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Encyclopedia > Fission product

Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. Typically, a large nucleus like Uranium fissions by splitting into two smaller nuclei, along with a few neutrons and a large release of energy in the form of heat (kinetic energy of the nuclei), gamma rays and neutrinos. The two smaller nuclei are the "fission products". For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ...

Contents

Formation and decay

The sum of the atomic weight of the two atoms produced by the fission of one atom is always less than the atomic weight of the original atom. This is because some of the mass is lost as free neutrons and large amounts of energy. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Since the nuclei that can readily undergo fission are particularly neutron-rich (e.g. 61% of the nucleons in uranium-235 are neutrons), the initial fission products are almost always more neutron-rich than stable nuclei of the same mass as the fission product (e.g. stable ruthenium-100 is 56% neutrons, stable xenon-134 is 60%). The initial fission products therefore may be unstable and typically undergo beta decay towards stable nuclei, converting a neutron to a proton with each beta emission. (Fission products do not emit alpha particles.) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In physics a nucleon is a collective name for two baryons: the neutron and the proton. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ...


A few neutron-rich and short-lived initial fission products first decay by emitting a neutron. This is the source of delayed neutrons which play an important role in control of a nuclear reactor. In nuclear engineering, a prompt neutron is a neutron immediately emitted by a nuclear fission event, as opposed to a delayed neutron which is emitted by one of the fission products anything from a few milliseconds to a few minutes later. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


The first beta decays are rapid, and may release high energy beta particles or gamma radiation. However, as the fission products approach stable nuclear conditions, the last one or two decays may have a long halflife and release less energy. Exceptions are: This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...

  • Sr-90 (high energy beta, halflife 30 years)
  • Cs-137 (high energy gamma, halflife 30 years)
  • Sn-126 (even higher energy gamma, but long halflife of 230,000 years means a slow rate of radiation release, and the yield of this nuclide per fission is very low)

Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radioactive isotope of strontium, with a half life of 28. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mianly by nuclear fission (half life is about 27 years). ... Tin-126 is a radioisotope with a halflife of 230,000 years and is one of only 7 long-lived fission products. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Yield

Fission product yields by element at different cooling times after the fuel has been used. Percentages are of total fission products (out of 100%) rather than per fission (out of 200% because two fragments for each fission)
Fission product yields by element at different cooling times after the fuel has been used. Percentages are of total fission products (out of 100%) rather than per fission (out of 200% because two fragments for each fission)
Fission product yields by mass for thermal neutron fission of U-235, Pu-239, a combination of the two typical of current nuclear power reactors, and U-233 used in the thorium cycle
Fission product yields by mass for thermal neutron fission of U-235, Pu-239, a combination of the two typical of current nuclear power reactors, and U-233 used in the thorium cycle

Each fission of a parent atom produces a different set of fission product atoms. However, while an individual fission is not predictable, the fission products are statistically predictable. The amount of any particular isotope produced per fission is called its yield, typically expressed as % per parent fission; therefore, yields total to 200% not 100%. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 618 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions w:Image:Fission_yield. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 618 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions w:Image:Fission_yield. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


While fission products include every element from zinc through the lanthanides, the majority of the fission products occurs in two peaks. One peak occurs at about (expressed by atomic number) strontium to ruthenium while the other peak is at about tellurium to neodymium. The exact yield is somewhat dependent on the parent atom, and also on the energy of the initiating neutron.[2] General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... The lanthanide series is the 14 rare earth chemical elements which lie between lanthanum and ytterbium on the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ...


In general the higher the energy of the state that undergoes nuclear fission, the more likely that the two fission products have similar mass. Hence as the neutron energy increases and/or the energy of the fissile atom increases, the valley between the two peaks becomes more shallow. For instance, the curve of yield against mass for Pu-239 has a more shallow valley than that observed for U-235 when the neutrons are thermal neutrons. The curves for the fission of the later actinides tend to make even more shallow valleys. In extreme cases such as 259Fm, only one peak is seen. This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ...


