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Encyclopedia > Fish and chips
A serving of fish and chips
A serving of fish and chips

Fish and chips (sometimes written "fish 'n' chips"), a popular take-away food with British origins, consists of deep-fried fish in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chipped (slab-cut) potatoes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x768, 129 KB) Fish and chips on the seafront at Hunstanton, Norfolk UK. In this instance the fish is deep fried plaice. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x768, 129 KB) Fish and chips on the seafront at Hunstanton, Norfolk UK. In this instance the fish is deep fried plaice. ... Take-out, carry-out ( in American English ) or take-away ( in British English ) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ... Deep frying is cooking food by submerging the whole food item in hot oil or fat, originating in Africa. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ... Breadcrumbs or bread crumbs (regional variants: breading, crispies) are small particles of dry or very dry bread, which are used for breading foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, and adding inexpensive bulk to meatloaves and similar dishes. ... Chips redirects here. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ...


Popular tradition associates the dish with the United Kingdom; and fish and chips continues to dominate the take-away food sector in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Fish and chips also has considerable popularity in parts of North America (New England, the Pacific Northwest and Canada generally), the Republic of Ireland and South Africa. Establishments in Denmark and in some coastal towns in Norway serve fried fillets. In the Netherlands, the popular deep-fried, battered fillet dish called lekkerbek sometimes appears served with chips. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...

Contents

The term "chips"

Speakers of American English differ from speakers in the rest of the world in their use of the word "chips".


Local names for the fried, chipped (slab-cut) potatoes traditionally served as part of "fish'n'chips":

In contrast, local names for the crunchy snack-food comprising deep-fried wafers of thin potato, generally eaten cold: Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

  • United Kingdom: "crisps"
  • Ireland: "crisps"
  • Canada: "potato chips", "chips" or "crisps"
  • United States: "potato chips" or "chips"
  • Australia: "chips"
  • South Africa: "chips"

The British usually serve thicker slabs of potato than the "french fries" popularised by major multinational U.S. hamburger-chains. In their homes or in non-chain restaurants, people in or from the U.S.A. may eat a thicker type of chip, called "home fries" or "steak fries".[1][2] This article is about the food item. ... Home fries are a type of potato dish made by frying diced, shredded, or sliced potatoes that have been par-cooked by boiling, baking, steaming, or microwaving. ...


Despite the differences in terminology, the combination of strips of potato-flesh served hot with fish still has the name "fish and chips" in most U.S. restaurants which serve the dish. But a few U.S. restaurants will offer "crisps" instead of "fries" when a consumer orders "fish and chips".[3][4]


History

Service counter in an Irish fish-and-chip shop

In the United Kingdom, fish and chips became a cheap food popular among the working classes with the rapid development of trawl fishing in the North Sea in the second half of the nineteenth century.[5] Before then, fishermen had used long lines to target only large, high-quality demersal (bottom-dwelling) fish, especially valuable sole.[citation needed] Trawlers, on the other hand, landed a mixed catch of high-quality "prime" and cheaper "offal" fish, most of which fishermen initially threw back into the water due to the lack of a market.[citation needed] However, as railway charges fell, it became viable to transport this cheaper fish inland, and demersal fish became a mass-market commodity rather than a costly luxury.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a large fishing net through the water behind one or more boats. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean comprising the water column that is near to (and is significantly affected by) the coast or the sea floor. ... The soles are flatfishes of various families. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Ship types ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


Deep-fried "chips" (slices or pieces) of potato as a dish may have made their first appearance in Britain about the same period: the OED notes as its earliest usage of "chips" in this sense the mention in Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities (published in 1859): "Husky chips of potatoes, fried with some reluctant drops of oil". (Note that Belgian tradition, as recorded in a manuscript of 1781, dates the frying of potatoes carved into the shape of fish back at least as far as 1680.)[6] The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see A Tale of Two Cities (disambiguation). ...


The modern fish-and-chip shop ("chippy" in modern British slang)[7] originated in the United Kingdom, although outlets selling fried food occurred commonly throughout Europe. According to one story, fried-potato shops spreading south from Scotland merged with fried-fish shops spreading from southern England.[citation needed] Early fish-and-chip shops had only very basic facilities. Usually these consisted principally of a large cauldron of cooking-fat, heated by a coal fire. Unsanitary by modern standards, such establishments also emitted a smell associated with frying, which led to the authorities classifying fish-and-chip supply as an "offensive trade",[citation needed] a stigma retained until between the wars. The industry overcame this reputation because during World War II fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to rationing.[8] Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Interbellum redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Civilian rationing: A shopkeeper cancels the coupons in a British housewifes ration book Rationing in the United Kingdom is the series of food rationing policies put in place by the government of the United Kingdom during certain wartime periods of the 20th Century. ...


England

A blue plaque marking the first chip shop in Britain, in Oldham, Greater Manchester
A blue plaque marking the first chip shop in Britain, in Oldham, Greater Manchester

Deep-fried fish and deep-fried chips have appeared separately on menus for many years[citation needed], though potatoes did not reach Europe until the 17th century. The originally Sephardi dish pescado frito, or deep-fried fish, came to the Netherlands and England with the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in the 17th and 18th centuries.[citation needed] (History credits the Portuguese with introducing the dish to Japan: see tempura.[citation needed]) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... CHiPs is an American television series produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios (licensee by Turner Entertainment) that aired on NBC from September 15, 1977 to July 17, 1983. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew SÉ™fardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... Pescado frito, or fish (usually cod) deep-fried in vegetable oil, is a traditional Shabbat dish amongst Spanish and Portuguese Jews. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Painting of the Amsterdam Esnoga — considered the mother synagogue by the Portuguese and Spanish Jews — by Emanuel de Witte (ab. ... For the paint and art technique, see tempera. ...


The dish became popular in wider circles in London and South East England in the middle of the 19th century (Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver Twist, first published in 1838) whilst in the north of England a trade in deep-fried "chipped" potatoes developed. The first chip shop stood on the present site of Oldham's Tommyfield Market.[9] It remains unclear exactly when and where these two trades combined to become the fish-and-chip shop industry we know today. Joseph Malin opened the first recorded combined fish-and-chip shop in London in 1860 or in 1865 while a Mr Lees pioneered the concept in the North of England in Mossley, Lancashire in 1863.[10] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Mossley is a small town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, in Greater Manchester, England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


Scotland

Main article: Scottish cuisine

In common with the rest of the United Kingdom, Scotland experienced a wave of immigration from Italy toward the end of the nineteenth century. Many of the new Scots Italians set up friggitoria or gelateria businesses, catering for their own communities as well as for the native population. Such Italian traders in Scotland originally hawked their wares from carts selling mostly ice-cream, but with the abundance and wide availability of seafood in Scotland, fish and chip shops soon became common. The Dundee City Council claims that "...in the 1870s, that glory of British gastronomy — the chip — was first sold by Belgian immigrant Edward De Gernier in the city’s Greenmarket."[11] Brattisani's in Edinburgh's Newington district promotes itself as the oldest operational chip shop in Scotland, having traded since 1889. Scottish cuisine shares much with that of other parts of the British Isles but has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, thanks to foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. ... Italian-Scots, or Scots-Italian, designates an ethnic minority of Scottish and Italian descent. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Newington is a part of Edinburgh about 15 to 20 minutes walk to the city centre, the Royal Mile and Princes Street. ...


