary council) and future advisor of chancellor Konrad Adenauer. Wirmer suggested a variant of the 1944 "Resistance" flag designed by his brother and July 20 co-conspirator Josef.[34] The tricolour was ultimately selected, largely to illustrate the continuity between the Weimar Republic and this new German state. With the enactment of the (West) German constitution on 23 May 1949, the black-red-gold tricolour was adopted as the flag for the Federal Republic of Germany.[2] Image File history File links FIAV_proposal. ... Josef Wirmer (born 19 March 1901 in Paderborn; died 8 September 1944 in Berlin) was a German jurist and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... The German Party (Deutsche Partei) is a minor German political party. ... The Parlamentarische Rat (parliamentary council) was a predecessor of the West German Bundestag. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1955, the inhabitants of the French-administered Saar Protectorate elected to join West Germany.[46] Since its establishment as a separate French protectorate in 1947, the Saar had a white Nordic cross on a blue and red background as its flag.[47] To demonstrate the commitment of the Saar to be a part of West Germany, a new flag was selected on 9 July 1956: the black-red-gold tricolour defaced with the new coat of arms, also proposed on this day.[48] This flag came into force on 1 January 1957 upon the establishment of the Saarland as a state of West Germany. The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of Saarland, was a protectorate under French control between 1947 and 1959. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms of Saarland This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Saarland. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km...

3:5 Flag of the German Democratic Republic (1959–90)
3:5 Civil and state flag, civil and state ensign Design used in the past, but now abandoned Flag of the German Democratic Republic (1959–90)

While the use of black-red-gold had been suggested in the Soviet zone in 1946, the Second People's Congress in 1948 decided to adopt the old black-white-red tricolour as a national flag for East Germany. This choice was based on the use of these colours by the National Committee for a Free Germany,[45] a German anti-Nazi organisation that operated in the Soviet Union in the last two years of the war. In 1949, following a suggestion from Friedrich Ebert, the black-red-gold tricolour was instead selected as the flag of the German Democratic Republic upon the formation of this state on 7 October 1949.[49] From 1949 to 1959, the flags of both West and East Germany were identical. On 1 October 1959, the East German government changed its flag with the addition of its coat of arms.[50] In West Germany, these changes were seen as a deliberate attempt to divide the two Germanys, Displaying this flag in West Germany and West Berlin — where it became known as the Spalterflagge (divider-flag) — was seen as a breach of the constitution and subsequently banned until the late 1960s. Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... Image File history File links FIAV_110110. ... Image File history File links FIAV_historical. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Friedrich Fritz Ebert (September 12, 1894 – December 4, 1979) was the son of Germanys first President Friedrich Ebert. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The coat of arms The Coat of Arms of the German Democratic Republic featured a hammer, a pair of compasses, surrounded by a ring of rye. ...


From 1956 to 1964, West and East Germany attended the Winter and Summer Olympic Games as a single team, known as the United Team of Germany. After the East German national flag was changed in 1959, neither country accepted the flag of the other. As a compromise, a new flag was used, featuring the black-red-gold tricolour defaced with the Olympic rings in white. An athlete carries the Olympic torch during the 2002 torch relay The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... Athletes from the East Germany (German Democratic Republic; GDR) and West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany; FRG) competed together as the United Team of Germany (Gesamtdeutsche Mannschaft) in the 1956, 1960, and 1964 Winter and Summer Olympics. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Among the recognizable Olympic symbols: The Olympic flag: A white flag with the Olympic Rings on it in five colours. ...


1989 to today

 The East German flag with the emblem cut out, displayed by many East Germans before reunification (1989)
Design is a reconstruction, based on past observations The East German flag with the emblem cut out, displayed by many East Germans before reunification (1989)

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, many East Germans cut the coat of arms out of their flags. The inspiration for this came from Romania, where this was done during the fall of Ceauşescu. The widespread act of removing the coat of arms from the East German flag implied that the plain black-red-gold tricolour was a symbol for a united and democratic Germany and, on 13 October 1990, as the German Democratic Republic was absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany, the black-red-gold tricolour became the flag of a reunified Germany. In 1998, the Foundation for the Reconciliation of the SED Dictatorship was formed. The duty of this organisation, directly responsible to the federal government, is to examine the consequences of the former East German regime. As its logo, the foundation uses this cut-out version of the East German flag.[51] Image File history File links FIAV_reconstructed. ... Berlin Wall on November 16, 1989 The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a long barrier separating West Berlin from East Berlin and the surrounding territory of East Germany. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...

