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Encyclopedia > Fish

Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. Fish are abundant in the sea and in fresh water, with species being known from mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) as well as in the deepest depths of the ocean (e.g., gulpers and anglerfish). They are of tremendous importance as food for people around the world, either collected from the wild (see fishing) or farmed in much the same way as cattle or chickens (see aquaculture). Fish are also exploited for recreation, through angling and fishkeeping, and fish are commonly exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have an important role in many cultures through the ages, ranging as widely as deities and religious symbols to subjects of books and popular movies. Look up fish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. ... Species (see text) Salvelinus is a genus of Salmonid fish, referring to charizard or charr. ... Gudgeon is a common name for a number of small freshwater fishes of the families Cyprinidae, Eleotridae or Ptereleotridae. ... Families Cyematidae Saccopharyngidae Eupharyngidae Monognathidae Saccopharyngiformes is an order of unusual ray-finned fish superficially similar to eels, but with many internal differences. ... Suborders Antennarioidei Lophioidei Ogcocephalioidei See text for families. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an angle (hook). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...

A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium, seen swimming among schools of other fish
A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium, seen swimming among schools of other fish

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1330, 407 KB) A giant grouper taken at the Georgia Aquarium on January 23rd by myself with a Canon 5D and 24-105mm f/4L IS. Taken by Diliff Edited by Fir0002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1330, 407 KB) A giant grouper taken at the Georgia Aquarium on January 23rd by myself with a Canon 5D and 24-105mm f/4L IS. Taken by Diliff Edited by Fir0002. ... Genera Acanthistius Alphestes Anyperidon Caprodon Cephalopholis Cromileptes Dermatolepis Epinephelus Gonioplectrus Gracila HypoplectrodesLiopropoma Mycteroperca Niphon Paranthias Plectropomus Saloptia Triso Variola For the computer program, see Grouper (Windows application). ... The Georgia Aquarium, located in Atlanta, Georgia at Pemberton Place, is billed as the worlds largest aquarium with more than 8 million US gallons (30,000 m³; 30,000,000 liters) of marine and fresh water, 1. ...

Definition

The term "fish" is most precisely used to describe any non-tetrapod chordate, i.e., an animal with a backbone that has gills throughout life and has limbs, if any, in the shape of fins.[1] Unlike groupings such as birds or mammals, fish are not a single clade but a paraphyletic collection of taxa, including hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fishes, coelacanths, and lungfishes.[2][3] Groups See text. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Genera Eptatretus Myxine Nemamyxine Neomyxine Notomyxine Paramyxine Quadratus This article is about the Hagfish. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ... For the musical band, see Lungfish (band). ...


A typical fish is cold-blooded; has a streamlined body that allows it to swim rapidly; extracts oxygen from the water using gills or an accessory breathing organ to enable it to breath atmospheric oxygen; has two sets of paired fins, usually one or two (rarely three) dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a tail fin; has jaws; has skin that is usually covered with scales; and lays eggs that are fertilized internally or externally. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Solid blue lines and broken grey lines represent the streamlines. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ...

Fish come in many shapes and sizes. This is a sea dragon, a close relative of the seahorse. Their leaf-like appendages enable them to blend in with floating seaweed
Fish come in many shapes and sizes. This is a sea dragon, a close relative of the seahorse. Their leaf-like appendages enable them to blend in with floating seaweed

To each of these there are exceptions. Tuna, Swordfish, and some species of sharks show some warm-blooded adaptations, and are able to raise their body temperature significantly above that of the ambient water surrounding them.[4] Streamlining and swimming performance varies from highly streamlined and rapid swimmers which are able to reach 10-20 body-lengths per second (such as tuna, salmon, and jacks) through to slow but more maneuverable species such as eels and rays that reach no more than 0.5 body-lengths per second.[5] Many groups of freshwater fish extract oxygen from the air as well as from the water using a variety of different structures. Lungfish have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods, gouramis have a structure called the labyrinth organ that performs a similar function, while many catfish, such as Corydoras extract oxygen via the intestine or stomach.[6] Body shape and the arrangement of the fins is highly variable, covering such seemingly un-fishlike forms as seahorses, pufferfish, anglerfish, and gulpers. Similarly, the surface of the skin may be naked (as in moray eels), or covered with scales of a variety of different types usually defined as placoid (typical of sharks and rays), cosmoid (fossil lungfishes and coelacanths), ganoid (various fossil fishes but also living gars and bichirs, cycloid, and ctenoid (these last two are found on most bony fish.[7] There are even fishes that spend most of their time out of water. Mudskippers feed and interact with one another on mudflats and are only underwater when hiding in their burrows.[8] The catfish Phreatobius cisternarum lives in underground, phreatic habitats, and a relative lives in waterlogged leaf litter.[9][10] Image File history File linksMetadata Leafydragon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Leafydragon. ... Binomial name (Günther, 1865) The leafy sea dragon, Phycodurus eques, is a marine fish related to the seahorse. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of fish. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... A family of fishes which includes the Pompanos and Jacks Pilot fish - Naucrates ductor Categories: Fish stubs ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... Orders See text. ... Genera Belontiinae Belontia Luciocephalus/Trichogastrinae Colisa Ctenops Luciocephalus Parasphaerichthys Polyacanthus Sphaerichthys Trichogaster Macropodinae Betta Macropodus Malpulutta Parosphromenus Pseudosphromenus Trichopsis Osphroneminae Belontia Osphronemus The gouramies are a family Osphronemidae of freshwater perciform fish. ... A much folded suprabranchial accessory breathing organ found in Anabantoidei. ... Diversity Over 150 valid species. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ... Suborders Antennarioidei Lophioidei Ogcocephalioidei See text for families. ... Families Cyematidae Eurypharyngidae Monognathidae Saccopharyngidae Saccopharyngiformes is an order of unusual ray-finned fish superficially similar to eels, but with many internal differences. ... Genera See text. ... Denticles or placoid scales are small outgrowths which cover the skin of many cartilaginous fish including sharks. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek lepid, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animals skin to provide protection. ... Species Atractosteus spatula Atractosteus tristoechus Atractosteus tropicus Lepisosteus oculatus Lepisosteus osseus Lepisosteus platostomus Lepisosteus platyrhincus In American English the name gar (or garpike) is strictly applied to members of the Lepisosteidae, a family including seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh, brackish, and occasionally marine, waters... Genera Erpetoichthys Polypterus See text for species. ... Cycloid (red) generated by a rolling circle A cycloid is the curve defined by a fixed point on a wheel as it rolls, or, more precisely, the locus of a point on the rim of a circle rolling along a straight line. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Subclasses Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes are the bony fish, a group paraphyletic to the land vertebrates, which are sometimes included. ... Genera Apocryptes Apocryptodon Boleophthalmus Oxuderces Parapocryptes Periophthalmodon Periophthalmus Pseudapocryptes Scartelaos Zappa (genus) Mudskippers are members of the subfamily Oxudercinae (tribe: Periophthalmini[1]), within the family Gobiidae (Gobies). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phreatobius cisternarum Goeldi, 1905 Phreatobius cisternarum is the only species of catfish in the genus Phreatobius. ... The term phreatic is used in geology to refer to matters relating to underground water below the water table (the word originates from the Greek phrear, phreat- meaning well or spring). The phreatic zone is the layer(s) of soil or rock below the water table in which voids are... Fungus growing in leaf litter Leaf litter (sometimes called leaf mold or tree litter) is the layer of leaves and other forms of decomposing matter found on the ground beneath vegetation. ...