Originally situated only in the larger cities and ports, fish and chip shops have proliferated in Scotland. Many Scottish chip shops remain Italian-owned, with names such as Crolla's, L'Alba d'Oro, Brandeschi's and L'Aquila Bianca.


Scotland made the transition to polystyrene containers later[12] than some places, and although polystyrene containers have become a common sight in Scottish fish-and-chip shops, some shops still sell the food with its traditional wrapping of paper. The traditional packaging involved an inner white-paper wrapping and an outer insulating layer of newspaper, though nowadays the use of newspaper has largely ceased on grounds of hygiene, with food-quality wrapping paper often used as a substitute. Authorities banned the use of actual newspaper in the 1970s. Polystyrene packing, usual in many other kinds of take-away outlet, then infiltrated the industry. Purists maintain that it "doesn't taste the same" in polystyrene or cardboard, as polystyrene cannot absorb any excess oil, vinegar or condensation coming off the hot food, possibly leaving the food less crisp. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Scots often call a portion of fish and chips a "fish supper".


In Edinburgh a combination of Gold Star brown sauce and water, known either simply as "sauce", or more specifically as "chippie sauce", has great popularity.[13] Many Scottish comedians have made capital out of the difference in condiment choice between Glasgow and Edinburgh, with Glaswegians eating salt-and-vinegar, and Edinburghers preferring salt and sauce. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...

Anstruther seafront with the Bar in view. ...

Ireland

Main article: Irish cuisine

Similarly to England and Scotland in the late 19th-century, Ireland experienced a wave of immigration from Italy after 1945. Hence many of the chippers have "Roma" as part of their name ("The Roma Grill", "Roma Takeaway", etc.), or "Napoli". Famous Italian-Irish families include the Borza family, the Macari family and the Mizzoni family. A pint of stout and some wheaten bread Irish cuisine can be divided into two main categories – traditional, mainly simple dishes, and more modern dishes, as served by hotels etc. ...


Most establishments in Ireland continue to serve fish and chips in paper-bags with greaseproof inner-lining bags. Consumers in Ireland normally eat chips with salt and vinegar. Since many of the Italian families didn't have a high standard of English when they first arrived in Ireland, it has become popular to order a "one and one" (originating from pointing at a menu and asking for "one of those and one of those"), in the Republic of Ireland, meaning "a fish fillet and chips". A "single and fish" (often ordered in Dublin) or a "fish supper" (in Belfast) means the same.


The potato pie — a spoon of mashed potato (sometimes with chopped onion and/or cheese) deep-fried in batter — has become an Irish chipper favorite, notably in Cork. In Wexford, the same dish appears as a "rissole". Some rissoles feature batter, but one can also find spicy rissoles — deep-fried in spicy breadcrumbs


Folkways

The long-standing Roman Catholic tradition of not eating meat other than fish on Fridays — especially during Lent — and of substituting fish for other types of meat on that day — continues to influence habits even in predominantly Protestant, semi-secular and secular societies. Friday night remains a traditional occasion for patronising fish-and-chip shops; and many cafeterias and similar establishments, while varying their menus on other days of the week, habitually offer fish and chips every Friday.[14] The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day of the week. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... This article is about secularism. ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ...


Chips may have become associated with meals of fried fish because the fat used for frying the fish often became too hot for good frying. To return the fat to an optimal temperature, chefs dropped cut-up potatoes into the fat. Legend has it that shops initially gave the resultant "chips" away free with the fish.[citation needed]


Culinary variations

Regional differences exist in the United Kingdom for preparing the fish before battering. Some outlets, particularly those in the south of England, leave the skin on one or both sides of the fish, while others (mainly in the north of England, in Scotland and in Northern Ireland) fry a fillet with no skin at all.


The operation of frying

Frying range
Frying range

Traditional frying uses beef dripping or lard; however, vegetable oils, such as peanut oil (used due to its relatively high smoke-point) now predominate. A minority of vendors in the north of England and Scotland still use dripping or lard, as it imparts a different flavour to the dish, but it has the side-effect of making the fried chips unsuitable for vegetarians and for adherents of certain faiths. Lard continues in use in some other cases in the UK, especially in Living Industrial History Museums, such as the Black Country Living Museum. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by me of a frying range in a chip shop in Portland Street Manchester April 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 652 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken by me of a frying range in a chip shop in Portland Street Manchester April 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby grant... Dripping, beef dripping is an animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of cow carcasses. ... This article is about the fat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Trolleybuses at the Black Country Living Museum. ...


In the UK, waste fat from fish and chip shops has become a useful source of biodiesel.[15] This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


The chips component of "Fish and chips"

American-style "french fries" typically have a slimmer shape than their British counterpart chips; thicker "fries" sometimes appear on US menus as "steak fries". Thicker slabs of potato result in a lower fat-content per portion than with "French fries". Cooking-fat penetrates a relatively shallow depth into the potato during cooking, thus the surface-area reflects the fat-content proportionally. Thick chips have a smaller surface-area per unit weight than "French fries" and thus absorb less oil per weight of potato. Chips also require a somewhat longer cooking-time than fries.


Lincolnshire White or Maris Piper potatoes produce good chips[original research?], although Belgians and Swedes tend to use the Bintje variety. Most traditional fish and chip shops in the United Kingdom make their own chips from fresh potatoes. Most Australian chips (or "hot chips") undergo pre-frying, then freezing before their final cooking. For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (plural form: potatoes) (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... Motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Anthem: The Brabançonne Capital Brussels Largest city Brussels Official languages Dutch, French, German Government King Prime Minister Constitutional Monarchy Albert II Guy Verhofstadt Independence Belgian Revolution 1830 Area  â€¢ Total... Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. ...


Batter and its variants

The covering of the fish may also vary with bread-crumbs available alongside the traditional flour-based batter. In the United Kingdom batter comes as the standard coating, with breadcrumb-coated fish unavailable in many outlets. Breadcrumbs or bread crumbs (regional variants: breading, crispies) are small particles of dry or very dry bread, which are used for breading foods, topping casseroles, stuffing poultry, thickening stews, and adding inexpensive bulk to meatloaves and similar dishes. ... Batter is a thick or thin liquid mixture, usually based on flour, water or milk, and egg. ...