The adjacent figure shows a typical fission product distribution from the fission of uranium. Note that in the calculations used to make this graph, the activation of fission products was ignored and the fission was assumed to occur in a single moment rather than a length of time. In this bar chart results are shown for different cooling times (time after fission). Because of the stability of nuclei with even numbers of protons and/or neutrons, the curve of yield against element is not a smooth curve but tends to alternate. (But note that the curve against mass number is smooth [3].)


Data on fission product yield is found in the article Fission product yield. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Characteristics

Medium-lived
fission products
Property: t½
Unit: (a)
Yield
(%)
Q *
(KeV)
βγ
*
155Eu 4.76 .0330 252 βγ
85Kr 10.76 .2717 687 βγ
113mCd 14.1 .0003 316 β
90Sr 28.9 5.7518 2826 β
137Cs 30.23 6.0899 1176 βγ
121mSn 43.9 .00003 390 βγ
151Sm 90 .4203 77 β
Long-lived
fission products
Property: t½
Unit: (Ma)
Yield
(%)
Q *
(KeV)
βγ
*
99Tc .211 6.0507 294 β
126Sn .230 .0236 4050 βγ
79Se .295 .0508 151 β
93Zr 1.53 6.2956 91 βγ
135Cs 2.3  6.3333 269 β
107Pd 6.5  .1629 33 β
129I 15.7  .6576 194 βγ

The adjacent tables provides information on the half-life, yield and decay energies for some more important fission products. A more detailed description of individual products is provided in Fission products (by element) and in Long-lived fission products, and in articles on specific radionuclides. Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it passes through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt, in vacuum. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Krypton 85 (85Kr) is a radioisotope of krypton. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it passes through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt, in vacuum. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Iodine-129 (129I) is a radioisotope of iodine, which decays with a half-life of 16. ... On this page a discussion of each of the main elements in the fission product mixture from the nuclear fission of an actinide such as uranium or plutonium is set out by element. ...


The following chart provides information on the electronegativity of the fission products.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
4 Ionization energy increases → Electronegativity increases → Ga
1.81
Ge
2.01
As
2.18
Se
2.55
Br
2.96
Kr
3.00
5 Rb
0.82
Sr
0.95
Y
1.22
Zr
1.33
Nb
1.6
Mo
2.16
Tc
1.9
Ru
2.2
Rh
2.28
Pd
2.20
Ag
1.93
Cd
1.69
In
1.78
Sn
1.96
Sb
2.05
Te
2.1
I
2.66
Xe
2.67
6 Cs
0.79
Ba
0.89
La
1.1
Ce
1.12
Pr
1.13
Nd
1.14
Pm
1.13
Sm
1.17
Eu
1.2
Gd
1.2
Tb
1.1
Dy
1.22
Lanthanides act like Group 3
Ac
1.1
Th
1.3
Pa
1.5
U
1.38
Np
1.36
Pu
1.28
Am
1.13
Cm
1.28
Bk
1.3
Cf
1.3
Not all Actinides act like Group 3

The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... A Group 3 element is an element in periodic table group 3 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: scandium (21) yttrium (39) lanthanum (57) - lutetium (71) actinium (89) - lawrencium (103) All of these elements are classed in Group 3 because their outer shell holds three electrons. ... A Group 4 element is an element in periodic table group 4 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: titanium (22) zirconium (40) hafnium (72) rutherfordium (104) All of these elements are classed in Group 4 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A Group 5 element is the series of elements in group 5 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta), and dubnium (Db). ... The group 6 in the periodic table consists of the elements chromium (24) molybdenum (42) tungsten (74) seaborgium (106) Group 6 is the new IUPAC name for this group, the old style name was group VIA in the old European system or group VIB in the old US system. ... A Group 7 element is an element in periodic table group 7 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: manganese (25) technetium (43) rhenium (75) bohrium (107) All of these elements are classed in Group 7 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A Group 8 element is an element in periodic table group 8 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: Iron (26) Ruthenium (44) Osmium (76) Hassium (108) All of these elements are classed in Group 8 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... The Group 9 elements are: Cobalt (27) Rhodium (45) Iridium (77) Meitnerium (109) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... The Group 10 elements are: Nickel (28) Palladium (46) Platinum (78) Darmstadtium (110) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... The Group 11 Elements (IB) of the periodic table consist of the traditional coinage metals of copper, silver, and gold. ... The Group 12 elements are: Zinc (30) Cadmium (48) Mercury (80) Ununbium (112) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid but mercury is liquid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... The Boron group is the series of elements in group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... The carbon group is group 14 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... The group 15 elements(a. ... The chalcogens (with the ch pronounced with a hard c as in chemistry) are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... The lanthanide series is the 14 rare earth chemical elements which lie between lanthanum and ytterbium on the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ...