Fish range in size from the 16 m (51 ft) whale shark to the 8 mm (just over ¼ of an inch) long stout infantfish. Binomial name (Smith, 1828) Range of whale shark The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species. ... Binomial name Schindleria brevipinguis Watson & Walker, 2004 Schindleria brevipinguis is a species of marine fish in family Schindleriidae of Perciformes. ...


Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as "fish" are not fish in the sense given above; examples include shellfish, crayfish and jellyfish. In some contexts, especially in aquaculture, the true fish are referred to finfish to distinguish them from these other animals. Animal environments are classified as either aquatic (water), terrestrial (land), or amphibious (water and land). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Families Astacoidea   Astacidae   Cambaridae Parastacoidea   Parastacidae Crayfish, often referred to as crawfish or crawdad, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are closely related. ... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ...


Classification

Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish also contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Groups See text. ...

Fish are classified into the following major groups:

Some palaeontologists consider that Conodonta are chordates, and so regard them as primitive fish. For a fuller treatment of classification, see the vertebrate article. Orders Arandaspida Heterostraci Thelodontidae Eriptychiida Astraspida Pteraspidomorphi is an extinct subclass of early jawless fish. ... Subgroupings (unranked, see Turner 1991) Theleodontina Loganiida Katoporida There is much debate over whether the clade of Palaeozoic fish known as the Thelodonti represent a monophyletic grouping, or disparate stem groups to the major lines of jawless and jawed fish. ... Anaspida are a extinct marine subgroup of the agnatha. ... subgroups Osteostraci Galeaspida Pituriaspida Anaspida Hyperoartia (lampreys) Cephalaspidomorphs are a taxon of jawless fishes named for the cephalaspids, which is another name for the osteostracans. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a type of fish with a toothed, funnel-like, jawless sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Galeaspida (galeaspids) are an extinct taxon of jawless marine fish and a subgroup of the Cephalaspidomorphi, which are itself a subgroup of the vertebrate. ... Pituriaspida are an extinct taxon of jawless marine fish and a subgroup of the Cephalaspidomorphi, which are itself a subgroup of the vertebrate. ... Osteostraci (Cephalaspidiformes) are an extinct marine subgroup of the agnatha. ... Classes Placodermi Chondrichthyes Acanthodii Osteichthyes Gnathostomata is the group of vertebrates with jaws. ... Orders Antiarchi † Arthrodira † Brindabellaspida † Petalichthyida † Phyllolepida † Ptyctodontida † Rhenanida † Acanthothoraci † ?Pseudopetalichthyida † ?Stensioellida † The Placodermi are armoured prehistoric fishes known from fossils dating from the late Silurian to the end of the Devonian Period. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Orders Climatiiformes Ischnacanthiformes Acanthodiformes Acanthodii (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a class of extinct fishes, having features of both bony fish (Osteichthyes) and cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). ... Classes Actinopterygii Sarcopterygii Osteichthyes are a taxonomic superclass of fish, also called bony fish that includes the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe finned fish (Sarcopterygii). ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ... Species Latimeria chalumnae Latimeria menadoensis Coelacanths (pronounced SEE-le-canth, meaning hollow spine in Greek) are lobe_finned fish with the pectoral and anal fins on fleshy stalks supported by bones, and the tail fin divided into three lobes, the middle one of which also has a stalk. ... Families See text. ... For the musical band, see Lungfish (band). ... Orders See text. ... Conodont Conodonts are extinct worm-like forms with distinctive conical or multi-denticulate teeth made of apatite (calcium phosphate). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The various fish groups taken together account for more than half of the known vertebrates. There are almost 28,000 known extant species of fish, of which almost 27,000 are bony fish, with the remainder being about 970 sharks, rays, and chimeras and about 108 hagfishes and lampreys.[11] A third of all of these species are contained within the nine largest families; from largest to smallest, these families are Cyprinidae, Gobiidae, Cichlidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Balitoridae, Serranidae, Labridae, and Scorpaenidae. On the other hand, about 64 families are monotypic, containing only one species. It is predicted that the eventual number of total extant species will be at least 32,500.[12] In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Genera (many, see text) The family Cyprinidae, named after the Greek word for goldfish, consists of the carps and minnows. ... Genera Many, e. ... Genera Apistogramma - Dwarf Cichlids Astronotus (Oscars) Boulengerochromis Cichlasoma - American Ciclids Crenicichla Pterophyllum - Freshwater Angelfish Symphysodon - Discus Teleogramma Tilapia Cichlids are a family of perciform fishes. ... Subfamilies and Genera[2] Subfamily Agoniatinae  Agoniates Subfamily Aphyocharacinae  Aphyocharax Subfamily Bryconinae  Brycon  Chilobrycon  Henochilus Subfamily Characinae  Acanthocharax  Acestrocephalus  Charax  Cynopotamus  Galeocharax  Gnathocharax  Heterocharax  Hoplocharax  Phenacogaster  Priocharax  Roeboides  and many more Subfamily Cheirodontinae  Cheirodon  Compsura  Odontostilbe  Serrapinnus  Spintherobolus  and many more Subfamily Clupeacharacinae  Clupeacharax Subfamily Glandulocaudinae  20 genera Subfamily Iguanodectinae... Genera about 70, see text The armored catfishes are a family Loricariidae of catfish noted for the covering of bony plates covering their bodies. ... The hillstream loaches are a family (Balitoridae) of small Eurasian fish that generally live in fast-flowing streams and have a large sucker mouth and modified ventral fins used for clinging to rocks. ... Subfamilies Anthiinae Epinephelinae - Groupers Grammistinae The Serranidae or serranids are a family of fish, belonging to the order Perciformes. ... Genera (60 genera) The wrasses are a family (family Labridae) of reef safe marine fish, many of which are brightly-colored and popular for aquaria. ... Genera (many) The scorpionfishes or rockfishes are a family (Scorpaenidae) of mostly marine fish that includes many of the worlds most venomous species. ... Monotypic is an adjective, that refers to a taxonomic group with only one type: in botany it means that a taxon has only one species; Ginkgo is a monotypic genus, while Ginkgoaceae is a monotypic family. ...