Fish-and-chip suppliers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland often include scraps of batter that fall into the fat and get fried (also known as batter, scratchins, scrumps, bits, scrobblings, gribblings, bits, fishbits, crimps, fishcrimps, crispy bits, or batters) free on request. In the United States of America, some fish-and-chips aficionados refer to these as "cracklin's" (distinct from fried pork-rind cracklins). Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Pork rinds in bags, from the central United States Pork rind is the cooked skin of a pig. ...


UK chippies sometimes use beer-batter. The carbon dioxide in the beer lends a lighter texture to the batter, and also an orange colour. A simple batter might consist of a 2 to 3 ratio of flour to beer by volume. For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Originally consumers did not actually eat the batter. Instead, it served to encase the fish for steaming, then got discarded.[citation needed]


Choice of fish

In England, haddock and cod appear most commonly as the fish used for fish and chips,[16] but vendors also sell many other kinds of fish, especially other white fish, such as pollock or coley; plaice; skate; and rock salmon (a term covering several species of dogfish and similar fish). In some areas of northern England, and the vast majority of Scotland haddock predominates. Indeed, in one part of West Yorkshire, the area between Bradford, Halifax and Keighley known as the "Haddock Triangle", very few shops offer cod on their menu. In Northern Ireland, cod, plaice or whiting appear most commonly in "fish suppers". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... For other uses of the term Whitefish, see Whitefish. ... Species Pollachius pollachius Pollachius virens Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. ... This article is about the marine fish. ... Binomial name Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus, 1758 European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) are a commercially important flatfish occurring on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. ... Broad skate, Amblyraja badia A skate egg case, known as a mermaids purse. ... Note the fisherman carefully avoiding the venomous spine near the rear dorsal fin The name dogfish, derived from a compound of dog and fish, is applied to a number of small sharks found in the northeast Atlantic, Pacific, and Mediterranean, especially to those in the three families Scyliorhinidae, Dalatiidae and... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Halifax. ... For the constituency of the same name, see Keighley (UK Parliament constituency). ... Binomial name Merlangius merlangus É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1767 Many types of fish have been given the common name whiting. ...


Consumers in the Republic of Ireland eat mostly cod and plaice today. Dublin has a long tradition of eating fresh ray-wings with chips, with a lesser tradition of rock salmon. In the city of Galway (in the west of Ireland), chip-shops commonly offer a wide selection of fresh fish with chips, including monkfish, hake, coley, haddock, skate and scampi. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... For the TV series character, see The Fast Show. ... The term hake refers to fish in either of: families Gadidae (subfamily Phycinae) families Merlucciidae (both subfamilies Merlucciinae and Steindachneriinae). ... Coley is a type of fish, similar to cod. ... American scampi in garlic butter Scampi is the plural of scampo, the Italian name for the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), also known as the Dublin Bay prawn (especially in the U.K. and Ireland) and langoustine (the French name). ...


Australians prefer reef-cod (a different variety than that used in the United Kingdom) or flake, a type of shark meat, in their fish and chips. Victorians tend to prefer flake, whereas Australians in more northern states generally favour reef fish. Increasing demand and the decline of shark stocks due to overfishing has seen flake become more expensive and — as in the United Kingdom — other white fish (such as barramundi) will often replace it. Australian fish-and-chip shops provide a wider range of fish (such as squid) than that commonly available in other countries. COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... Flake is a term used in Australia to indicate the flesh of any of several species of small shark, particularly Scrummy Shark. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... VIC redirects here. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... Binomial name Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) The barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a species of diadromous fish in family Centropomidae of order Perciformes. ...


New Zealanders prefer snapper because of its superior taste, but warehou and hoki offer an inexpensive alternative, and gurnard may also appear on the menu. The use of lemonfish has encouraged the use of the popular local synonym for 'fish and chips' - 'shark 'n' taties'. ( Kumara chips, sometimes with sour cream, may supplement potato chips.) Genera Aphareus Aprion Apsilus Etelis Hemilutjanus Hoplopagrus Lipocheilus Lutjanus Macolor Ocyurus Paracaesio Pinjalo Pristipomoides Randallichthys Rhomboplites Symphorus Snapper can also refer to the Snapping turtle. ... Three medusafishes are known as warehou: Common warehou, Seriolella brama. ... Binomial name Macruronus novaezelandiae (Hector, 1871) The blue grenadier, hoki, blue hake, New Zealand whiptail, whiptail or whiptail hake, Macruronus novaezelandiae, is a merluccid hake of the genus Macruronus, found around southern Australia, and New Zealand, at depths of between 10 and 1,000 m. ... Gurnard can refer to: The sea robin. ... Binomial name Mustelus lenticulatus Phillipps, 1932 The spotted estuary smooth-hound, Mustelus lenticulatus, is a houndshark of the family Triakidae, found on the continental shelves and in estuaries around southern Australia, and New Zealand. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Sour cream is a dairy product rich in fats obtained by fermenting a regular cream by certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. ...


Canadians use a wide variety of fish, including cod, halibut, haddock, pollock and bluefish. Fresh-water species such as yellow perch, walleye and smelt have also become quite popular in Ontario. In Vancouver, wild Pacific salmon has become a popular choice of fish. COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... Species Pollachius pollachius Pollachius virens Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries) is the common name used for either of the two species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix ), called tailor in Australia,[1] is a species of popular marine game-fish found in all climates. ... For the unit of measurement, see pole. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ... Genera Allosmerus Hypomesus Mallotus Osmerus Spirinchus Thaleichthys Smelts are a family, Osmeridae, of small anadromous fish. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ...


In the United States, white fish occur most commonly by far. Salmon can, however, appear on occasion. Southern New England "clam shacks" typically use cod fillets in their fish-and-chips offerings. Minnesotans often use walleye — not necessarily branded as "fish-and-chips" but as "fried walleye" — and involving similar preparation. In the Pacific Northwest, halibut commonly appears. In the Southern United States "fish and chips" commonly comprises catfish and fries with the addition of coleslaw and hushpuppies. Due mainly to the aquaculture industry of the south, catfish has become more commercially available and economical to obtain on a large scale. A few areas around major lakes and rivers may also serve bluegill and crappie in addition to catfish. However, law around serving panfish (bluegill, crappie) commercially varies by state. Whitefish (white fish, demersal fish) is a fisheries term referring to several species of oceanic deep water finfish, particularly cod (Gadus morhua), whiting (Merluccius bilinearis), and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but also hake (Urophycis), pollock (Pollachius), or others. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... A bowl of coleslaw Coleslaw (or cole slaw) is a salad consisting primarily and minimally of shredded, raw, white cabbage, although it often also includes shredded carrots. ... Hushpuppies are a small cornmeal pastry that are small and either round or finger shaped. ... Binomial name Rafinesque, 1819 The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a species of freshwater fish sometimes referred to as bream, brim, or coppernose. ... Species - white crappie - black crappie Pomoxis is a genus of freshwater fish in the sunfish family (family Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... In the US, Panfish are fish that are small enough to fit whole into a skillet for cooking. ...