Fission product production

Small amounts of fission products are naturally formed as the result of either spontaneous fission of natural uranium, which occurs at a low rate, or as a result of neutrons from radioactive decay or reactions with cosmic ray particles. The microscopic tracks left by these fission products in some natural minerals can be used to provide a method of dating old materials. Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay characteristic of very heavy isotopes, and is theoretically possible for any atomic nucleus whose mass is greater than or equal to 100 amu (elements near ruthenium). ...


About 1.5 billion years ago, in a uranium ore body in Africa, a natural nuclear fission reactor operated for a few hundred thousand years and produced approximately 5 tonnes of fission products. These fission products were important in providing proof that the natural reactor had occurred. More details are provided in the linked article. Natural Reactors refer to a handful of Uranium deposits that have been discovered, mostly in Oklo, Gabon. ... Natural Reactors refer to a handful of Uranium deposits that have been discovered, mostly in Oklo, Gabon. ...


Fission products are produced in nuclear weapons, with the amount depending on the type of weapon. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


The largest source of fission products is from nuclear reactors. In current nuclear power reactors, a small percentage of the uranium in the fuel is converted into fission products as an unavoidable by-product of energy generation. Most of these fission products remain in the fuel unless there is fuel failure, or an accident, or the fuel is reprocessed.


Applications

Supply of radioactive isotopes

Some fission products (such as Cs-137) are used in medical and industrial radioactive sources. Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mianly by nuclear fission (half life is about 27 years). ...


Nuclear reactor control

Some fission products decay with the release of a neutron. Since there may be a short delay in time between the original fission event (which release its own "prompt" neutrons immediately) and the release of these neutrons, the latter are termed "delayed neutrons". These delayed neutrons are important to nuclear reactor control.


Nuclear reactor poisons

Some of the fission products have a high neutron absorption capacity, such as xenon-135 and samarium-149. Since a nuclear reactor depends on a balance in the neutron production and absorption rates, these fission product remove neutrons from the reactor and will tend to shut the reactor down or "poison" the reactor. Nuclear fuels and reactors are designed to address this phenomena through such features as burnable poisons and control rods. More details are provided in the article on nuclear reactor poisons. General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... For information on radioactive toxins see Radiation poisoning A nuclear poison is a substances with a large neutron absorption cross-section in applications, such as nuclear reactors, when absorbing neutrons is an undesirable effect. ...


Fission Product Decay with time

For fission of Uranium-235 the most common radioactive fission products include isotopes of iodine, caesium, strontium, xenon and barium. It is important to understand that the size of the threat becomes smaller with the passage of time, locations where radiation fields which posed immediate mortal threats (such as much of the Chernobyl power plant on day one of the accident and the ground zero sites of Japanese atomic bombings [6 hours after detonation]) are now safe as the radioactivity has decayed away. Please for instance see the graph below of the gamma dose rate due to Chernobyl fallout as a function of time after the accident. Many of the fission products decay through very shortlived isotopes to form stable isotopes, but also a considerable number of the radioisotopes have half lives longer than a day. Please see Fission products (by element) for a discussion of the main fission products. For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... On this page a discussion of each of the main elements in the fission product mixture from the nuclear fission of an actinide such as uranium or plutonium is set out by element. ...

The external gamma dose for a person in the open near the Chernobyl site.
The external gamma dose for a person in the open near the Chernobyl site.

The radioactivity in the fission product mixture is mostly short lived isotopes such as I-131 and 140Ba, after about four months 141Ce, 95Zr/95Nb and 89Sr take the largest share, while after about two or three years the largest share is taken by 144Ce/144Pr, 106Ru/106Rh and 147Pm. Later 90Sr and 137Cs are the main radioisotopes, being succeeded by 99Tc. Note that in the case a release of radioactivity from a power reactor or used fuel that only some elements are released, as a result the isotopic signature of the radioactivity is very different from an open air nuclear detonation where all the fission products are dispersed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911x623, 30 KB) Summary A lossless recreation of Image:Totalexternaldoseratecher. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (911x623, 30 KB) Summary A lossless recreation of Image:Totalexternaldoseratecher. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ...

