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Encyclopedia > Fish farming
Intensive, biosecure koi aquaculture facility in Israel
Intensive, biosecure koi aquaculture facility in Israel

Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, catfish, tilapia, cod, carp, trout and others. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ...


Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

Contents

Major categories of fish farms

Basically there are two kinds of aquaculture: extensive aquaculture based on local photosynthetical production and intensive aquaculture, in which the fish are fed with external food supply. The management of these two kinds of aquaculture systems are completely different.


Extensive (pond) aquaculture

Limiting for fish growth here is the available food supply by natural sources, commonly zooplankton feeding on pelagic algae or benthic animals, such as certain crustaceans and mollusks. Tilapia species filter feed directly on phytoplankton, which makes higher production possible. The photosynthetical production can be increased by fertilizing the pond water with artificial fertilizer mixtures, such as potash, phosphorus, nitrogen and microelements. Because most fish are carnivorous, they occupy a higher place in the trophic chain and therefore only a tiny fraction of primary photosynthetic production (typically 1%) will be converted into harvestable fish. Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ...


As a result, without additional feeding the fish harvest will not exceed 200 kilograms of fish per hectare per year, equivalent to 1% of the gross photosynthetic production. A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...


A second point of concern is the risk of algal blooms. When temperatures, nutrient supply and available sunlight are optimal for algal growth, algae multiply their biomass at an exponential rate, eventually leading to an exhaustion of available nutrients and a subsequent die-off. The decaying algal biomass will deplete the oxygen in the pond water because it blocks out the sun and pollute it with organic and inorganic solvents (such as ammonium ions), which can (and frequently do) lead to massive loss of fish. A red tide resulting from a dinoflagellate bloom discoloring the water on the right An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ...


In order to tap all available food sources in the pond, the aquaculturist will choose fish species which occupy different places in the pond ecosystem, e.g., a filter algae feeder such as tilapia, a benthic feeder such as carp or catfish and a zooplankton feeder (various carps) or submerged weeds feeder such as grass carp. Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Binomial name Valenciennes, 1844 The Grass Carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idella), also known as the White Amur, is a herbivorous, freshwater fish. ...


Sources

  • Introduction to Aquaculture, college notes, Department of Aquaculture, Wageningen University
  • Aquaculture: training manual, second edition, Donald R. Swift, ISBN 0-85238-194-8

Intensive (closed-circulation) aquaculture

In this kind of systems fish production per unit of surface can be increased at will, as long as sufficient oxygen, fresh water and food are provided. Because of the requirement of sufficient fresh water, a massive water purification system must be integrated in the fish farm. A clever way to achieve this is the combination of hydroponic horticulture and water treatment, see below. The exception to this rule are cages which are placed in a river or sea, which supplements the fish crop with sufficient fresh water. Environmentalists object to this practice. General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... Bold textHello ...


The cost of inputs per unit of fish weight is higher than in extensive farming, especially because of the high cost of fish food, which must contain a much higher level of protein (up to 60%) than, e.g., cattle food and a balanced amino acid composition as well. This frequently is offset by the lower land costs and the higher productions which can be obtained due to the high level of input control. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Essential here is aeration of the water, as fish need a sufficient oxygen level for growth. This is achieved by bubbling, cascade flow or liquid oxygen. Catfish, Clarias ssp. can breathe atmospheric air and can tolerate much higher levels of pollutants than, e.g., trout or salmon, which makes aeration and water purification less necessary and makes Clarias species especially suited for intensive fish production. In some Clarias farms about 10% of the water volume can consist of fish biomass. Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid (usually water) or substance (such as soil). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ...


Especially when fish densities are high, the risk of infections by parasites like fish lice, fungi (Saprolegnia ssp.), intestinal worms (such as nematodes or trematodes), bacteria (e.g., Yersinia ssp, Pseudomonas ssp.), and protozoa (such as Dinoflagellates) is much higher than in animal husbandry because of the ease in which pathogens can invade the fish body (e.g. by the gills). The same holds for water pollution or depletion of oxygen in the water, which can ruin a fish crop within minutes. This means, intensive aquaculture requires tight monitoring and a high level of expertise of the fish farmer. Species Saprolegnia is a genus of freshwater mould. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ... Subclasses Aspidogastrea Digenea The Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes, which contains two groups of parasitic worms. ... Species Y. pestis Y. enterocolitica Y. pseudotuberculosis etc. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... In aquatic organisms, gills are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. ...