South Africans most commonly use hake (Merluccius capensis) for fish and chips. Snoek (Thyrsites atun) has also become popular in Cape coastal areas. Kingklip (Xiphiurus capensis, known as cusk eel internationally) offers a less common and generally more expensive alternative. The term hake refers to fish in either of: families Gadidae (subfamily Phycinae) families Merlucciidae (both subfamilies Merlucciinae and Steindachneriinae). ... If looking for other meanings and uses beyond fish please go to Snook Snoek or Snook is used in various forms as the common name used for several species of fish. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Denmark, deep-fried, breaded plaice fish-fillets served with french fries (Danish, pomfritter) arguably outsells other cooked fish - almost every restaurant in Denmark serves this dish. Traditionally, it has an accompaniment of remoulade sauce and lemon-wedges. Binomial name Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus, 1758 European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) are a commercially important flatfish occurring on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. ... Remoulade or rémoulade is a popular condiment in many countries, and was invented in France. ...

Accompaniments

In the United Kingdom, fish and chips usually have an accompaniment of free salt and vinegar.[17]Suppliers may use malt vinegar or onion vinegar (the vinegar used for storing pickled onions). A cheaper product called "non-brewed condiment" (actually a solution of acetic acid in water with caramel added for colour) substitutes for genuine malt vinegar in many fish-and-chip shops. Scots tend to prefer white vinegar to malt vinegar. Other standard accompaniments include "mushy peas", "chip shop curry", gravy and/or "scraps" (small pieces of left-over batter, usually provided free-of-charge). In the area around Kingston upon Hull, chip spice has become widely used. Edible salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Chip spice, also American Chip Spice, is a seasoning intended to be added to chips (french fries), including paprika, tomato and garlic. ...


In Scotland, preference for accompaniments divide the East and West sharply, with Scots in the East (for example in Edinburgh, Fife and Stirling) preferring a brown sauce known as chip-shop sauce (in response to the question "Salt and sauce?") whereas those from the West (for example in Glasgow) will have salt and vinegar. East-coasters requesting "salt and sauce" in the West would probably end up with tomato ketchup — to their dismay. However, "salt and sauce" features largely only in Edinburgh, Stirling and in parts of Fife; salt-and-vinegar occurs more commonly further North along the east coast. The vinegar in the sauce and used for the chips commonly comes from jars of pickled onion; pickled onions or pickled eggs serving as common accompaniments. "Chips and cheese" have also become a popular combination in most parts of the United Kingdom (compare the Canadian dish poutine). For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ketchup (disambiguation). ... Original flavour poutine from La Banquise with thin gravy and cheese curds Poutine (Quebec French pronunciation ) is a dish consisting of French fries topped with fresh cheese curds and covered with hot gravy (usually brown gravy) and sometimes other additional ingredients. ...


In Northern Ireland salt and vinegar makes for a popular choice, though many people will pour either brown sauce or tomato sauce over the food, and "chippies" (or "chippers") frequently offer these options. A bottle of brown sauce, as defined by British cuisine Brown sauce can refer to one of two different sauces: In French cuisine and other cuisines based on it, it generally refers to a meat stock-based gravy-like sauce. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Canadian fish and chip shops offer a variation of condoments including tartar sauce, white, cider or malt vinegar and fresh lemon for squeezing onto the fish. Many fish-and-fry meals in southern Ontario (Toronto region) come served alongside fresh-cut coleslaw as a side dish (usually included at no extra charge). Canadians also favor poutine, a Canadian variation of fries served with cheese curds and gravy. Chicken with tartar sauce Tartar sauce or tartare sauce is a thick white sauce made from mayonnaise and finely chopped pickled cucumber, capers, onions (or chives), and fresh parsley. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Original flavour poutine from La Banquise with thin gravy and cheese curds Poutine (Quebec French pronunciation ) is a dish consisting of French fries topped with fresh cheese curds and covered with hot gravy (usually brown gravy) and sometimes other additional ingredients. ...


American diners that offer fish and chips typically provide a side of tartar sauce or vinegar (intended for the fish), with ketchup and mustard usually available on request free-of-charge (sometimes in bottles already on the table). Look up diner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Australia the use of seasoning salt on chips has become quite widespread; so much so that even fast-food chains like KFC no longer carry regular salt and use seasoning salt by default. Vendors usually include a small slice of lemon free of charge: the purchaser can squeeze the slice in order to release the juice as dressing. KFC, also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a food chain based in Louisville, Kentucky, known mainly for its fried chicken. ... Look up dressing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other popular dressings include: Look up dressing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Other accompaniments include: This article is about common table salt. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... The St. ... A bottle of brown sauce, as defined by British cuisine Brown sauce can refer to one of two different sauces: In French cuisine and other cuisines based on it, it generally refers to a meat stock-based gravy-like sauce. ... This article is about the dish. ... For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Original flavour poutine from La Banquise with thin gravy and cheese curds Poutine (Quebec French pronunciation ) is a dish consisting of French fries topped with fresh cheese curds and covered with hot gravy (usually brown gravy) and sometimes other additional ingredients. ... Sweet chilli sauce is a popular condiment in Western culture. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Mayonaise (song). ... For other uses, see Ketchup (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Satureja hortensis Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) is the better known of the Savory species. ... For other uses, see Gravy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Thousand Island dressing, pink in color, is a variety of salad dressing, a variant of Russian dressing, commonly made of mayonnaise, ketchup, and a mixture of finely chopped vegetables, most often pickles, onions, bell peppers, and/or green olives; chopped hard-boiled egg is also common. ... Chicken with tartar sauce Tartar sauce or tartare sauce is a thick white sauce made from mayonnaise and finely chopped pickled cucumber, capers, onions (or chives), and fresh parsley. ... Tartare sauce (British English spelling) or Tartar sauce (US English spelling) is a thick white sauce made from mayonnaise and finely chopped vegetables, usually including pickled gherkins, capers, olives and pickled onions. ... Salad cream is a creamy, yellow condiment similar to mayonnaise. ...