Neo-Nazi march in Munich (2005)
Neo-Nazi march in Munich (2005)

The old black-white-red tricolour of the German Empire is still used by monarchists and those members of German royalty who long for the peaceful reintroduction of a German democratic monarchy.[52] This use of the old flag is almost completely overshadowed by its prevalent use by the far right; since the swastika is illegal in Germany the far right have been forced to forego any Nazi flags and instead use the old tricolour – which the Nazis themselves banned in 1935.[29] The fact that Nazi symbols are banned in some countries is the main reason why many computer games related to World War II do not feature the Nazi flag, sometimes replacing it with the anachronistic flag of pre-1918 Germany. The utilisation of the old imperial tricolour by the far right and its attempts to associate the tricolour with its antidemocratic and xenophobic ideals are strongly objected to by modern German monarchists.[52] Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ... In video games, many historical topics are used or centered upon as part of the gameplay and storyline. ...

German football fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Some flags seen here contain the federal coat of arms and must not be confused with the state flag, which displays the Bundesschild.
German football fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Some flags seen here contain the federal coat of arms and must not be confused with the state flag, which displays the Bundesschild.

In Germany, the use of the flag and other national symbols is relatively low — a reaction against the widespread use of flags by the Nazi Party, and against the nationalistic furore of the Nazis in general.[53] The flag is used primarily by official authorities on special occasions or by citizens during international sporting events. In some states (e.g. Bavaria, Schleswig-Holstein) or sub-state historical regions (e.g. Baden, Franconia) residents may prefer the use of regional flags instead of the national flag. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 711 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany national football team Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 711 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Germany national football team Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Baden is a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ...


During the 2006 FIFA World Cup, which took place in Germany, public use of the national flag increased dramatically.[54] Although this explosion in the flag's popularity was initially greeted by many Germans with a mixture of surprise and apprehension,[55] the decades-old fear that German flag-waving and national pride was inextricably associated with its Nazi past was dismissed by the end of the tournament by Germans and non-Germans alike.[56] 2006 World Cup redirects here. ...


See also

The national colours of Germany are officially black, red and gold. ... This is a list of flags used by and in Germany . ... The flags of the German states usually come in two variants: one variant (the simple striped flag) is for the use by everybody (civil flag); the other variant, showing the state arms is for government use only (state service flag). ... The Eagle has been the coat of arms of Germany in this form since the later days of the Weimar Republic The coat of arms of Germany is a symbol of Germany; the coat of arms feature an eagle. ... This article is about the flag of the former German state of Prussia. ... Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1871–1892 Kaiserliche Marine War Ensign (Reichskriegsflagge) 1903–1919 Die Reichskriegsflagge (Reich War Flag) was the official name of the war flag used by the Wehrmacht from 1871 to 1945 and Kriegsmarine from 1892 to 1945. ...

