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Encyclopedia > First aid
Wikibooks
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First Aid symbol
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First aid is the provision of initial limited care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured patient until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care. It generally consists of series of simple and potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment. First Aid hates seeing any machine in pain, even an overheated car. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Sign_first_aid. ... Image File history File links Sign_first_aid. ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Look up Layman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline, clinical protocol or clinical practice guideline) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria in specific areas of healthcare, as defined by an authoritative examination of current evidence (evidence-based medicine). ...


While first aid can also be performed on animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients.

Contents

History

The earliest instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries.[1] The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the dark ages, and organised societies were not seen again until in 1859 Henry Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field".[1] This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organisation joined them, with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of 'first treatment' and 'national aid'[1]) in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire through organisations such as St John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways.[2] The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Victor Emmanuel II Franz Joseph Strength 118,600 about 100,000 Casualties 2,492 dead 12,512 wounded 2,922 captured or missing 3,000 dead 10,807 wounded 8,638 captured or missing The Battle of Solferino, also... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Red Cross redirects here. ... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of the American Civil War, which prompted Clara Barton to organize the American Red Cross.[3] Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military and the Scouting movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make today’s first aid simple and effective. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Clarissa Harlowe Barton (December 25, 1821 – April 12, 1912) was a pioneer American teacher, nurse, and humanitarian. ... A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. ... This article is about the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts/Girl Guides organizations. ...


Aims

Two international organizations, the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, as well as numerous smaller organizations, determine what constitutes "first aid". However, the concepts of preserving life, preventing further injury, and promoting recovery are generally accepted. First aid training often incorporates the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, as well. The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ...


Training

First aid scenario training in progress
First aid scenario training in progress

Much of first aid is common sense. Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As with any training, it is more useful if it occurs before an actual emergency, and in many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers may give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ... CPR redirects here. ... Look up emergency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Training is generally provided by attending a course, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, based on updated clinical knowledge, and to maintain skill, attendance at regular refresher courses or re-certification is often necessary. First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, or through commercial providers, who will train people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programmes. The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ...


Key First Aid Skills

In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.
In case of tongue fallen backwards, blocking the airway, it is necessary to hyperextend the head and pull up the chin, so that the tongue lifts and clears the airway.

Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly, the "ABC"s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic is used by all emergency health professionals. Attention must first by brought to the airway to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking) is a life-threatening emergency. Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary. Assessment of circulation, typically by checking a carotid or radial pulse determines the need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and completes the initial evaluation. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Emergency Medicine is a speciality of medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... // Definition Rescue Breathing is a First Aid protocol which refers to the delivery of air from a person into a patient who has stopped breathing but continues to have a pulse. ... The word circulation can mean the following: The transport of blood through the circulatory system. ... In human anatomy, the carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ... In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm. ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... CPR redirects here. ...


Some organizations add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly bleeding or Defibrillation, while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. Once the ABCs are secured, first aiders can begin additional treatments, as required. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the "3 Bs": Breathing, Bleeding, and Bones. While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially, certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. This includes the provision of both artificial respiration and chest compressions to someone who is not breathing and has no pulse, and the consideration of cervical spine injuries when ensuring an open airway. For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid Artificial respiration is a technique for providing air for a person who is not breathing on their own, but whose heart is still beating. ... CPR redirects here. ... A cervical vertebra Cervical vertebrae (Vertebrae cervicales) are the smallest of the true vertebrae, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process. ...


Preserving Life

As the key skill to first aid is preserving life, the single most important training a first aider can receive is in the primary diagnosis and care of an unconscious or unresponsive patient. The most common mnemonic used to remember the procedure for this is ABC, which stands for Airway, Breathing and Circulation. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid ABC (and extensions of this acronym) is a mnemonic for memorizing essential steps in dealing with an unconscious or unresponsive patient. ... The airways are those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, to get from the external environment to the alveoli. ... Breathing transports oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. ... The word circulation can mean the following: The transport of blood through the circulatory system. ...


In order to preserve life, all persons require to have an open airway - a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which autonomously controls in normal situations may not be functioning. For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ...


If an unconscious patient is lying on his or her back, the tongue may fall backward, obstructing the oropharynx (sometimes incorrectly called “swallowing” the tongue). This can be easily rectified by a first aider tipping the head backwards, which mechanically lifts the tongue clear.[4]


If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents. A form of the recovery position. ...


The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘abdominal thrusts’. For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. ...


Once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing, the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body. Agonal respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by shallow, slow (3-4 per minute), irregular inspirations followed by irregular pauses. ...