In Holyhead in North Wales, all of the six current chip shops serve 'Peas Water' free of charge - water strained from the mushy peas. This practice allegedly occurs only in Holyhead. The inhabitants of the Wigan and St. Helens areas refer to this product as "Pea Wet", while the mill towns such as Bolton and Oldham tend to refer to "pea soup". "Pea Wet and Scraps" comprise a free meal of the pea water and pieces of batter and chip ends rescued from the frier. Baked beans and scrambled egg on toast. ... A Swedish-style saffron bun traditionally consumed en masse with Christmas at hand. ... A bowl of coleslaw Coleslaw (or cole slaw) is a salad consisting primarily and minimally of shredded, raw, white cabbage, although it often also includes shredded carrots. ... A British meal of fish and chips served with mushy peas in the ramekin on the right. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cucumis anguria. ... Steak and kidney pudding is a dish made by enclosing diced steak and kidney pieces in gravy in a suet pastry. ... A chicken nugget is a piece of chicken, either whole or composed from a paste of finely minced meat, which is then coated in batter or breadcrumbs before being cooked. ... Potato cakes may refer to different preparations of potatoes. ... Dim Sims are typically served with soy sauce. ... Souvlaki (Greek: Σουβλάκι) is a popular Greek fast food consisting of small pieces of meat and sometimes vegetables grilled on a skewer. ... New England clam chowder. ... The word fritter comes from the Latin frictura (fried) by way of Old French and Middle English. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A British meal of fish and chips served with mushy peas in the ramekin on the right. ... , Wigan is a town in Greater Manchester, England. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of St Helens. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. ... For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ...


"Wet" can also refer to whether to serve the chips with gravy or not. (Often as a question at serving-time: "Wet?....")


In many parts of Lancashire, the name "split" refers to a serving of chips with a portion of mushy peas. Inhabitants of the Midlands, especially Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, refer to this as a "pea mix"; and to chips and baked beans as a "bean mix". Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ...


In Preston, once reputed the most Catholic town in England, chippies regularly serve butter pie as an alternative to the Catholic practice of eating fish (as opposed to meat) on Fridays. This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... A butter pie is a savoury pie from the Preston area of Lancashire in North West England. ...


In Sheffield, chip shops often supply free the locally-produced Henderson's Relish - made of vinegar, sugar, spices etc and resembling Worcestershire sauce — which in Worcestershire itself commonly turns up in chip-shops as a dressing. For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... A bottle of Hendersons Relish Hendersons (Sheffield) Ltd. ... 1900 advertisement Worcestershire sauce (IPA: (wuster-shur or wuster-sheer)) is a widely used fermented liquid condiment originally manufactured by Lea & Perrins, in Midland Road, Worcester, England. ... For the condiment, see Worcestershire sauce. ...


In Kingston upon Hull and certain other areas of East Yorkshire, chippies commonly offer chip spice as an accompaniment: this product appears rarely in other areas of the United Kingdom. In Peterborough and other selected places, chip-shops sometimes offer a cajun seasoning as an accompaniment to fish and chips. Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Chip spice, also American Chip Spice, is a seasoning intended to be added to chips (french fries), including paprika, tomato and garlic. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... Cajun cuisine originates from the French-speaking Acadian or Cajun immigrants deported by the British from Acadia in Canada to the Acadiana region of Louisiana, USA. It is what could be called a rustic cuisine — locally available ingredients predominate, and preparation is simple. ...


Around North America's Great Lakes (especially in Detroit or Chicago), as well as in New England, the popular tradition of Catholics eating fish on Fridays (especially during Lent) has resulted in a codifying of a particular sort of "fish fry", which includes a piece of whitefish (often haddock), a plentiful amount of french fries (generally thicker-cut "steak" fries), potato-salad and/or macaroni-salad, and coleslaw. This dish has become so well established that some supermarkets in the area sell it from their seafood departments, and many local bars serve fish fries every week. During the Lenten season, many churches raise funds by selling fish and chips on Fridays. In Ontario, Canada, a popular variant consists of freshwater perch or pickerel (walleye) — typically sold at lakeside resort towns. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... This article is about a meal consisting of fried fish. ... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the period preceding the Christian holy day of Easter. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For the unit of measurement, see pole. ... Species  E. americanus –       grass and redfin pickerels  E. lucius – northern pike  E. masquinongy – muskellunge  E. niger – chain pickerel   – Amur pike Esox Linnaeus, 1758, is a genus of freshwater fish, the only member of the pike family (family Esocidae) of order Esociformes. ... Binomial name (Mitchill, 1818) Subspecies S. v. ...


Fish-and-chip shops

In the United Kingdom and in Australia fish-and-chips usually sell through independent restaurants and take-aways — colloquially known as chippies, chippers or chip shops in the United Kingdom,[18] or as fish-and-chip[s] shops in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Occasionally in these countries stores use the term "Fish and Chippery". Outlets range from small affairs to chain restaurants. In the United Kingdom, punning names for the shops, such as "The Batter Plaice", "Assault and Battery", "The Codfather" or "The Frying Scotsman" often occur.[19] Fish-and-chip outlets sell roughly 25% of all the white fish consumed in the United Kingdom, and 10% of all potatoes. Take-out, carry-out ( in American English ) or take-away ( in British English ) is food purchased at a restaurant but eaten elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pleuronectes platessa Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) are an abundant and commercially important flatfish occurring on the sandy bottoms of the European shelf. ... Whitefish (white fish, demersal fish) is a fisheries term referring to several species of oceanic deep water finfish, particularly cod (Gadus morhua), whiting (Merluccius bilinearis), and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but also hake (Urophycis), pollock (Pollachius), or others. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ...


Fish-and-chip shops vary enormously in the United Kingdom: from small back-street affairs to posh "Fish Restaurants" with seating and with waiting-staff. The UK has a well-known chain called Harry Ramsden's, which originated in Guiseley near Leeds, and now has thirty-one chain restaurants throughout the country (the company also opened an ill-fated restaurant in Hong Kong and in Melbourne, Australia). British fish-and-chip shops sometimes sell other take-away food products, such as kebabs, pies, burgers, Chinese food and pizzas; more frequently the other items sold will involve deep-frying in the same way as with fish and chips, as the establishments often highlight the cooking method (some very traditional British fish-and-chip shops refer to their opening hours as "frying times"). In fishing-towns fish-and-chip shops also commonly sell uncooked fish. Some fishing-town chip shops also offer to fry customers' own fresh fish, charging a fee dependent on the weight of the fish processed. Harry Ramsdens is a worldwide restaurant chain dedicated to traditional British-style fish and chips. ... Guiseley is a small town in Metropolitan Borough of Leeds in the county of West Yorkshire, England, near Otley. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...