Anatomy

Main article: Fish anatomy
The anatomy of Lampanyctodes hectoris (1) - operculum (gill cover), (2) - lateral line, (3) - dorsal fin, (4) - fat fin, (5) - caudal peduncle, (6) - caudal fin, (7) - anal fin, (8) - photophores, (9) - pelvic fins (paired), (10) - pectoral fins (paired)
The anatomy of Lampanyctodes hectoris
(1) - operculum (gill cover), (2) - lateral line, (3) - dorsal fin, (4) - fat fin, (5) - caudal peduncle, (6) - caudal fin, (7) - anal fin, (8) - photophores, (9) - pelvic fins (paired), (10) - pectoral fins (paired)

Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than air does. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2154x898, 465 KB) based on :Image:Lampanyctodes hectoris (Hectors lanternfish). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2154x898, 465 KB) based on :Image:Lampanyctodes hectoris (Hectors lanternfish). ...

Digestive system

The advent of jaws allowed fish to eat a much wider variety of food, including plants and other organisms. In fish, food is ingested through the mouth and then broken down in the esophagus. When it enters the stomach, the food is further broken down and, in many fish, further processed in fingerlike pouches called pyloric caeca. The pyloric caeca secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients from the digested food. Organs such as the liver and pancreas add enzymes and various digestive chemicals as the food moves through the digestive tract. The intestine completes the process of digestion and nutrient absorption. The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ...


Respiratory system

Most fish exchange gases by using gills that are located on either side of the pharynx. Gills are made up of threadlike structures called filaments. Each filament contains a network of capillaries that allow a large surface area for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gill filaments. The blood in the capillaries flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing counter current exchange. They then push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx. Some fishes, like sharks and lampreys, possess multiple gill openings. However, most fishes have a single gill opening on each side of the body. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called an operculum. For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Filaments surrounding a solar flare, caused by the interaction of the plasma in the Suns atmopshere with its magnetic field. ... Blood flows from digestive system heart to arteries, which narrow into arterioles, and then narrow further still into capillaries. ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... It has been suggested that Counter-current heat exchange, Counter-current heat exchangers be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... The operculum in fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills of Bony fish. ...


Juvenile bichirs have external gills, a very primitive feature that they hold in common with larval amphibians. Genera Erpetoichthys Polypterus See text for species. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ...

Swim bladder of a Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus)
Swim bladder of a Rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus)

Many fish can breathe air. The mechanisms for doing so are varied. The skin of anguillid eels may be used to absorb oxygen. The buccal cavity of the electric eel may be used to breathe air. Catfishes of the families Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, and Scoloplacidae are able to absorb air through their digestive tracts.[13] Lungfish and bichirs have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods and must rise to the surface of the water to gulp fresh air in through the mouth and pass spent air out through the gills. Gar and bowfin have a vascularised swim bladder that is used in the same way. Loaches, trahiras, and many catfish breathe by passing air through the gut. Mudskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen across the skin (similar to what frogs do). A number of fishes have evolved so-called accessory breathing organs that are used to extract oxygen from the air. Labyrinth fish (such as gouramis and bettas) have a labyrinth organ above the gills that performs this function. A few other fish have structures more or less resembling labyrinth organs in form and function, most notably snakeheads, pikeheads, and the Clariidae family of catfish. Image File history File linksMetadata Swim_bladder. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Swim_bladder. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera about 70, see text The armored catfishes are a family Loricariidae of catfish noted for the covering of bony plates covering their bodies. ... Genera Aspidoras Brochis Callichthys Corydoras Dianema Hoplosternum Lepthoplosternum Megalechis Scleromystax The family Callichthyidae hails from South America and contains some of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish such as the corydoras. ... Species[1] Scoloplax is the only genus in the family (biology) Scoloplacidae, the spiny dwarf catfishes. ... Orders See text. ... Genera Erpetoichthys Polypterus See text for species. ... Groups See text. ... Species Atractosteus spatula Atractosteus tristoechus Atractosteus tropicus Lepisosteus oculatus Lepisosteus osseus Lepisosteus platostomus Lepisosteus platyrhincus In American English the name gar (or garpike) is strictly applied to members of the Lepisosteidae, a family including seven living species of fish in two genera that inhabit fresh, brackish, and occasionally marine, waters... Binomial name Amia calva Linnaeus, 1766 The bowfins are an order (Amiiformes) of primitive ray-finned fish. ... Genera Acanthopsoides Acanthophthalmus Acantopsis Botia Cobitis Crossostoma Enobarbichthys Formosiana Iksookimia Koreocobitis Lepidocephalichthys Lepidocephalus Leptobotia Misgurnus Neoeucirrhichthys Niwaella Pangio Parabotia Paralepidocephalus Paramisgurnus Protocobitis Sabanejewia Serpenticobitis Somileptes (Gongota loach) Loaches are freshwater fishes of the family Cobitidae, small benthic (bottom-dwelling) fishes with a flattened ventral profile. ... Genera Erythrinus Hoplerythrinus Hoplias The Erythrinidae, also known as Trahiras, are a family of freshwater fishes found in the rivers of South America. ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Genera Belontiinae Belontia Luciocephalus/Trichogastrinae Colisa Ctenops Luciocephalus Parasphaerichthys Polyacanthus Sphaerichthys Trichogaster Macropodinae Betta Macropodus Malpulutta Parosphromenus Pseudosphromenus Trichopsis Osphroneminae Belontia Osphronemus The gouramies are a family Osphronemidae of freshwater perciform fish. ... Betta Betta splendens which is often called simply betta, see Siamese fighting fish. ... The labyrinth organ is a much-folded suprabranchial accessory breathing organ found in labyrinth fish, of the Anabantoidei family. ... Genera Channa Parachanna Channidae is a family of freshwater perciform fish commonly known as snakeheads, and is native to Africa and Asia. ... Genera Allabenchelys Channallabes Clariallabes Clarias Dinotopteroides Dinotopterus Dolichallabes Encheloclarias Gymnallabes Heterobranchus Horaglanis Platyallabes Platyclarias Tanganikallabes Uegitglanis Xenoclarias Xenoglanis Airbreathing catfishes are fishes comprising the family Clariidae. ...