The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope versus time after the Chernobyl disaster, at the site thereof. Note that this image was drawn using data from the OECD report, [1] and the second edition of 'The radiochemical manual'.
The portion of the total radiation dose (in air) contributed by each isotope versus time after the Chernobyl disaster, at the site thereof. Note that this image was drawn using data from the OECD report, [1] and the second edition of 'The radiochemical manual'.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x623, 22 KB) Other versions w:Image:Airdosechernobyl2. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x623, 22 KB) Other versions w:Image:Airdosechernobyl2. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only...

Fission products in power reactors

In a nuclear power reactor, the main types of radioactivity are fission products, actinides and activation products. Fission products are the largest amount of radioactivity.


Fission occurs in the nuclear fuel, and the fission products are primarily retained within the fuel close to where they are produced. These fission products are important to the operation of the reactor because (as noted above) some fission products contribute delayed neutrons that are useful for reactor control while others are neutron poisons that tend to inhibit the nuclear reaction. The buildup of the fission product poisons is a key factor in determining the maximum duration a given fuel element can be kept within the reactor. The decay of short-lived fission products also provide a source of heat within the fuel that continues even after the reactor has been shutdown and the fission reactions stopped. It is this decay heat that sets the requirements for cooling of a reactor after shutdown. More details on these topics are provided in the articles on nuclear power plants and used nuclear fuel. A nuclear power plant (NPP) is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. ... Used low enriched uranium nuclear fuel is an example of a nanomaterial which existed before the term nano became fashionable, in the oxide fuel intense temperture gradients exist which cause fission products to migrate. ...


If the fuel cladding around the fuel develops holes, then fission products can leak into the primary coolant. Depending on the fission product chemistry, it may settle within the reactor core or travel through the coolant system. Coolant systems include chemistry control systems that among other purposes, will tend to remove such fission products. In a well-designed power reactor running under normal conditions, the radioactivity of the coolant is very low. A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ...


Fission products in nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons use fission as either the partial or the main energy source. Depending on the weapon design and where it is exploded, the relative importance of the fission product radioactivity will vary compared to the activation product radioactivity in the total fallout radioactivity.


The immediate fission products from nuclear weapon fission are essentially the same as those from any other fission source, depending slightly on the particular nuclide that is fissioning. However, the very short time scale for the reaction makes a difference in the particular mix of isotopes produced from an atomic bomb.


For example, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio provides an easy method of distinguishing between fallout from a bomb and the fission products from a power reactor. Almost no Cs-134 is formed by nuclear fission (because xenon-134 is stable). The 134Cs is formed by the neutron activation of the stable 133Cs which is formed by the decay of isotopes in the isobar (A = 133). so in a momentary criticality by the time that the neutron flux becomes zero too little time will have passed for any 133Cs to be present. While in a power reactor plenty of time exists for the decay of the isotopes in the isobar to form 133Cs, the 133Cs thus formed can then be activated to form 134Cs only if the time between the start and the end of the criticality is long. General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Neutron activation is the process by which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials. ... The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, thermodynamics, and similar science (and engineering), an isobar is a contour line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, thermodynamics, and similar science (and engineering), an isobar is a contour line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map. ...


According to Jiri Hala's textbook the radioactivity in the fission product mixture (due to an atom bomb) is mostly caused by short-lived isotopes such as I-131 and Ba-140. After about four months Ce-141, Zr-95/Nb-95, and Sr-89 represent the largest share of radioactive material. After two to three years, Ce-144/Pr-144, Ru-106/Rh-106, and Promethium-147 are the bulk of the radioactivity. After a few years, the radiation is dominated by Strontium-90 and Caesium-137, whereas in the period between 10,000 and a million years it is Technetium-99 that dominates. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... Promethium-147 is an isotope of Promethium with a half-life time of 2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Countermeasures against the worst fission products found in accident fallout

The purpose of radiological emergency preparedness is to protect people from the effects of radiation exposure after an accident at a nuclear power plant. Evacuation is the most effective protective measure in the event of a radiological emergency because it protects the whole body (including the thyroid gland and other organs) from all radionuclides and all exposure pathways. However, in situations where evacuation is impossible, calling for in-place sheltering, there are measures which lend some degree of protection against harmful radioisotopes A nuclear power station. ...