A variety of fish and chips with fried shrimp, hushpuppies and coleslaw, as commonly served in North America
A variety of fish and chips with fried shrimp, hushpuppies and coleslaw, as commonly served in North America

US fast-food restaurant chains that sell fish and chips include Long John Silver's, Arthur Treacher's Fish and Chips, Captain D's, H. Salt Esquire (in California), and Ivar's and Skipper's (in the Pacific Northwest). Most of these chains refer to fish and chips as "fish and fries" or as "combo baskets", as opposed to "platters" (which include coleslaw, however the term "chips" still occurs frequently in the Northwest and Western United States when discussing this dish. (See Burgerville, which generally also serves its baskets with a lemon wedge. A Western United States "combo basket" will often include an additional side dish such as beans or coleslaw, especially in a pub setting.) In the 1990s, the perception within the United States of fish and chips as unhealthy led to a decline in consumption and to financial problems for Long John Silver's and Arthur Treacher's. Other restaurants have acquired these two brands, and the current growth-strategy of both of these chains appears to aim at combining fish-and-chips with other fast food brands to bolster them in the marketplace and to introduce new customers to the meal as a novelty. But some specialist restaurants prepare fish and chips in the full Commonwealth tradition — such as The Park Slope Chipshop in New York City. ChipShop NYC plans to spread around America by franchising. In Canada, Joey's Only Seafood Restaurants figure prominently in the fish-and-chips market with over 100 locations. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 972 pixel, file size: 1,010 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From my last trip to Long John Silvers. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1296 × 972 pixel, file size: 1,010 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From my last trip to Long John Silvers. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Hushpuppies are a small cornmeal pastry that are small and either round or finger shaped. ... A bowl of coleslaw Coleslaw (or cole slaw) is a salad consisting primarily and minimally of shredded, raw, white cabbage, although it often also includes shredded carrots. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... A restaurant chain is a set of related restaurants, typically with the same name in many different locations either under shared corporate ownership (e. ... Long John Silvers is a United States-based fast-food restaurant that specializes in seafood and fish and chips. ... Arthur Treachers Fish and Chips is a fast food seafood restaurant chain with, as of 2003, 177 stores which serve fish and chips. ... Captain Ds is a U.S.-based chain of fast-food restaurants, specializing in seafood and fish and chips. ... H. Salt Esquire is a California-based fast food restaurant chain which specializes in fish and chips. ... Ivars Acres of Clams Ivars is a seafood restaurant chain based in Seattle, Washington, with operations in the Puget Sound region; in Spokane, Washington; and in Santa Clara, California. ... Skippers Seafood and Chowder House is a fast food chain founded by Herb Rosen in 1969. ... A bowl of coleslaw Coleslaw (or cole slaw) is a salad consisting primarily and minimally of shredded, raw, white cabbage, although it often also includes shredded carrots. ... Exterior of Burgerville, USA location in Beaverton, Oregon. ... A side dish of salad accompanying a small pie A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the entrée or main course at a meal. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fish and chip shops in the United Kingdom occur commonly near seaside resorts — where tourists and visitors commonly eat fish and chips as a "traditional" seaside meal — but also in both rural and urban settings, with most villages and towns having at least one shop, even in the absence of other fast-food establishments. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The existence of numerous competitions and awards for "best fish-and-chip shop"[20][21] testifies to the recognised status of this type of outlet in popular culture.[22] Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ...


Packaging and wrapping

In the UK most fish-and-chip shops offer a take-away service. They may supply the food either "open" — as individual servings for eating immediately — or "wrapped" — in a closed container or parcel for taking elsewhere. "Open" portions traditionally come in a greaseproof-paper (parchment) bag surrounded by an additional layer of folded paper so that one can hold it in one hand while eating. Britons still speak of a "bag" or "poke" of chips even when individual polystyrene or cardboard trays have replaced the bag. With "open" servings, the chippie usually puts a portion of chips in the bag first, with the fish and/or other accompaniments (such as mushy peas or curry sauce) placed on the top. The customer can usually take free salt and vinegar from the counter to add if wanted. Chippies usually offer disposable wooden or plastic forks for immediate use, although the traditional British way to eat fish and chips requires only fingers.


For "wrapped" servings, the chippie will either wrap the various components into a folded paper parcel or place them in a carrier with the accompaniments in individual containers, for plating up at home. Chippies usually ask customers whether they require salt and vinegar, then add them before wrapping the food.


Fish-and-chip shops traditionally wrapped their product in an inner layer of white paper (for hygiene) and an outer layer of newspaper or blank newsprint (for insulation and to absorb grease), though nowadays the use of newspaper has largely ceased on grounds of hygiene, and establishments often use food-quality wrapping paper instead — occasionally printed on the outside to emulate newspaper. In Northern Ireland, fish and chip meals once came wrapped solely with a couple of layers of newspaper, but concerns over ink-poisoning (especially relating to the use of lead type in newspaper-production) meant the phasing out of this practice. Printing-industry members, however, state that modern newspaper-inks to pose no such health risk.[23] Few chip shops now wrap the food in this way in Northern Ireland. Newsprint is low-cost, low-quality, non-archival paper. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The steam produced by fish and chips causes paper wrapping to emit a characteristic smell, and the close wrapping prevents evaporation, giving the food a moist texture which can last for some time if the parcel remains unopened. Polystyrene packing, usual in many other kinds of take-away outlet, sometimes appears. Even when the fish get wrapped in paper, an open polystyrene container often holds the chips. The United Kingdom banned the use of real newspaper in the late 1980s.[citation needed] Australian fish-and-chip shops, faced with a ban on the use of actual newspaper in the 1970s, substituted butcher's paper as the external wrapping, though a few shops continue to wrap their product in newspaper, especially in rural areas. Some shops in New Zealand still wrap their fish and chips in newspaper. For other uses, see Polystyrene (disambiguation). ...


Chip vans

Mobile fish-and-chip shops serve rural areas in the United Kingdom, although they can also occur in urban areas — particularly working-class housing estates. Van-operators may favour beef dripping rather than oil for frying in that cold dripping forms a solid mass and will not slosh around when on the move. Such vans also roam Ireland, both north and south, generally trading outside rural nightclubs and at sports-stadia.


Other dishes

Fish-and-chip shops typically offer other hot fast food which customers may eat in place of the traditional battered fish. Typical alternatives offered by English "chippies" may include: Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ...