Being able to breathe air is primarily of use to fish that inhabit shallow, seasonally variable waters where the oxygen concentration in the water may decline at certain times of the year. At such times, fishes dependent solely on the oxygen in the water, such as perch and cichlids, will quickly suffocate, but air-breathing fish can survive for much longer, in some cases in water that is little more than wet mud. At the most extreme, some of these air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp burrows for weeks after the water has otherwise completely dried up, entering a state of aestivation until the water returns. Estivation or aestivation (from Latin aestas, summer) is a state of dormancy similar to hibernation. ...

Tuna gills inside of the head. The fish head is oriented snout-downwards, with the view looking towards the mouth.
Tuna gills inside of the head. The fish head is oriented snout-downwards, with the view looking towards the mouth.

Fish can be divided into obligate air breathers and facultative air breathers. Obligate air breathers, such as the African lungfish, must breathe air periodically or they will suffocate. Facultative air breathers, such as the catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, will only breathe air if they need to and will otherwise rely solely on their gills for oxygen if conditions are favourable. Most fish are not obligate air breathers as there is an energetic cost in rising to the surface and a fitness cost of being exposed to predators.[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x954, 303 KB) Tuna gills inside of the head. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1103x954, 303 KB) Tuna gills inside of the head. ...


Circulatory system

Fish have a closed circulatory system with a heart that pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body. The blood goes from the heart to gills, from the gills to the rest of the body, and then back to the heart. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts: the sinus venosus, the atrium, the ventricle, and the bulbus arteriosus. Despite consisting of four parts, the fish heart is still a two-chambered heart.[14] The sinus venosus is a thin-walled sac that collects blood from the fish's veins before allowing it to flow to the atrium, which is a large muscular chamber. The atrium serves as a one-way compartment for blood to flow into the ventricle. The ventricle is a thick-walled, muscular chamber and it does the actual pumping for the heart. It pumps blood to a large tube called the bulbus arteriosus. At the front end, the bulbus arteriosus connects to a large blood vessel called the aorta, through which blood flows to the fish's gills. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Sinus venosus can refer to: Another name for the embryological structure Sinus venarum A type of atrial septal defect This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) refers to a chamber or space. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a heart chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) and pumps it out of the heart. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ...


Excretory system

As with many aquatic animals, most fish release their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia. Some of the wastes diffuse through the gills into the surrounding water. Others are removed by the kidneys, excretory organs that filter wastes from the blood. Kidneys help fishes control the amount of ammonia in their bodies. Saltwater fish tend to lose water because of osmosis. In saltwater fish, the kidneys concentrate wastes and return as much water as possible back to the body. The reverse happens in freshwater fish, they tend to gain water continuously. The kidneys of freshwater fish are specially adapted to pump out large amounts of dilute urine. Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that change their function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In chemistry and common usage, a filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to block certain objects or substances while letting others through. ... Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient. ... A vast number of species of fish have been successfully kept in the home aquarium. ...


Sensory and nervous system

Dorsal view of the brain of the rainbow trout.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 343 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 1206 pixels, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schematic dorsal view of the brain of a trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with key features labelled. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 343 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 1206 pixels, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schematic dorsal view of the brain of a trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with key features labelled. ... It has been suggested that Steelhead be merged into this article or section. ...

Central nervous system

Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size when compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the mass of the brain from a similarly sized bird or mammal.[15] However, some fishes have relatively large brains, most notably mormyrids and sharks, which have brains of about as massive relative to body weight as birds and marsupials.[16] Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... Subfamilies Mormyrinae Petrocephalinae The family Mormyridae, sometimes called Elephantfish, are freshwater fishes native to Africa in the order Osteoglossiformes. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about mammals. ...


The brain is divided into several regions. At the front are the olfactory lobes, a pair of structure the receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves.[15] The olfactory lobes are very large in fishes that hunt primarily by smell, such as hagfish, sharks, and catfish. Behind the olfactory lobes is the two-lobed telencephalon, the equivalent structure to the cerebrum in higher vertebrates. In fishes the telencephalon is concerned mostly with olfaction.[15] Together these structures form the forebrain. The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ...


Connecting the forebrain to the midbrain is the diencephalon (in the adjacent diagram, this structure is below the optic lobes and consequently not visible). The diencephalon performs a number of functions associated with hormones and homeostasis.[15] The pineal body lies just above the diencephalon. This structure performs many different functions including detecting light, maintaining circadian rhythms, and controlling colour changes.[15] The diencephalon is the region of the brain that includes the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism, which regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. ... The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland located near the middle of the brain. ... The circadian rhythm is a name given to the internal body clock that regulates the (roughly) 24 hour cycle of biological processes in animals and plants. ...


The midbrain or mesencephalon contains the two optic lobes. These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and cichlids.[15] In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain) is the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. ... Optic Lobe: It is inside the brain, and it indicates to either of two lobes of the dorsal mesencephalon, containing primary visual centers. ... It has been suggested that Steelhead be merged into this article or section. ... Subfamilies Astronotinae Cichlasomatinae Cichlinae Etroplinae Geophaginae Heterochromidinae Paratilapiinae Pseudocrenilabrinae Ptychochrominae Retroculinae For genera, see below. ...


The hindbrain or metencephalon is particularly involved in swimming and balance.[15] The cerebellum is a single-lobed structure that is usually very large, typically the biggest part of the brain.[15] Hagfish and lampreys have relatively small cerebellums, but at the other extreme the cerebellums of mormyrids are massively developed and apparently involved in their electrical sense.[15] The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Subfamilies Mormyrinae Petrocephalinae The familly Mormyridae, sometimes called Elephantfish, are freshwater fishes native to Africa. ... An electric fish is a fish that can generate electric field]s. ...


The brain stem or myelencephalon is the most posterior part of the brain.[15] As well as controlling the functions of some of the muscles and body organs, in bony fish at least the brain stem is also concerned with respiration and osmoregulation.[15] The myelencephalon is a developmental categorization of a portion of the central nervous system. ... Look up Respiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ...


Sense organs

Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Nearly all daylight fish have well-developed eyes that have color vision that is at least as good as a human's. Many fish also have specialized cells known as chemoreceptors that are responsible for extraordinary senses of taste and smell. Although they have ears in their heads, many fish may not hear sounds very well. However, most fishes have sensitive receptors that form the lateral line system. The lateral line system allows for many fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations, as well as to sense the motion of other nearby fish and prey.[17] Some fishes such as catfishes and sharks, have organs that detect low levels electric current.[18] Other fish, like the electric eel, can produce their own electricity. In fish, the lateral line is a sense organ used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. ...