The mixture of radioactive fission products found in the fallout from a nuclear bomb are very different in nature to those found in spent power reactor fuel. This is because the reactor fuel will have had more time for the short lived isotopes to decay, and because for many accident types that the volatile elements are liberated while the involitiles are retained at the accident site. As a result the contribution of many shortlived (eg 97Zr) and/or involtiles to the off site gamma dose is less for accident fallout than it is for local fallout from a bomb detonation. Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Reactor may relate to the folowing: A chemical reactor: a device for containing and controlling a chemical reaction. ...


Iodine

At least three isotopes of iodine are important. 129I, 131I (Radioiodine) and 132I. An overview of iodine exposure in the USA (resulting from bomb tests) can be seen at [4]. Open air nuclear testing and the Chernobyl disaster both released iodine-131. Although iodine (I) has multiple isotopes, only one of these isotopes is stable; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element. ... Iodine-129 (129I) is a radioisotope of iodine, which decays with a half-life of 16. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only...

Per capita thyroid doses in the continental United States of iodine-131 resulting from all exposure routes from all atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site. See also Downwinders.
Per capita thyroid doses in the continental United States of iodine-131 resulting from all exposure routes from all atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site. See also Downwinders.

The shortlived isotopes of iodine are particularly harmful because the thyroid collects and concentrates iodide -- radioactive as well as non-radioactive -- for use in the production of metabolic hormones. Absorption of radioiodine can lead to acute, chronic, and delayed effects. Acute effects from high doses include thyroiditis, while chronic and delayed effects include hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. It has been shown that the active iodine released from Chernobyl and Mayak[1] has resulted in an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the former Soviet Union. Image File history File links US_fallout_exposure. ... Image File history File links US_fallout_exposure. ... Iodine-131 (131I), also called radioiodine, is a radioisotope of iodine which has medical and pharmaceutical uses. ... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ... A downwinder is a term used to describe people across the United States who were exposed to radioactive fallout from both underground and atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Thyroid cancer refers to any of four kinds of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. ...


One measure which may protect against this risk is taking large doses of potassium iodide before exposure to radioiodine -- the non-radioactive iodide 'saturates' the thyroid, causing less of the radioiodine to be stored in the body. Because this countermeasure simply takes advantage of the pharmacokinetics regarding iodide uptake, it affords no protection against other causes of radiation poisoning. R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ...


Administering potassium iodide reduces the effects of radio iodine by 99%, and is a prudent, inexpensive supplement to sheltering. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved potassium iodide as an over-the-counter medication. As with any medication, individuals should check with their doctor or pharmacist before using it. FDA redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A low-cost alternative to commercially available iodine pills is a saturated solution of potassium iodide. It usually possible to obtain several thousand doses for prices near US$ 0.01/dose. Long term storage of KI is normally in the form of reagent grade crystals, which are convenient and available commercially. The purity is superior to "pharmacologic grade". Its concentration depends only on temperature, which is easy to determine, and the required dose is easily administered by measuring the required volume of the liquid. At room temperature, the U.S. standard adult radiological protective dose of 130mg is four drops of a saturated solution. A baby's dose is 65mg, or two drops. It should be noted that these doses are sufficient to cause nausea and sometimes emesis in most individuals. It's normally administered in a ball of bread, because it tastes incredibly bad. Use is contraindicated in individual known to be allergic to iodine; for such persons sodium perchlorate is one alternative (see chap 13, Kearney). In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Sodium perchlorate is a perchlorate of sodium and has the formula NaClO4. ...

  1. Cresson Kearny, Nuclear War Survival Skills, available on line at Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, created with the permission of the author. The information on KI is near the end of chapter 13. This manual has proven technical info on expedient fallout shelters, and assorted shelter system needs that can be created from common household items. OISM also offers free downloads of other civil defense and shelter information as well.