References

  1. ^ (German) Federal Parliament of Germany (2004-12-15). Schwarz Rot Gold. Symbol der Einheit. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  2. ^ a b c Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (23 May 1949). German version and English version (December 2000) (PDF). See Article 22. Retrieved on 24 February 2008.
  3. ^ a b (German) Federal Government of Germany (1950-07-07). Anordnung über die deutschen Flaggen. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  4. ^ (German) Federal Government of Germany (24 May 1968). § 124 OWiG: Benutzen von Wappen oder Dienstflaggen. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  5. ^ (German) Federal Government of Germany (1996-11-13). Anordnung über die deutschen Flaggen. Gesetze im Internet. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  6. ^ Flag hoisting formats and terminology (Germany, Austria and adjacent countries). Flags of the World (26 October 2001). Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  7. ^ (German) Federal Government of Germany (1956-05-25). Anordnung des Bundespräsidenten über die Dienstflagge der Seestreitkräfte der Bundeswehr. Gesetze im Internet. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  8. ^ a b (German) Government of the German Reich (1921-04-11). Verordnung über die deutschen Flaggen. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  9. ^ Colours of the Flag (Germany). Flags of the World (5 August 1998). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. Contains a letter from the German Ministry of the Interior (30 July 1998)
  10. ^ (German) Federal Government of Germany (17 December 2007). Primärfarben. Corporate Design Documentation. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  11. ^ (German) Dreyhaupt, Rüdiger F. (2000). "Flags of the Weimar Republic". Der Flaggenkurier 11: 3–17.
  12. ^ a b (German) Federal Court of Justice of Germany (16 November 1959). 3 StR 45/59.
  13. ^ (German) Rabbow, Arnold (1968). "Schwarz-Rot-Gold oder Schwarz-Rot-Gelb?". Neue Heraldische Mitteilungen / Kleeblatt-Jahrbuch 6+7: 30–32.
  14. ^ a b (German) Federal Government of Germany (2005-03-22). Beflaggungserlass der Bundesregierung. Verwaltung Online. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  15. ^ Flag Protocol (Germany). Flags of the World (6 February 2002). Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  16. ^ a b Holy Roman Empire. Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  17. ^ Unidentified 'Rhine Republic' Flag 1806 (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
  18. ^ a b c d (German) Rabbow, Arnold (2007). "Schwarz-Rot-Gold: Einheit in Freiheit". Der Flaggenkurier 25: 41–45.
  19. ^ (German) Scheidler, Karl Hermann (1865-08-05) Illustrierte Zeitung, Leipzig, 98
  20. ^ a b German Confederation. Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  21. ^ Austria: The Age of Metternich. Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2008). Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  22. ^ The Hambach Festival. Official website of Hambach Castle (2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  23. ^ (German) Frankfurt Parliament (1848-11-12). Gesetz betreffend die Einführung einer deutschen Kriegs- und Handelsflagge. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  24. ^ (German) Constitution of the North German Confederation. documentArchiv.de (1867-06-27). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 55.
  25. ^ (German) Constitution of the German Empire. documentArchiv.de (1871-04-16). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 55.
  26. ^ (German) Constitution of the Weimar Republic. documentArchiv.de (1919-08-11). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 3.
  27. ^ (German) State government of Rhineland-Palatinate (2007). Symbol für Freiheit, Einheit und Demokratie. Retrieved on 2008-01-10.
  28. ^ (German) von Hindenburg, Paul (1933-03-12). Erlaß des Reichspräsidenten über die vorläufige Regelung der Flaggenhissung. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
  29. ^ a b (German) Government of the German Reich (1935-09-15). Reichsflaggengesetz. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  30. ^ (German) Statement by Hermann Göring, in the Völkischer Beobachter (17 September 1935)
  31. ^ Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-684-82949-5. 
  32. ^ (German) Government of the German Reich (1933-12-20). Verordnung über die vorläufige Regelung der Flaggenführung auf Kauffahrteischiffen. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  33. ^ Centred vs. Offset Disc and Swastika 1933-1945 (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  34. ^ a b Rabbow, Arnold (May–August 1983). "A Flag Against Hitler. The 1944 National Flag Proposal of the German Resistance Movement". Flag Bulletin 100.
  35. ^ Allied Control Council (1945-08-30). Law N° 1 from the Control Council for Germany: Repealing of Nazi Laws. European NAvigator. Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  36. ^ Allied Control Council (30 November 1946). Law No. 39 of the Allied Control Commission. Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. See Article 1 #3.
  37. ^ (German) Constitution of Württemberg-Baden. Verfassungen der Welt (1946-11-30). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 45
  38. ^ Württemberg-Baden 1947-1952 (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. Contains quotation from discussion of the constitution committee.
  39. ^ (German) Constitution of Rhineland-Palatinate. Verfassungen der Welt (1947-05-18). Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  40. ^ (German) Preliminary constitution of Lower Saxony. Verfassungen der Welt (1951-04-13). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 1 #2
  41. ^ Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
  42. ^ Lower Saxony (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
  43. ^ (German) Friedel, Alois (1968). Deutsche Staatssymbole. Athenäum-Verlag. ISBN 9783761051153. 
  44. ^ (German) SED-proposed constitution of the German Democratic Republic. documentArchiv.de (1946-11-14). Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  45. ^ a b Proposals 1944-1949 (Germany). Flags of the World. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  46. ^ The Saar referendum. European Navigator (1955-10-23). Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  47. ^ (German) Constitution of the Saarland. documentArchiv.de (1947-12-15). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 61.
  48. ^ (German) Government of the Saarland (1956-07-09) Gesetz Nr. 508 über die Flagge des Saarlandes and Gesetz Nr. 509 über das Wappen des Saarlandes
  49. ^ (German) Constitution of the German Democratic Republic. documentArchiv.de (1949-10-07). Retrieved on 2008-02-24. See Article 2.
  50. ^ (German) Government of the German Democratic Republic (1959-10-01). Gesetz zur Änderung des Gesetzes über das Staatswappen und die Staatsflagge der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. documentArchiv.de. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  51. ^ Information pamphlet by the Foundation for the Reconciliation of the SED Dictatorship. Retrieved on 9 March 2008.