Pain reception in fish

In 2003, it was concluded by Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh performing research on rainbow trout that fish exhibit behaviors often associated with pain.[19] Professor James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming found flaws in the study and published a critique of it.[20] Rose had published his own study a year earlier concluding that fish cannot feel pain as they lack the appropriate neocortex of the brain.[21] Other researchers have suggested that the question of pain in fish may be diffcult to answer since fish "pain" might be felt differently than human "pain."[22] This article is about the profession. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyomings high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,200 feet (2194 m), between the the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. ... The neocortex (Latin for new bark or new rind) is a part of the brain of mammals. ...


Muscular system

Main article: Fish locomotion

Most fish move by contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone alternately. These contractions form S-shaped curves that move down the body of the fish. As each curve reaches the back fin, backward force is created. This backward force, in conjunction with the fins, moves the fish forward. The fish's fins are used like an airplane's stabilizers. Fins also increase the surface area of the tail, allowing for an extra boost in speed. The streamlined body of the fish decreases the amount of friction as they move through water. Since body tissue is more dense than water, fish must compensate for the difference or they will sink. Many bony fishes have an internal organ called a swim bladder that adjust their buoyancy through manipulation of gases. Fish swim by exerting force against the surrounding water. ... The gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to waste energy in swimming. ...


Reproductive system

Further information: Spawning

Frog spawn Spawning is the production or depositing of eggs in large numbers by aquatic animals. ...

Organs

Fish reproductive organs include testes and ovaries. In most fish species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused.[23] There may also be a range of secondary reproductive organs that help in increasing a fish's fitness. Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ...


In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: in the most common, spermatogonia occur all along the seminiferous tubules, while in Atherinomorph fishes they are confined to the distal portion of these structures. Fishes can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the phase of release of germ cells in cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.[23] The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Cross section of the epithelium of a seminiferous tubule showing various stages of spermatocyte development Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. ...


Fish ovaries may be of two types: gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then eliminated. In the second type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.[24] Gymnovaries are the primitive condition found in lungfishes, sturgeons, and bowfins. Cystovaries are the condition that characterizes most of the teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct.[23] A body cavity is an aspect of a number of basic animal body plans (phyla) that incorporate a central body cavity, known as a coelom. ... In oviparous animals (those that lay eggs), the passage from the ovaries to the outside of the body is known as the oviduct. ...


Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to the group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes. Changes in the nucleus, ooplasm, and the surrounding layers characterize the oocyte maturation process.[23]


Postovulatory follicles are structures formed after oocyte release; they do not have endocrine function, present a wide irregular lumen, and are rapidly reabosrbed in a process involving the apoptosis of follicular cells. A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages.[23] The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...


Some fish are hermaphrodites, either having testes and ovaries at different phases in the life cycle. However, there are even some fish, such as hamlets, that are simultaneously male and female. For other uses, see Hermaphrodite (disambiguation). ... - A hamlet is a fish of the genus Hypoplectrus. ...


Reproductive method

Over 97% of all known fishes are oviparous,[25] that is, the eggs develop outside the mother's body. Examples of oviparous fishes include salmon, goldfish, cichlids, tuna, and eels. In the majority of these species, fertilisation takes place outside the mother's body, with the male and female fish shedding their gametes into the surrounding water. However, a few oviparous fishes practise internal fertilisation, with the male using some sort of intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the genital opening of the female, most notably the oviparous sharks, such as the horn shark, and oviparous rays, such as skates. In these cases, the male is equipped with a pair of modified pelvic fins known as claspers. For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ... Subfamilies Astronotinae Cichlasomatinae Cichlinae Etroplinae Geophaginae Heterochromidinae Paratilapiinae Pseudocrenilabrinae Ptychochrominae Retroculinae For genera, see below. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετης; translated gamete = wife, gametes = husband) is a cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ... Ichthyology uses several terms that are unique to the science. ... Binomial name Heterodontus francisci Girard, 1855 The Horn shark (Heterodontus francisci) is a shark from the bullhead shark order Heterodontiformes. ... Broad skate, Amblyraja badia A skate egg case, known as a mermaids purse. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ... The claspers of a wobbegong shark (Orectolobus maculatus). ...


The newly-hatched young of oviparous fish are called larvae. They are usually poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac (from which they gain their nutrition) and are very different in appearance to juvenile and adult specimens of their species. The larval period in oviparous fish is relatively short however (usually only several weeks), and larvae rapidly grow and change appearance and structure (a process termed metamorphosis) to resemble juveniles of their species. During this transition larvae use up their yolk sac and must switch from yolk sac nutrition to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which is dependent on zooplankton prey densities and causes many mortalities in larvae. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... A cicada in the process of shedding. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ...


Ovoviviparous fish are ones in which the eggs develop inside the mother's body after internal fertilization but receive little or no nutrition from the mother, depending instead on the yolk. Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fishes include guppies, angel sharks, and coelacanths. Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mother up until they hatch or are about to. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... The egg yolk is the yellow inside an egg. ... For other uses, see Guppy (disambiguation). ... Species (16 species, see text) The angel sharks are an unusual group of sharks, with their flattened bodies and broad pectoral fins that give them a strong resemblance to skates and rays. ... Families See text. ...


Some species of fish are viviparous. In such species the mother retains the eggs, as in ovoviviparous fishes, but the embryos receive nutrition from the mother in a variety of different ways. Typically, viviparous fishes have a structure analogous to the placenta seen in mammals connecting the mother's blood supply with the that of the embryo. Examples of viviparous fishes of this type include the surf-perches, splitfins, and lemon shark. The embryos of some viviparous fishes exhibit a behaviour known as oophagy where the developing embryos eat eggs produced by the mother. This has been observed primarily among sharks, such as the shortfin mako and porbeagle, but is known for a few bony fish as well, such as the halfbeak Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.[26] Intrauterine cannibalism is an even more unusual mode of vivipary, where the largest embryos in the uterus will eat their weaker and smaller siblings. This behaviour is also most commonly found among sharks, such as the grey nurse shark, but has also been reported for Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.[26] A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ... The placenta is a sack of fat present in placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Orders Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia Xenarthra Dermoptera: Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Placentalia and Eutheria are terms used to describe major groupings within the animal class of Mammalia. ... Genera Amphistichus Brachyistius Cymatogaster Ditrema Embiotoca Hyperprosopon Hypsurus Hysterocarpus Micrometrus Neoditrema Phanerodon Rhacochilus Zalembius See text for species. ... Genera Allodontichthys Allophorus Allotoca Ameca Ataeniobus Chapalichthys Characodon Crenichthys Empetrichthys Gerardinichthys Goodea Hubbsina Ilyodon Neoophorus Skiffia Xenoophorus Xenotaenia Xenotoca Zoogoneticus The Splitfins or Goodeids are the family Goodeidae of bony fish. ... Binomial name Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868) The lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris, is a well studied shark belonging to the family Carcharhinidae. ... Oophagy (egg eating) is the practice of embryos feeding on eggs produced by the ovary while still inside the mothers uterus. ... Binomial name Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 The Shortfin Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), commonly called Mako Shark, is a large shark of the Lamnidae family with a full-grown size of 2. ... Binomial name Bonnaterre, 1788 Range of porbeagle (in blue) The porbeagle, Lamna nasus, is a large pelagic predatory shark of the family Lamnidae. ... Genera Arrhamphus Chriodorus Dermogenys Euleptorhamphus Hemirhamphodon Hemiramphus Hyporhamphus Melapedalion Nomorhamphus Oxyporhamphus Rhynchorhamphus Reporhamphus Tondanichthys Zenarchopterus Halfbeaks (family Hemiramphidae) are close relatives of the flyingfishes and members of the same order, the Beloniformes. ... Intrauterine cannibalism is a behaviour in some carnivorous species, in which multiple embryos are created at impregnation, but only one or two are born. ... Binomial name Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 Not to be confused with nurse shark. ...