Intensive aquaculture was developed as a source for food fish. Raising ornamental cold water fish (goldfish or koi), although theoretically much more profitable due to the higher income per weight of fish produced, has never been successfully carried out until very recently. The increased incidences of dangerous viral diseases of koi Carp, together with the high value of the fish has led to initiatives in closed system koi breeding and growing in a number of countries. Today there are a few commercially successful intensive koi growing facilities in the UK, Germany and Israel. Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Koi can also mean a virtual pet species in Neopets. ...


Some producers have adapted their intensive systems and made them totally biosecure in an effort to provide consumers with fish that do not carry dormant forms of viruses and diseases.


Specific types of fish farms

Within intensive and extensive aquaculture methods there are numerous specific types of fish farms, each has benefits and applications unique to its design.


Integrated recycling systems

One of the largest problems with freshwater aquaculture is that it can use a million gallons of water per acre (about 1 m³ of water per m²) each year. Extended water purification systems allow for the reuse (recycling) of local water. Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... The international recycling symbol. ...


The largest-scale pure fish farms use a system derived (admittedly much refined) from the New Alchemists in the 1970s. Basically, large plastic fish tanks are placed in a greenhouse. A hydroponic bed is placed near, above or between them. When tilapia are raised in the tanks, they are able to eat algae, which naturally grows in the tanks when the tanks are properly fertilized. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ...


The tank water is slowly circulated to the hydroponic beds where the tilapia waste feeds a commercial plant crops. Carefully cultured microorganisms in the hydroponic bed convert ammonia to nitrates, and the plants are fertilized by the nitrates and phosphates. Other wastes are strained out by the hydroponic media, which doubles as an aerated pebble-bed filter. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


This system, properly tuned, produces more edible protein per unit area than any other. A wide variety of plants can grow well in the hydroponic beds. Most growers concentrate on herbs (e.g. parsley and basil), which command premium prices in small quantities all year long. The most common customers are restaurant wholesalers. For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the herb. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ...


Since the system lives in a greenhouse, it adapts to almost all temperate climates, and may also adapt to tropical climates. The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ...


The main environmental impact is discharge of water that must be salted to maintain the fishes' electrolyte balance. Current growers use a variety of proprietary tricks to keep fish healthy, reducing their expenses for salt and waste water discharge permits. Some veterinary authorities speculate that ultraviolet ozone disinfectant systems (widely used for ornamental fish) may play a prominent part in keeping the Tilapia healthy with recirculated water. An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... This article is about common table salt. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...


A number of large, well-capitalized ventures in this area have failed. Managing both the biology and markets is complicated.


Reference: Freshwater Aquaculture: A Handbook for Small Scale Fish Culture in North America, by William McLarney


Irrigation ditch or pond systems

These use irrigation ditches or farm ponds to raise fish. The basic requirement is to have a ditch or pond that retains water, possibly with an above-ground irrigation system (many irrigation systems use buried pipes with headers. Using this method, one can store one's water allotment in ponds or ditches, usually lined with bentonite clay. In small systems the fish are often fed commercial fish food, and their waste products can help fertilize the fields. In larger ponds, the pond grows water plants and algae as fish food. Some of the most successful ponds grow introduced strains of plants, as well as introduced strains of fish. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Control of water quality is crucial. Fertilizing, clarifying and pH control of the water can increase yields substantially, as long as eutrophication is prevented and oxygen levels stay high.Yields can be low if the fish grow ill from electrolyte stress. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Cage system

Giant gourami is often raised in cages in central Thailand
Giant gourami is often raised in cages in central Thailand

Fish cages are synthetic fiber cages kept in existing water resources to contain and protect fish until they can be harvested. A few advantages of fish farming with cages are that many types of water can be used (rivers, lakes, filled quarries, etc.), many types of fish can be raised, and fish farming can co-exist with sport fishing and other water uses. However, fish are vulnerable to disease, poaching, and low levels of dissolved oxygen. In general, pond systems are easier to manage, and simpler to start. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1707x1271, 451 KB) Giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1707x1271, 451 KB) Giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Binomial name Lacépède, 1801 The Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy) is a gourami, a freshwater fish belonging to the family Osphronemidae. ...