Promoting Recovery

The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts, grazes or broken bones. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance) arrives. A wound is a physical trauma where the skin is torn, cut or punctured. ... Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... Broken Bones is a hardcore punk and crossover thrash band with a distinct sound that is heavily influenced by heavy metal as much as it is by other UK82 punk bands such as Discharge. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ...


First Aid symbols

For more details on this topic, see Emblems of the Red Cross#Use of the emblems.

Although commonly associated with first aid, the symbol of a red cross is an official protective symbol of the Red Cross. According to the Geneva Conventions and other international law, the use of this and similar symbols is reserved for official agencies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent, and as a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. Use by any other person or organization is illegal, and may lead to prosecution. The symbols of the Movement - The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems at the museum in Geneva. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Original document. ... Red Cross redirects here. ...


The internationally accepted symbol for first aid is the white cross on a green background shown at the start of the page.


Some organizations may make use the Star of Life, although this is usually reserved for use by Ambulance services, or symbols such as the Maltese Cross such as the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps and St John Ambulance, or other symbols. The Star of Life The Star of Life is a blue, six-pointed star, outlined with a white border which features the Rod of Asclepius in the center, originally designed and governed by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) (under the United States Department of Transportation, DOT). ... This article is about the symbol. ... Logo of OMAC The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps (OMAC) is a charitable voluntary organisation in Ireland. ... St. ...

First Aid training around the world

Australia

In Australia, Nationally recognized First Aid certificates may only be issued by Registered training organisations who are accredited on the National Training Information System (NTIS). Most First Aid certificates are issued at one of 3 levels: In Australia, particularly in vocational education, a registered training organisation (RTO) is an organisation that provides students with training that results in qualifications and statements of attainment that are recognised and accepted by industry and other educational institutions throughout Australia. ...

  • Level 1 (or “Basic First Aid”, or “Basic Life Support”): is a 1-day course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR, bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.
  • Level 2 (“Senior First Aid”) is a 2 day course that covers all the aspects of training in Level 1, as well as specialized training for treatment of burns, bites, stings, electric shock and poisons. Level 2 reaccreditation is a 1 day course which must be taken every 3 years.
  • Level 3 (“Occupational First Aid”) is a 4-day course covering advanced first aid, use of oxygen and Automated external defibrillators and documentation. It is suitable for workplace First Aiders and those who manage First Aid facilities.

Other courses outside these levels are commonly taught, including CPR-only courses, Advanced Resuscitation, Remote Area or Wilderness First Aid, Administering Medications (such as salbutamol or the Epi-Pen) and specialized courses for parents, school teachers, community first responders or hazardous workplace first aiders. For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. Salbutamol sulphate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. ... A 0. ...


Canada

In Canada, first aid certificates are awarded by one of several organizations including the Red Cross, the Lifesaving Society, St. John Ambulance, the Heart and Stroke Foundation, and Ski Patrol. Workplace safety regulations vary depending on occupation. Many workplaces opt to have their employees trained in Standard First Aid (see below). The Canadian Red Cross Society is a Canadian humanitarian charitable organization. ... The Royal Life Saving Society of Canada, known as the Life Saving Society, is the governing body for lifesaving and lifeguarding in Canada. ... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ... The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada is a registered Canadian charity. ... The Canadian Ski Patrol System (CSPS) is an organization made up of over 5000 (as of 2005) volunteer and paid alpine skiers, telemark skiers, snow boarders, and nordic skiers that provides safety and rescue services. ...

  • Emergency First Aid: is an 8-hour course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR, bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.
  • Standard First Aid: is a 16-hour course that covers the same material as Emergency First Aid and will include training for some, but not all, of the following: breaks; burns; poisons, bites and stings; eye injuries; head and neck injuries; chest injuries; wound care; emergency child birth; and multiple casualty management.
  • Medical First Responder (BTLS - known by different names among different Canadian organizations): is a 40 hour course. It requires Standard First Aid certification as a prerequisite. Candidates are trained in the use of oxygen, Automated external defibrillators, airway management, and the use of additional emergency equipment.

CPR certification in Canada is broken into several levels. Depending on the level, the lay person will learn CPR and choking procedures for adults, children, and infants. For other meanings of CPR, see CPR (disambiguation). ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application...


CPR H.C.P. (Health Care Professional) also provides training on artificial respiration, the use of bag valve masks, and suction. This level of qualification is usually not offered to the general public.