Aquarists commonly refer to ovoviviparous and viviparous fishes as livebearers. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Live-bearing aquarium fish, often simply called livebearers, are fish that retain the eggs inside the body and give birth to live, free-swimming young. ...


Immune system

Types of immune organs vary between different types of fish.[27] In the jawless fish (lampreys and hagfishes), true lymphoid organs are absent. Instead, these fish rely on regions of lymphoid tissue within other organs to produce their immune cells. For example, erythrocytes, macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney (or pronephros) and some areas of the gut (where granulocytes mature) resemble primitive bone marrow in hagfish. Cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) have a more advanced immune system than the jawless fish. They have three specialized organs that are unique to chondrichthyes; the epigonal organs (lymphoid tissue similar to bone marrow of mammals) that surround the gonads, the Leydig’s organ within the walls of their esophagus, and a spiral valve in their intestine. All these organs house typical immune cells (granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells). They also possess an identifiable thymus and a well-developed spleen (their most important immune organ) where various lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored. Chondrostean fish (sturgeons, paddlefish and birchirs) possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass that is associated with the meninges (membranes surrounding the central nervous system) and their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages. The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages develop. Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish (or teleostei) include the kidney (especially the anterior kidney), where many different immune cells are housed.[28] In addition, teleost fish possess a thymus, spleen and scattered immune areas within mucosal tissues (e.g. in the skin, gills, gut and gonads). Much like the mammalian immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the thymus.[29][30] Recently, a lymphatic system similar to that described in mammals was described in one species of teleost fish, the zebrafish. Although not confirmed as yet, this system presumably will be where naive (unstimulated) T cells will accumulate while waiting to encounter an antigen.[31] Groups Myxinoidea (hagfish) Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Pteraspidomorphi Thelodonti Anaspida Cephalaspidomorphi Galeaspida Pituriaspida Osteostraci Agnatha (Greek, no jaws) is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... Plasma cells are B lymphocytes that secrete immunoglobulins (antibodies). ... Pronephros the most primitive of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrate, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells, characterised by the fact that all types have differently staining granules in their cytoplasm on light microscopy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orders see text The Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nostrils, scales, two-chambered hearts, and skeletons made of cartilage. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Subclasses Chondrostei Neopterygii See text for orders. ... The meninges (singular meninx) are the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system. ... A reticular cell produces reticular fibers and surrounds the fibers with its cytoplasm, which isolates the fiber from other components of the tissues or cells. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ...


Evolution

The early fossil record on fish is not very clear. It appears it was not a successful enough animal early in its evolution to leave many fossils. However, this would eventually change over time as it became a dominant form of sea life and eventually branching to include land vertebrates such as amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


The formation of the hinged jaw appears to be what resulted in the later proliferation of fish because un-jawed fish left very few ancestors.[32] Lampreys may be a rough representative of pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, respiratory-related, or a combination. Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a jawless fish with a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. ... Orders Antiarchi † Arthrodira † Brindabellaspida † Petalichthyida † Phyllolepida † Ptyctodontida † Rhenanida † Acanthothoraci † ?Pseudopetalichthyida † ?Stensioellida † The Placodermi are armoured prehistoric fishes known from fossils dating from the late Silurian to the end of the Devonian Period. ...


Some speculate that fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like Sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in some key ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood (as some sea squirts do today, see Neoteny), although the reversal of this case is also possible. Candidates for early fish include Agnatha such as Haikouichthys, Myllokunmingia, Pikaia, and Conodonts. Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Neoteny describes a process by which paedomorphism is achieved, and is a subject studied in the field of developmental biology. ... Idealized agnatha. ... Binomial name Haikouichthys ercaicunensis was a primitive fish-like animal from the Early Cambrian Maotianshan shales of China. ... The Myllokummingia is a primitive, probably agnathid (jawless) fish from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of China thought to be a vertebrate (see external links). ... Pikaia is an extinct animal known from the Middle Cambrian fossil found near Mount Pika in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia. ... Conodonts are extinct worm-like forms with distinctive conical or multi-denticulate teeth made of apatite (calcium phosphate). ...


Homeothermy

Although most fish are exclusively aquatic and cold-blooded, there are exceptions to both cases. Fish from a number of different groups have evolved the capacity to live out of the water for extended periods of time. Of these amphibious fish some such as the mudskipper can live and move about on land for up to several days. Also, certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures to varying degrees. Endothermic teleosts (bony fishes) are all in the suborder Scombroidei and include the billfishes, tunas, and one species of "primitive" mackerel (Gasterochisma melampus). All sharks in the family Lamnidae – shortfin mako, long fin mako, white, porbeagle, and salmon shark – are known to have the capacity for endothermy, and evidence suggests the trait exists in family Alopiidae (thresher sharks). The degree of endothermy varies from the billfish, which warm only their eyes and brain, to bluefin tuna and porbeagle sharks who maintain body temperatures elevated in excess of 20 °C above ambient water temperatures. See also gigantothermy. Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased contractile force of muscles, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 835 pixel, file size: 655 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Removal of distracting elements from Image:Whiteshark-TGoss5b. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 557 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 835 pixel, file size: 655 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Removal of distracting elements from Image:Whiteshark-TGoss5b. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island For the French Caribbean island, see Guadeloupe. ... Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time. ... Genera Apocryptes Apocryptodon Boleophthalmus Oxuderces Parapocryptes Periophthalmodon Periophthalmus Pseudapocryptes Scartelaos Zappa (genus) Mudskippers are members of the subfamily Oxudercinae (tribe: Periophthalmini[1]), within the family Gobiidae (Gobies). ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... Lamnidae is a family of sharks. ... Species Alopias pelagicus Alopias superciliosus Alopias vulpinus Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae. ... Bluefin tuna may mean any of several species of tuna: Northern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus thynnus Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii Pacific Bluefin Tuna Thunnus orientalis This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Gigantothermy is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature that smaller animals by virtue of their greater volume to surface area ratio. ... The Human Nervous System. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ...