  52. ^ a b Home page of monarchist organisation Tradition und Leben. See German section for more detailed text. Retrieved on 24 February 2008.
  53. ^ Sontheimer, Michael (2006-06-29). Dr. Strangelove: How Germans Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Flag. Spiegel Online. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  54. ^ Young, Marc (2006-06-14). Germany flies the flag. Spiegel Online. Retrieved on 2008-02-24.
  55. ^ Bernstein, Richard (2006-06-14). In World Cup Surprise, Flags Fly With German Pride. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  56. ^ Crossland, David (2006-07-10). Germany's World Cup Recovery: From Humorless to Carefree in 30 Days. Spiegel Online. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kammergericht, Headquarters of the Allied Control Council The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in German as the Alliierter Kontrollrat, also referred to as the Four Powers, was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Tradition und Leben e. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Flags of the World (or FOTW) is an Internet-based vexillological organization and resource. ... This is a list of flags used by and in Germany . ... The flags of the German states usually come in two variants: one variant (the simple striped flag) is for the use by everybody (civil flag); the other variant, showing the state arms is for government use only (state service flag). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the flag of the former German state of Prussia. ... This is a list of international and national flags used in Europe. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Flag of Montenegro (2004–present) The flag of Montenegro was changed on 12 July 2004 by the Parliament of Montenegro into a red banner bearing the coat of arms adopted in 1993. ... The flag of Serbia is a tricolour with Pan-Slavic colours, with three equal horizontal fields, red on the top, blue in the middle and white on the bottom, and the Coat of Arms of Serbia centered vertically and located left of center by one-seventh of the flags... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... The Union Flag is flown from government buildings in Northern Ireland. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The Welsh Dragon on the tailfin of an Air Wales ATR 42 aircraft. ... World map of dependent territories. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... In the red canton, the open hand represents Abkhaz nationhood. ... On 20 July 2004, the Supreme Council of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic, Georgia ratified a new flag for the region. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (commonly, the Union Jack) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Flag of Ã…land The flag of Ã…land points to the location of the islands - it is the Swedish flag with an additional red cross symbolising Finland. ... The Flag of the Azores The flag of the Azores is similar to the flag of Portugal used from 1830-1910, except that the Portuguese coat of arms has been removed and been replaced by the eagle, the symbol of the Azores. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Crimea is in use since 1992 and was officially adopted on April 21, 1999. ... Flag of Gagauzia The flag of Gagauzia has served as the republics flag until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 with slightly different colors and no stars or white, although these symbols were sometimes used in the flag on some official occasions. ... The flag of the Republic of Kosovo was adopted by the Assembly of Kosovo following the unilateral declaration of independence of the Republic of Kosovo from Serbia on 17 February 2008. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of the Madeira Islands consists of a blue-gold-blue vertical triband with a red-bordered white Cross of Christ in the centre. ... The flag of Nagorno-Karabakh, an unrecognised self-proclaimed government in a region of Azerbaijan, is derived from the flag of Armenia, with only a white pattern added. ... Flag of Azerbaijan presently used as the flag of Nakhchivan. ... TRNC Flag The flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is the Turkish flag, except that the colors of the objects and background are reversed, and the white background also has two red stripes at the top and bottom. ... The flag of South Ossetia The flag of South Ossetia is a tricolour, top to bottom white, red, and yellow. ... “Flag of Norway” redirects here. ... The Transnistrian flag is a version of the former flag of Moldavian SSR which served as a flag of the whole country until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 with slightly different colors and no hammer and sickle or red star. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The borders of the continents are the limits of the several continents of the Earth, as defined by various geographical, cultural, and political criteria. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... This gallery of sovereign-state flags shows the flags of sovereign states in the list of sovereign states. ... This overview contains the flags of dependent territories. ... This overview contains the flags of self-proclaimed states that have declared their independence, exert control over (at least part of) the claimed territory and population, but have not been acknowledged as independent states by the international community at large. ... This article is intended as a list of flags from micronations - that is, unrecognised statelike entities that are largely or wholly ephemeral in nature. ... This gallery contains the flags of states that were (at least de facto) independent in the past. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... This gallery of sovereign state coats of arms shows the coat of arms of sovereign states in the list of sovereign states. ... This overview shows the coat of arms of dependent territories. ... This overview contains the coats of arms of self-proclaimed states that have declared their independence, exert control over (at least part of) the claimed territory and population, but have not been acknowledged as independent states by the international community at large. ... This overview contains the coats of arms of micronations, self-proclaimed statelike entities that are largely or wholly ephemeral in nature. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Germany (1091 words)
The state flag and ensign are the same, but with the shield not really centred but placed toward the hoist.
I noticed that the shade for the yellow stripe on the Saxony-Anhalt state flag is identical to the shade used for the German national flag.
It was adopted in 1848, and abolished in 1852; readopted as the flag of the Weimar Republic on August 11th 1919, and abolished and replaced by the Third Reich flag March 12th 1933.
Flag Legislation (Germany) (1104 words)
Flags shall be firstly hoisted to the top of the flag pole, then slowly brought down to a "half-mast" position.
On tall format hoisting flags the mourning band shall be fastened to the top of the mast and its length shall not exceed the short side of the flag.
The federal flag or federal service flag must never be used to adorn the podium or desk of a speaker.
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