Caesium

The Chernobyl accident released a large amount of caesium isotopes, these were dispersed over a wide area. For instance they can be found in the soil of France at low levels while in some areas of the former Soviet Union the concentration in soil is sometimes much higher. For a review of the methods used to decontaminate an urban environment please see the scope report Behaviour and Decontamination of Artificial Radionuclides in the Urban Environment. Also see chapter four of the NEA reports Chernobyl ten years on and Chernobyl twenty years on for details of how farming methods can be changed to reduce the impact of accident fallout. This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... The scope of a given activity or subject is the area or range that it covers. ... Map of members The Nuclear Energy Agency is an intergovernmental multinational agency that is organized under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ...


Prussian blue

In livestock farming an important countermeasure against 137Cs is to feed to animals a little prussian blue. This iron potassium cyanide compound acts as a ion-exchanger. The cyanide is so tightly bonded to the iron that it is safe for a human to eat several grams of prussian blue per day. The prussian blue reduces the biological half life (different from the nuclear half life) of the caesium. The physical or nuclear half life of 137Cs is about 30 years. This is a constant which can not be changed but the biological half life is not a constant. It will change according to the nature and habits of the organism it is expressed for. Caesium in humans normally has a biological half life of between one and four months. An added advantage of the prussian blue is that the caesium which is stripped from the animal in the droppings is in a form which is not available to plants. Hence it prevents the caesium from being recycled. The form of prussian blue required for the treatment of humans or animals is a special grade. Attempts to use the pigment grade used in paints have not been successful. For further details of the use of prussian blue please see the IAEA report on the Goiânia accident.[5] Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger, an insoluble solid or gel. ... The biological halflife of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The Goiânia accident was an incident of radioactive contamination in central Brazil that killed several people and injured many others. ...


Ploughing or the removal of the top layer

137Cs is an isotope which is of long term concern as it remains in the top layers of soil. Plants with shallow root systems tend to absorb it for many years. Hence grass and mushrooms can carry a considerable amount of 137Cs which can be transferred to humans through the food chain. One of the best countermeasures in dairy farming against 137Cs is to mix up the soil by deeply ploughing the soil. This has the effect of putting the 137Cs out of reach of the shallow roots of the grass, hence the level of radioactivity in the grass will be lowered. Also after a nuclear war or serious accident the removal of top few cm of soil and its burial in a shallow trench will reduce the long term gamma dose to humans due to 137Cs as the gamma photons will be attenuated by their passage through the soil. The deeper and more remote the trench is, the better the degree of protection which will be afforded to the human population. For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between species to another within an ecosystem. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


Release from the Chernobyl fire

More details about the caesium release from the Chernobyl accident can be found at [6] . A definitive report on Chernobyl is at [7] - table 1 in chapter two lists the radioisotopes released in the fire. The percentage of the inventory which was released was controlled largely by how volatile the fission product is. Hence a greater proportion of the xenon and iodine than the cerium and plutonium were released. The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ...


Strontium

Also by the addition of lime to soils which are poor in calcium the uptake of strontium by plants can be reduced, likewise in areas where the soil is low in potassium, the addition of a potassium fertiliser can discourage the uptake of caesium into plants. However such treatments with either lime or potash should not be undertaken lightly as they can alter the soil chemistry greatly so resulting in a change in the plant ecology of the land. Agricultural lime is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Agricultural lime is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ...


Fission products within the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

Caesium

It is known that the isotope responsible for the majority of the external gamma exposure in fuel reprocessing plants (and the Chernobyl site in 2005) is Cs-137. 137Cs does appear to be an indicator of nuclear fission, as it is only formed by nuclear fission of an actinide. An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... // Nuclear reprocessing separates any usable elements (e. ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mianly by nuclear fission (half life is about 27 years). ...