Diseases

Like other animals, fish can suffer from a wide variety of diseases and parasites. To prevent disease they have a variety of non-specific defences and specific defences. Non-specific defences include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. Should pathogens breach these defences, fish can develop an inflammatory response that increases the flow of blood to the infected region and delivers the white blood cells that will attempt to destroy the pathogens. Specific defences are specialised responses to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, in other words, an immune response.[33] In recent years, vaccines have become widely used in aquaculture and also with ornamental fish, for example the vaccines for furunculosis in farmed salmon and koi herpes virus in koi.[34][35] Look up Epidermis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Koi can also mean a virtual pet species in Neopets. ...


Some fish will also take advantage of cleaner fish for removal of external parasites. The best known of these are the cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. These small fish maintain so-called "cleaning stations" where other fish, known as hosts, will congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaner fish.[36] Cleaning behaviours have been observed in a number of other fish groups, including an interesting case between two cichlids of the same genus, Etroplus maculatus, the cleaner fish, and the much larger Etroplus suratensis, the host.[37] The cleaner wrasses Labroides dimidiatus removing dead skin and external parasites from the grouper Epinephelus tukula. ...


Importance to humans

Economic importance

Main article: Aquaculture
Main article: Fish (food)
Main article: Fishing
Main article: Fish farming

Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Fish served with vegetables and herbs. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... A demonstration aquaculture facility Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture. ...

Recreation

Main article: Angling
Main article: Fishkeeping
Main article: Sport fishing

Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an angle (hook). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sport fishing is a popular attraction in Cabo San Lucas Sport fishing is a term (often used interchangeably with game fishing) that describes recreational fishing where the primary reward is the challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or financial value of the fishs flesh. ...

Conservation

A Whale shark, the world's largest fish, is classified as Vulnerable.
A Whale shark, the world's largest fish, is classified as Vulnerable.

As of 2006, the IUCN Red List describes 1,173 species of fish as being threatened with extinction.[38] Included on this list are species such as Atlantic cod,[39] Devil's Hole pupfish,[40] coelacanths,[41] and great white sharks.[42] Because fish live underwater they are much more difficult to study than terrestrial animals and plants, and information about fish populations is often lacking. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small areas. For example, the Devil's Hole pupfish occupies only a single 3 m by 6 m pool.[43] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2331x1074, 1144 KB) cropped and adjusted version of IMG 1023. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2331x1074, 1144 KB) cropped and adjusted version of IMG 1023. ... Binomial name (Smith, 1828) Range of whale shark The whale shark, Rhincodon typus, is a slow filter feeding shark that is the largest living fish species. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Binomial name Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758 The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a well-known foodfish belonging to the family Gadidae. ... Binomial name Cyprinodon diabolis Wales, 1930 The Devils Hole pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis, is an endangered species of fish native to Devils Hole, a geothermal (92°F), aquifer-fed pool within a limestone cavern in the Amargosa Desert of Nevada east of Death Valley. ... Families See text. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cyprinodon diabolis Wales, 1930 The Devils Hole pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis, is an endangered species of fish native to Devils Hole, a geothermal (92°F), aquifer-fed pool within a limestone cavern in the Amargosa Desert of Nevada east of Death Valley. ...


Overfishing

In the case of edible fishes such as cod and tuna a major threat is overfishing.[44][45] Where overfishing persists, it eventually causes the collapse of the fish population (known as a "stock") because the population cannot breed fast enough to replace the individuals removed by fishing. One well-studied example of the collapse of a fishery is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the coast of California. From a peak in 1937 of 790,000 tonnes the amount of fish landed steadily declined to a mere 24,000 tonnes in 1968, at which point the fishery stopped as no longer economically viable. Such commercial extinction does not mean that the fish itself goes extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a profitable fishery.[46] The main tension between fisheries science and the fishing industry is the need to balance conservation with preserving the livelihoods of fishermen. In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments have a vested interest in finding a balance between conserving fish stocks while maintaining an economic level of commercial fishing.[47][48] On the other hand, scientists and conservations push for increasingly stringent protection for fish stocks, warning that many stocks could be wiped out within fifty years.[49][50] For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Jenyns, 1842) The South American pilchard, Sardinops sagax, is a sardine of the Family Clupeidae, the only member of the genus Sardinops, found in the indo-Pacific oceans. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Habitat destruction

A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution, the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species.[51] An example of a fish that has become endangered because of habitat change is the pallid sturgeon, a North American freshwater fish that living in rivers that have all been changed by human activity in a variety of different ways.[52] Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... DAMS is a racing team from France, involved in many areas of motorsports. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Binomial name Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905 The Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) is an endangered species of fish that exists in the waters of the Mississippi and Missouri River and numerous tributaries. ...


Exotic species

Introduction of exotic species has occurred in a variety of places and for many different reasons. One of the nest studied (and most severe) examples was the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria. Since the 1960s the Nile perch gradually exterminated the 500 species of cichlid fishes found only in this lake and nowhere else. Some species survive now only in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct.[53] Carp, snakeheads,[54] tilapia, European perch, brown trout, rainbow trout, and sea lampreys are other examples of fish that have caused problems by being introduced into alien environments. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a species of freshwater fish in family Centropomidae of order Perciformes. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Astronotinae Cichlasomatinae Cichlinae Etroplinae Geophaginae Heterochromidinae Paratilapiinae Pseudocrenilabrinae Ptychochrominae Retroculinae For genera, see below. ... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... The name snakehead can refer to Snakehead (gang): a Chinese gang which smuggles people. ... Genera Oreochromis (about 30 species) Sarotherodon (over 10 species) Tilapia (about 40 species) and see text Tilapia is the common name for nearly 100 species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Morphs Salmo trutta morpha trutta Salmo trutta morpha fario Salmo trutta morpha lacustris The brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha fario and morpha lacustris) and the sea trout ( morpha trutta) are fish of the same species. ... It has been suggested that Steelhead be merged into this article or section. ... Subfamilies Geotriinae Mordaciinae Petromyzontinae A lamprey is a type of fish with a toothed, funnel-like, jawless sucking mouth, with which most species bore into the flesh of other fishes to suck their blood. ...