In regards to genetic modification of fish, cage systems can be detrimental to the environment because the genetically modified fish can easily escape into the wild destroying other breeds of fish and upsetting the balance of nature.


Classic fry farming

Trout and other sport fish are often raised from eggs to fry or fingerlings and then trucked to streams and released. Normally, the fry are raised in long, shallow concrete tanks, fed with fresh stream water. The fry receive commercial fish food in pellets. While not as efficient as the New Alchemists' method, it is also far simpler, and has been used for many years to stock streams with sport fish. European eel (Anguilla anguilla) aquaculturalists procure a limited supply of glass eels, juvenile stages of the European eel which swim north from the Sargasso Sea breeding grounds, for their farms. The European eel is threatened with extinction because of the excessive catch of glass eels by Spanish fishermen and overfishing of adult eels in, e.g., the Dutch IJsselmeer, Netherlands. As per 2005, no one has managed to breed the European eel in captivity. The word fry may mean: To cook in a pan (frying pan) with the optional use of fat, butter, or cooking oil by heating over a flame; to cook in boiling lard or fat; as, to fry chicken; to fry doughnuts. ... Fingerling (Pinkeltje in Dutch) is a fictional character who appears in 29 books by Dutch author Dick Laan (1894-1973) and one book from the movie where stories were rewritten by Harrie Geelen. ... Binomial name Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a snakelike fish. ... For the novel by Jean Rhys, see Wide Sargasso Sea. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ...


Criticisms

The issue of feeds in fish farming has been a controversial one. While vegetarian fish like tilapia require no meat products in their diets, carnivorous fish like salmon depend on fish feed of which a portion is usually derived from wild caught fish. Attempts to replace fish meal and oil in fish feed with vegetable sources of protein like soybeans are underway but have yet to be successful[citation needed]. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


Secondly, farmed fish are kept in concentrations never seen in the wild (e.g. 50,000 fish in a two-acre area.[1]) with each fish occupying less room than the average bathtub. This can cause several forms of pollution. Packed tightly, fish rub against each other and the sides of their cages, damaging their fins and tails and becoming sickened with various diseases and infections.[2]


However, fish tend also to be animals that aggregate into large schools at high density. Most successful aquaculture species are schooling species, which do not have social problems at high density. Aquaculturists tend to feel that operating a rearing system above its design capacity or above the social density limit of the fish will result in decreased growth rate and FCR (food conversion ratio - kg dry feed/kg of fish produced), which will result in increased cost and risk of health problems along with a decrease in profits. Stressing the animals is not desirable, but the concept of and measurement of stress must be viewed from the perspective of the animal using the scientific method.[3].


Some species of sea lice have been noted to target farmed coho and Atlantic salmon.[4] Such parasites may have an effect on nearby wild fish. For these reasons, some aquaculture operators frequently use strong antibiotic drugs to keep the fish alive (but many fish still die prematurely at rates of up to 30%[5]). In some cases, these drugs have entered the environment. Additionally, the residual presence of these drugs in human food products has become controversial.


The lice and pathogen problems of the 1990's facilitated the development of current treatment methods for sea lice and pathogens. These developments reduced the stress from parasite/pathogen problems. However, being in an ocean environment, the transfer of disease organisms from the wild fish to the aquaculture fish is an ever-present risk factor.[6].


The very large number of fish kept long-term in a single location produces a significant amount of condensed feces, often contaminated with drugs, which again affect local waterways. However, these effects are very local to the actual fish farm site and are minimal to non-measurable in high current sites.


Other potential problems faced by aquaculturists are the obtaining of various permits and water-use rights, profitability, concerns about invasive species and genetic engineering depending on what species are involved, and interaction with the UN Law of the Sea Treaty. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ...


Environmentally friendly methods

Example of self made recirculation Aquaculture system
Example of self made recirculation Aquaculture system
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Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1090x701, 80 KB) An example of a aquaculture design i created in the paint application -Matthew brown- I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1090x701, 80 KB) An example of a aquaculture design i created in the paint application -Matthew brown- I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 644 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 838 pixel, file size: 187 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Organic farming is a psuedoscientific form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ...