137Cs is often removed from waste waters in the nuclear industry by means of solid ion exchangers. A range of zeolites can be used for this task. In nuclear reactors both 137Cs and 90Sr are found in locations remote from the fuel, this is because these isotopes are formed by the beta decay of noble gases (xenon-137 {halflife of 3.8 minutes}and krypton-90 {halflife 32 seconds}) which enable these isotopes to be deposited in locations remote from the fuel (eg on control rods and in the space inside a fuel pin between the fuel and the cladding) Ion exchange is defined as an exchange of ions between two electrolytes. ... Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Iodine

133I decays by beta particle decay (with a half life of 20.8 hours) to 133Xe which in turn decays by beta decay (with a half life of 5.2 days) to 133Cs. The isotopes which decay to 133I are very short lived. 129I is very long lived and this is one of the major radioactive elements which enter the sea from reprocessing plants. Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article is about the computer game. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Iodine-129 (129I) is a radioisotope of iodine, which decays with a half-life of 16. ...


Fission products which form anions

Some fission products are very long lived, examples of these include iodine-129 and technetium-99. Both of these are very mobile in solid/water as they form anionic species (Iodide and 99TcO4-). For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ...


Absorption of fission products on metal surfaces

Tc

It is interesting to note that in common with chromate and molybdate that 99TcO4- ion can react with steel surfaces to form a corrosion resistant layer. In this way these metaloxo anions act as anodic corrosion inhibitors. The formation of 99TcO2 on steel surfaces is one effect which will retard the release of 99Tc from nuclear waste drums and nuclear equipment which has become lost prior to decontamination (eg submarine reactors which have been lost at sea). This 99TcO2 layer renders the steel surface passive, it inhibits the anodic corrosion reaction. A sample of ammonium dichromate Chromates and dichromates are salts of chromic acid and dichromic acid, respectively. ... The molybdate ion is MoO42-. A molybdate (compound) is a compound containing the molybdate ion, or more complicated polymeric ions. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Corrosion inhibitor - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a Daniells cell. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


I

In a similar way the release of iodine-131 in a serious power reactor accident could be retarded by absorption on metal surfaces within the nuclear plant. A PhD thesis[8] was written on this subject at The Nuclear chemistry department[9] at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Nuclear chemistry is a subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. ... Chalmers University of Technology or Chalmers tekniska högskola (CTH), often Chalmers, is a university in Gothenburg, Sweden, that focuses on research and education in technology, natural science and architecture. ...

  • H. Glänneskog. Interactions of I2 and CH3I with reactive metals under BWR severe-accident conditions, Nucl. Engineering and Design, 2004, 227, pages 323-329.
  • H. Glänneskog. Iodine chemistry under severe accident conditions in a nuclear power reactor, Ph.D. Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, October, 2005.

A lot of other work on the iodine chemistry which would occur during a bad accident has been done.[10][11][12] For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Iodomethane, commonly called methyl iodide, is a dense volatile liquid. ...


References

  1. ^ G. Mushkacheva, E. Rabinovich, V. Privalov, S. Povolotskaya, V. Shorokhova, S. Sokolova, V. Turdakova, E. Ryzhova, P. Hall, A. B. Schneider, D. L. Preston, and E. Ron, "Thyroid Abnormalities Associated with Protracted Childhood Exposure to 131I from Atmospheric Emissions from the Mayak Weapons Facility in Russia", Radiation Research, 2006, 166(5), 715-722

Radioactivity, Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Energy, by J. Hala and J.D. Navratil


DOE: Key Radionuclides and Generation Processes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fission product - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2230 words)
If a graph of the mass or mole yield of fission products against the atomic mass of the fragments is drawn then it has two peaks, one in the area strontium through to palladium and one at iodine through to neodymium.
Some fission products are useful as beta and gamma sources in medicine and industry, see common beta emitters and commonly used gamma emitting isotopes for more details.
The mixture of radioactive fission products found in the fallout from a nuclear bomb are very different in nature to those found in spent power reactor fuel.
Nuclear fission - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2999 words)
Fission is useful as a power source because some materials, called nuclear fuels, both generate neutrons as part of the fission process and also undergo triggered fission when impacted by a free neutron.
Fission products have, on average, about the same ratio of neutrons and protons as their parent nucleus, and are therefore usually unstable because they have proportionally too many neutrons compared to stable isotopes of similar mass.
Fission products tend to be beta emitters, emitting fast-moving electrons to conserve electric charge as excess neutrons convert to protons inside the nucleus of the fission product atoms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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