Aquarium collecting

Main article: Fishkeeping#Conservation_and_Science

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Culture

Through the ages, many cultures have featured fish in their legends and myths, from the "great fish" that swallowed Jonah the Prophet through to the half-human, half-fish mermaid around which books and movies have been centred (e.g., Splash). Among the deities said to take the form of a fish are Ika-Roa of the Polynesians, Dagon of various ancient Semitic peoples, and Matsya of the Dravidas of India. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name, but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus. Fish have been used figuratively in many different ways, for example the ichthys used by early Christians to identify themselves through to the fish as a symbol of fertility among Bengalis.[55] Fish have also featured prominently in art and literature, as in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea. Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers, most notably the novel Jaws, which spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale, Snakehead Terror, and Piranha. A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mermaid (disambiguation). ... Splash is a 1984 fantasy film and romantic comedy film directed by Ron Howard and written by Lowell Ganz and Babaloo Mandel. ... In Polynesian mythology, Ika-Roa (the long fish which gave birth to all the stars) was a goddess of the Milky Way and the mother of all the stars. ... Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly of grain and agriculture. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Symbol of Pisces Pisces is an astrological sign, which is not associated with the constellation Pisces. ... For other uses, see Pisces. ... Piscis Austrinus or Piscis Australis (both of which are Latin for Southern Fish) was one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy, and is also one of the 88 modern constellations. ... The ichthys has been used to represent a number of ideas. ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... The Old Man and the Sea is a novella by Ernest Hemingway written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... The thriller is a broad genre of literature, film, and television. ... Peter Bradford Benchley (May 8, 1940 – February 11, 2006) was an American author best known for writing the novel Jaws and co-writing the screenplay for its highly successful film adaptation. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ... Shark Tale is an Academy Award-nominated computer-animated film produced by DreamWorks Animation, and released in 2004. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... For the 1995 remake, see Piranha (1995 film). ...


Terminology

Fish or fishes

Though often used interchangeably, these words actually mean different things. Fish is used either as singular noun or to describe a group of specimens from a single species. Fishes describes a group containing more than one species.[56] Hence, as plurals, these words could be used thus:

  • My aquarium contains three different fishes: guppies, platies, and swordtails.
  • The North Atlantic stock of Gadus morhua is estimated to contain several million fish.

Shoal or school

These squirrelfish are shoaling, not schooling: though swimming as a group, their speed and direction is not synchronised.
These jacks are schooling because their swimming is synchronised.
These jacks are schooling because their swimming is synchronised.

A random assemblage of fishes merely using some localised resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation. A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group. Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction. Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages (see article on swarming, the term used to cover such behaviours in animals).[57] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2090, 1580 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swarm French Frigate Shoals Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2090, 1580 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Swarm French Frigate Shoals Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Genera Corniger Holocentrus Myripristis Neoniphon Ostichthys Plectrypops Pristilepis Sargocentron The Holocentridae is a family of ray-finned fish also known as squirrel or soldierfish. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Any of various fishes—young pike, green pike or pickerel, or large California rockfish. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation...

  • Cichlids congregating at lekking sites form an aggregation.
  • Many minnows and characins form shoals.
  • Classic examples of schooling fish are anchovies, herrings, and silversides.

While school and shoal have different meanings within biology, they are often treated as synonyms by non-specialists, with speakers of British English using "shoal" to describe any grouping of fish, while speakers of American English often using "school" just as loosely. A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...


See also

Fish Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an angle (hook). ... Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Humpback anglerfish Deep sea fish is a term for fish that live below the photic zone of the ocean. ... Fish anatomy is primarily governed by the physical characteristics of water, which is much denser than air, holds a relatively small amount of dissolved oxygen, and absorbs light more than air does. ... Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). ... Fish served with vegetables and herbs. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... This is a list of fish common names. ... This is a list of fish families sorted alphabetically by scientific name. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... An otolith, (oto-, ear + lithos, a stone), also called statoconium[1] or otoconium is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... A mudskipper, a type of walking fish, perched on land. ... Catch and release is a term given to the recreational fishing where releasing the fish (catch) is believed to be a technique of conservation. ...

References

  1. ^ Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2. ISBN 0471250317. 
  2. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p 3, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  3. ^ Tree of life web project - Chordates.
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  6. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, pp 53-57, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  7. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, pp 33-36, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  8. ^ Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors.. Species Summary: Periophthalmus barbarus. FishBase. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
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  22. ^ RE: Do fish and shellfish have pain receptors?.
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  24. ^ Brito, M.F.G.; Bazzoli, N. (2003). "Reproduction of the surubim catfish (Pisces, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco River, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil". Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 55 (5). ISSN: 0102-0935. 
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  38. ^ Table 1: Numbers of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996–2004). Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  39. ^ Gadus morhua. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  40. ^ Cyprinodon diabolis. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  41. ^ Latimeria chalumnae. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  42. ^ Carcharodon carcharias. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
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  44. ^ Call to halt cod 'over-fishing'. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  45. ^ Tuna groups tackle overfishing. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
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  47. ^ UK 'must shield fishing industry'. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  48. ^ EU fish quota deal hammered out. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  49. ^ Ocean study predicts the collapse of all seafood fisheries by 2050. Retrieved on 2006-1-13.
  50. ^ Atlantic bluefin tuna could soon be commercially extinct. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  51. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p 463, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  52. ^ Threatened and Endangered Species: Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus Fact Sheet. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  53. ^ The little fish fight back. Retrieved on 2006-01-18.
  54. ^ Stop That Fish!. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  55. ^ Jaffrey, M.: A Taste of India, Atheneum, p 148, 1988, ISBN 0-689-70726-6
  56. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p 3, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7
  57. ^ Helfman G., Collette B., & Facey D.: The Diversity of Fishes, Blackwell Publishing, p 375, 1997, ISBN 0-86542-256-7

Fishes of the World by Joseph S. Nelson is a standard reference for fish systematics. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Copeia is a quarterly published periodical pertaining to ichthyological and herpetological subjects. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • United Nation - Fisheries and Aquaculture Department: Fish and seafood utilization
  • FishBase online - Comprehensive database with information on over 29,000 fish species
  • ANGFA - Illustrated database of freshwater fishes of Australia and New Guinea
  • Ecology Asia - Photos and facts on freshwater fishes of Southeast Asia
  • Fischinfos.de - Illustrated database of the freshwater fishes of Germany (in German)
  • The Native Fish Conservancy - Conservation and study of North American freshwater fishes
  • University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections - Digital collection of freshwater and marine fish images
  • Fish Olympics - Child-oriented edutainment at the Liverpool Museum

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