pie 
in varieties such as meat-and-potato, steak and kidney, chicken and mushroom, mince and onion, or cheese and onion. Usually factory-made, unlike the pies in pie-and-mash shops. Also, in areas of the south-west, cod-and-potato pies may appear as a rarity, consisting of chips and unbattered cod in a pastry with a similar taste.
sausage 
usually pork, deep-fried plain or in batter, or saveloys. Some chip shops use variations or combinations of other British sausages. In South Africa, standard sausages may include a Vienna sausage or simply a vienna (wiener), a frankfurter, a Russian sausage or simply a Russian (spicy pork sausage); all deep-fried or plain.
hot dog 
a fried plain sausage, or occasionally a frankfurter sausage, served in a bun.
sausage roll 
pork sausagemeat wrapped in puff pastry and baked.
fishcake/Fish Fritter/Fish Slice 
fish and potatoes minced together and dipped in batter or bread-crumbs. In Yorkshire, a scallop fishcake consists of a thin piece of fish between two large flat slices of potato dipped in batter and fried.
fish pattie or scallop 
two slices of potato with a slice of fish (usually cod) in between, always battered. Sometimes also sold as 'Fishcake'.
fish patty/scallop 
mashed potato, deep-fried in batter, usually served with chips ("patty and chips") as a low-cost meal, speciality of Hull, Yorkshire.
scampi 
deep-fried in bread-crumbs.
chicken 
deep-fried chicken leg or wing, and sometimes available either plain or "southern fried" in a flavoured, slightly spicy, batter-like coating.
chip butty 
chips served between two slices of bread, traditionally spread with butter (now more usually with margarine). The bread most commonly takes the form of a bun or soft bread roll. Regional names for the bread bun create variations such as "chip cob" in Nottinghamshire and "chip barm" or "chip muffin" in Lancashire and "chip bap" in Staffordshire.[citations needed]
pineapple fritter 
a slice of pineapple coated in batter before frying.
kebab/Döner  
compressed mince meat, normally sliced from a rotating spit of meat held vertically.
scraps, or scratchings 
small pieces of leftover batter from the deep fat fryer, scooped into bags and served alone or as an accompaniment to fish and chips.
spam fritter 
a slice of spam coated in batter and fried.
rissole 
similar to a spam fritter, but composed of minced meat, usually coated in breadcrumbs.
burger 
a minced meat (usually beef) patty, available either coated in fried batter or without.
cheeseburger 
a dish of a fried burger with melted cheese inside.
suet pudding , (also known as Rag Pudding in Lancashire) 
a steamed savoury pudding of meat and gravy surrounded by suet pastry. Also referred to simply as "a pudding" . Popular varieties include steak and steak-and-kidney.
scallop/smack/slap/special 
a slice of potato, battered and deep-fried, in some places cooked without batter.
faggot or "savoury duck" 
a meatball or meat patty of pork-meat and liver. Such "faggots" occur most commonly in Wales and in the Midlands of England (especially in the Black Country); "savoury ducks" come from Yorkshire and Lancashire.
steak & salad 
usually beefsteak with fresh salad made with lettuces and tomatoes with different dressings. Some takeaways sell them as "combos" and some takeaways sell them separately.

This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... A steak & kidney pie, as served in a pub The steak and kidney pie is a typical British dish with a filling of diced beef steak and lambs kidneys in a thick sauce. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Ground beef Ground beef, or, in British English beef mince, is a meat product, made of beef finely chopped by a meat grinder. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... A pie and mash shop in Walworth, South East London Pie and mash is a traditional London working class food. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ... Saveloy and Chips A saveloy is a type of vividly red sausage served in English fish and chip shops, also available in parts of Australia where it is commonly deep fried in batter as a battered sav and New Zealand, where it is also known colloquially as a sav. ... Wiener (sometimes pronounced viener) can mean: Adjectival form of Vienna (Ger. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A fishcake (also fish cake) is a food item similar to a filletofish or croquette, consisting of a filleted fish and potato patty coated in breadcrumbs or batter, and fried. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... American scampi in garlic butter Scampi is the plural of scampo, the Italian name for the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), also known as the Dublin Bay prawn (especially in the U.K. and Ireland) and langoustine (the French name). ... KFCs Fried chicken with french fries. ... The Southern United States has a distinct cuisine that draws heavily on influences from various groups that have inhabited the area. ... Chip butty with tomato ketchup A chip sandwich or sometimes in the United Kingdom, a chip butty is a sandwich made with bread (usually white and buttered) and chips, often with some sort of sauce such as tomato sauce. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... A Swedish-style saffron bun traditionally consumed en masse with Christmas at hand. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... Barm, a word derived from the old English for yeast, is the foam, or scum, formed on the top of liquor when fermenting. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... The word fritter comes from the Latin frictura (fried) by way of Old French and Middle English. ... Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about the canned meat product. ... A rissole (from Latin russeolus, meaning reddish, via French) is a small croquette, enclosed in pastry or rolled in breadcrumbs, usually baked or deep fried. ... This article is about the food item. ... For other uses, see Cheeseburger (disambiguation). ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Rag Pudding is an old fashioned savoury dish, popular in Lancashire, England. ... Steak and kidney pudding is a dish made by enclosing diced steak and kidney pieces in gravy in a suet pastry. ... For other uses of the word, see faggot. ... This article is about the country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Black Country is a loosely-defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Look up combo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Scotland

Chippies (in some regions "chippers") in Scotland sometimes sell other deep-fried foods (including fruit), such as banana fritters and pineapple fritters and on a rare occasion even deep-fried Mars Bars (arguably first developed at the Caron Fish & Chip Shop, Stonehaven[citation needed]). In addition to fruit fritters, potato fritters occur fairly commonly: these consist of roughly 1-cm-thick slices of potato battered and fried. In Scotland the choice of alternatives further includes deep-fried pizza, smoked sausage (a variant of saveloy) either battered or un-battered, Scotch pies, haggis, black pudding, red pudding and white pudding (the latter four served thickly battered in some locales). In testament to the more global nature of food now available in the UK, many modern establishments also sell international dishes such as kebabs and pakora in addition to their domestic products. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Homemade deep-fried Mars Bars A deep-fried Mars Bar is an ordinary Mars Bar fried in a type of batter used in the British Isles for fish, black and white pudding, sausage, and often haggis. ... Market Square, Stonehaven Stonehaven (Steenhive in the Doric dialect of Scots) and Cala na Creige in Gaelic is a town with around fourteen thousand inhabitants (9,577 in 2001 (census)) on the North-East coast of Scotland. ... Deep fried Pizza is a delicacy available in Chip Shops in Glasgow and surrounding areas in Scotland. ... Saveloy and Chips A saveloy is a type of vividly red sausage served in English fish and chip shops, also available in parts of Australia where it is commonly deep fried in batter as a battered sav and New Zealand, where it is also known colloquially as a sav. ... A Scotch pie is a double-crust mutton pie originating in Scotland but also popular in England. ... an uncooked small haggis Haggis is a traditional Scottish dish. ... Black pudding (Boudin noir), before cooking Black pudding or less often blood pudding is a sausage made by cooking blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. ... A single battered deep fried chip shop red pudding (approx. ... An Irish breakfast consisting of sausages, black and white pudding, bacon and fried eggs, served with orange juice. ... Left to right: Chenjeh Kabab, Kabab Koobideh, Jujeh Kabab in an Afghan restaurant. ... A plate of onion and potato pakoras Pakora is a type of Indian cuisine or Pakistani cuisine created by taking ingredients such as chicken, onion, eggplant, lentils, potato, spinach, cauliflower, tomato, and chilli, dipping them in a batter of gram flour and then deep-frying them. ...