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Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A Christmas tree farmer in the U.S. state of Florida explains the pruning and shearing process of cultivation to a government employee. ... Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or more properly, an animal husbandry enterprise, raising female cattle, goats, or other lactating animals for long-term production of milk, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... This article is about the maize plant. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

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Agropedia Portal

An alternative to open ocean cage aquaculture, one in which the risk of environmental damage is substantially eliminated is through the use of a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). A RAS is a series of culture tanks and filters where water is continuously recycled. To prevent the deterioration of water quality, the water is treated mechanically through the removal of particulate matter and biologically through the conversion of harmful accumulated chemicals into nontoxic ones. Image File history File links Portal. ...


Other treatments such as UV sterilization, ozonation, and oxygen injection are also utilized to maintain optimal water quality. Through this system, many of the environmental drawbacks of aquaculture are minimized including escaped fish, water usage, and the introduction of harmful pollutants. The practices also increase efficiency of feed utilisation and growth by providing optimal water quality parameters (Timmons et al., 2002; Piedrahita, 2003).


One of the drawbacks to recirculating aquaculture systems is water exchange. However, the rate of water exchange can be reduced through aquaponics, such as the incorporation of hydroponically grown plants (Corpron and Armstrong, 1983) and denitrification (Klas et al., 2006). Both methods reduce the amount of nitrate in the water, and can potentially eliminate the need for water exchanges, closing the aquaculture system from the environment. The amount of interaction between the aquaculture system and the environment can be measured through the cumulative feed burden (CFB kg/M3), which measures the amount of feed that goes into the RAS relative to the amount of water and waste discharged.


Because of its high capital and operating costs, RAS has generally been restricted to practices such as broodstock maturation, larval rearing, fingerling production, research animal production, SPF (specific pathogen free) animal production, and caviar and ornamental fish production. Although the use of RAS for other species is considered by many aquaculturalists to be impractical, there has been some limited successful implementation of this with high value product such as barramundi, sturgeon and live tilapia in the US. Binomial name Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) The barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a species of diadromous fish in family Centropomidae of order Perciformes. ... Sturgeon is a term for a genus of fish (Acipenser) of which 26 species are known. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ...


See also

Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... The U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish Industry began in the early 1960s in Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. ... Maine has a tradition of having a large fishing and lobster industry. ...

References

  1. ^ [ http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF9/984.html “Fuss Over Farming Fish”, Alaska Science Forum, June 27, 1990]
  2. ^ This also causes stress.“Facts about Fish and Fish Farming”, Advocates for Animals.
  3. ^ [JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY 68 (2): 332-372 FEB 2006]
  4. ^ University of Maine, Department of Animal, Veterinary and Aquaculture Sciences, "Sea Lice Information".
  5. ^ [Lymbery, P. CIWF Trust report, "In Too Deep - The Welfare of Intensively Farmed Fish" (2002)]
  6. ^ [BULLETIN OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF FISH PATHOLOGISTS 22 (2): 117-125 2002]

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Fish (0 words)
Fish farming is now the world's fastest growing sector of animal production, and salmon and trout form the mainstay of Britain and Europe's 'aquaculture' industry, with further species such as cod, halibut and turbot being added to the list as wild populations crash due to overfishing.
Cod farming is causing a wave of interest, not least because of the decline in the wild cod population.
Farmed fish are fed on wild fish in the form of fish meal: more than 3 tonnes of wild-caught fish are needed to produce 1 tonne of farmed salmon.
Factory Farming - Seafood Production (0 words)
The fish may be raised in highly- controlled tanks or raceways (rectangular concrete enclosures up to 20 acres in size) constructed inland, or they may be raised in artificial enclosures in coastal estuaries.
Fish crowded into small areas are susceptible to disease and suffocation, as exemplified by an article from the Cornell Countryman, which states, "...growing 2,500 pounds of fish in 2,500 gallons of water doesn't give the fish much room to breathe..."
The ability of fish to feel pain and distress is given so little consideration that in some restaurants, fish are actually eaten alive — eviscerated, filleted, and delivered to the serving table.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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