In Scotland (especially in the West of Scotland) chip shops often have Italian names referring to the Italian family that owns the chip shop. However this doesn't seem as common elsewhere in the UK.


Northern Ireland

Some chippies/chippers in Northern Ireland, in common with Scotland, offer deep-fried Mars Bars (restaurants usually add banana and pineapple fritters to a Chicken Maryland). In common with the rest of the United Kingdom, other meals sold in chippies include "hamburger suppers", chip butties, chicken and chips, "cowboy suppers" and hotdogs. Uniquely in Northern Ireland one can purchase the pastie bap and pastie supper. Most chippies throughout Northern Ireland also sell battered sausages. Chicken Maryland or Maryland Chicken is a dish with various interpretations, depending on the country of origin. ... A pastie supper A pastie is a large, round patéd pie common to Northern Ireland. ...


The British Isles generically

In Scotland, Northern Ireland and northern England the inhabitants speak of a meal of fish and chips as a fish supper. Similarly, in Scotland one can order a haggis supper, a steak pie supper, and so on; supper means "with chips", in this context. A "single" order comes without chips. As sausages often sell in pairs, a sausage supper may mean two sausages and chips, while a single sausage can refer to two sausages (without chips). Some of the many varieties of Sausages A sausage consists of ground meat and other animal parts, herbs and spices, and possibly other ingredients, generally packed in a casing (traditionally the intestines of the animal), and preserved in some way. ...


Australia

Australians favour a range of various accompaniments to fish and chips: such as the "potato cake" in Victoria, known as a "potato scallop" in Queensland and New South Wales or as a "potato fritter" in South Australia. Quite distinct from the sea-scallop, it consists of a thick slice of potato, deep-fried in batter. VIC redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... NSW redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Genera See text. ...


Other common accompaniments in Australia include calamari rings (deep-fried rings of squid), "battered savs" (a saveloy coated in batter and then deep fried) and crab sticks (deep-fried imitation crab-meat) also known as "Seafood Sticks". Homemade hamburgers may come with a number of added extras including egg, cheese, salad, beetroot and sauce. An increasing number of stores in Australia may also deal in Döner kebabs. The Döner Kebab has only recently become part of the fish-and-chip shop repertoire, however most fish and chip shops have served a version of it since the late 1980s. Look up Calamari in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Saveloy and Chips A saveloy is a type of vividly red sausage served in English fish and chip shops, also available in parts of Australia where it is commonly deep fried in batter as a battered sav and New Zealand, where it is also known colloquially as a sav. ... Foods made from surimi: artificial shrimp and crab legs Surimi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally fish puree/slurry, Japanese: 擂り身, lit. ... A beet (called beetroot in the United Kingdom and its former colonies, as well as table beet, garden beet, blood turnip or red beet) is a plant of the genus Beta of which both the leaves and root are edible. ... The döner meat is being sliced from a rotating spit. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand vendors offer an accompaniment identical to the Australian "potato scallop", but known either as a "fritter" (as in South Australia), or as a "flip". This leads to the dish "flips and chips": historically a lower-cost alternative to "fish and chips", but now sold for its own merits, rather than for reasons of economy. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Distinctively kiwi items found in New Zealand fish-and-chip shops include paua patties (typically minced paua and batter), whitebait patties and muttonbirds. Species See text. ... Whitebait are young fish; in Europe the term applies to young herring, but in other parts of the world it is used for similar fish of other species. ... Muttonbird may refer to the following: Sooty shearwater, a seabird. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Online recipes.
  2. ^ More online recipes.
  3. ^ Townsend, Bob (2005-02-09). Neighborhood Nosh. Atlanta Journal. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  4. ^ Whitey's Fish Camp - Restaurant. Menu. Whitey's Fish Camp. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  5. ^ Fish and chips
  6. ^ "La Frite est-elle belge?", retrieved 2007-10-22

    D'après Jo Gérard, notre peuple aurait déjà cuit des frites avant 1680. L'historien avance comme preuve un manuscrit familial daté de 1781 ("Curiosités de la table dans les Pays-Bas Belgiques", signé par son arrière-arrière-grand-oncle Joseph Gérard): "Les habitants de Namur, Andenne et Dinant ont l'usage de pêcher dans la Meuse du menu fretin et de le frire pour en améliorer leur ordinaire, surtout chez les pauvres gens. Mais lorsque le gel saisit les cours d'eau et que la pêche y devient hasardeuse, les habitants découpent les pommes de terre en forme de petits poissons et les passent à la friture comme ceux-ci. Il me revient que cette pratique remonte déjà à plus de cent années."
    In English:
    According to Jo Gérard, our people already cooked chips prior to 1680. The historian offers as a proof a family manuscript dating from 1781 {Culinary curiosities in the Belgian Netherlands, signed by his great-great-uncle Joseph Gérard): "The inhabitants of Namur, Huy and Dinant have the habit of fishing in the Meuse River, frying their catch, with a view to improving their staple diet (especially poor people). But when the watercourses freeze over and fishing becomes less reliable, the inhabitants cut up potatoes in the shape of small fish and fry those instead. I gather that this kind of procedure has already gone on for over a hundred years." Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  7. ^ BBC news article
  8. ^ Resources for Learning, Scotland: Rationing
  9. ^ Chaloner W. H. & Henderson W. O. (1990). Industry and Innovation: Selected Essays. Taylor & Francis, Inc.. ISBN 0714633356. 
  10. ^ Tradition Historic UK, Fish and Chips
  11. ^ Dundee Fact File. Dundee City Council. Retrieved on 20 Mar, 2007.
  12. ^ http://www.scotsitalian.com/chippiescafe.htm
  13. ^ Federation of Fish Friers (professional body)
  14. ^ Icons of England
  15. ^ "German Biodiesel Firm To Use Chip Fat"
  16. ^ "Seafish. On Plate. Fish & chips" (UK Sea Fish Industry Authority website)
  17. ^ Seafish. On Plate. Fish & chips
  18. ^ Speakers of British English use the term chippy or chippie or chipper as a noun meaning a "fish-and-chip shop" or a "carpenter". Speakers of American English may use "chippy" as a pejorative term for a prostitute.
  19. ^ Swillingham, Guy (2005). Shop Horror. London: Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-00-719813-2. 
  20. ^ The Fish & Chip Shop of the Year Competition. Seafish. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  21. ^ Frier's Quality Award. Seafish. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  22. ^ Couple scoop best chip shop award. BBC News (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  23. ^ Huber Group (09 2003). Newspaper inks and the environment. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.

March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... Whore redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Fried fish refers to any fish that has been prepared by deep frying or pan frying. ... This article is about a meal consisting of fried fish. ... For the paint and art technique, see tempera. ...

External links

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