Ireland

In Ireland, the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. The Health and Safety Authority issue the standards for first aid at work and hold a register of qualified instructors, examiners and organisations that can provide the course. The certificate is awarded after a three day course and is valid for three years from date of issue. Organisations offering the certificate include, Irelands largest first aid organization, the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps, the St John Ambulance Brigade, and the Irish Red Cross. The Irish Red Cross also provides a Practical First Aid Course aimed at the general public dealing primarily with family members getting injured. Many other (purely commercially run) organisations offer training. Logo of OMAC The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps (OMAC) is a charitable voluntary organisation in Ireland. ... Logo of SJAB The St. ... The Irish Red Cross (Irish: Crois Dhearg na hÉireann) is the national Red Cross society in the Republic of Ireland. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, there are two main types of first aid courses offered. An “Emergency Aid for Appointed Persons” course typically lasts one day, and covers the basics, focusing on critical interventions for conditions such as cardiac arrest and severe bleeding, and is usually not formally assessed. A “First Aid at Work” course is usually a four-day course (two days for a re-qualification) that covers the full spectrum of first aid, and is formally assessed by recognized Health and Safety Executive assessors. Certificates for the “First Aid at Work” course are issued by the training organization and are valid for a period of three years from the date the delegate passes the course. Other courses offered by training organizations such as St. John Ambulance, St. Andrew’s Ambulance Association or the British Red Cross include Baby & Child Courses, manual handling, people moving, and courses geared towards more advanced life support, such as defibrillation and administration of medical gases such as oxygen & entonox). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ... St Andrews Ambulance Association is charity based in Scotland with a focus on first aid. ... The British Red Cross Society is a prominent part of the largest impartial humanitarian organisation in the world – the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... Entonox, referred to colloquially as gas and air, is an analgesic used to ease pain during labour, trauma and minor surgical procedures. ...


Specific first aid disciplines

There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.

  • Aquatic/Marine first aid - Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards or in diver rescue, and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue.
  • Battlefield first aid - This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict.
  • Hyperbaric first aid - Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends.
  • Oxygen first aid - Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia.
  • Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.

For the British Army regiment see the Life Guards A lifeguard in the most general sense of the word is an emergency service worker, who is a qualified strong swimmer, trained and certified in water rescue and first aid, who is responsible for overseeing the safety of users of a... Beaching a casualty while providing artificial respiration Diver rescue, following an accident, is the process of avoiding or limiting further exposure to diving hazards and bringing a SCUBA diver to safety. ... An illustration showing a variety of wounds from the Feldbuch der Wundarznei (Field manual for the treatment of wounds) by Hans von Gersdorff, (1517). ... Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalised hypoxia) or region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. ... Wilderness first aid is the specific discipline of First aid which relates to care in remote areas, where emergency medical services will be difficult to obtain or will take a long time to arrive. ...

Conditions that often require first aid

Also see medical emergency. {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ...

  • Altitude sickness, which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs.
  • Anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine.
  • Battlefield First aid - This protocol refers to treating shrapnel, gunshot wounds, burns, bone fractures, etc. as seen either in the ‘traditional’ battlefield setting or in an area subject to damage by large scale weaponry, such as a bomb blast or other terrorist activity.
  • Bone fracture, a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint.
  • Burns, which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site.
  • Choking, blockage of the airway which can quickly result in death due to lack of oxygen if the patient’s trachea is not cleared, for example by the Heimlich Maneuver.
  • Childbirth.
  • Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused either by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt.
  • Joint dislocation.
  • Diving disorders resulting from too much pressure.
  • Near drowning or asphyxiation.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Gender-specific conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and testicular torsion.
  • Heart attack, or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
  • Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia, which tends to occur during heavy exercise in high humidity, or with inadequate water, though it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been unconscious, often causes major damage to body systems such as brain, kidney, liver, gastric tract. Unconsciousness for more than two hours usually leads to permanent disability. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient.
  • Heat syncope, another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities.
  • Heavy bleeding, treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible.
  • Hyperglycemia, or diabetic coma.
  • Hypoglycemia, or insulin shock.
  • Hypothermia, or Exposure, occurs when a person’s core body temperature falls below 33.7°C (92.6°F). First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming, but rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia, an irregular heart rhythm.
  • Insect and animal bites and stings.
  • Muscle strain.
  • Poisoning, which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.
  • Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. Three types of seizures include a grand mal (which usually features convulsions as well as temporary respiratory abnormalities, change in skin complexion, etc) and petit mal (which usually features twitching, rapid blinking, and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness and temporary respiratory abnormalities).
  • Sprain, a temporary dislocation of a joint that immediately reduces automatically but may result in ligament damage.
  • Stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain.
  • Sucking chest wound, a life threatening hole in the chest which can cause the chest cavity to fill with air and prevent the lung from filling, treated by covering with an occlusive dressing to let air out but not in.
  • Toothache, which can result in severe pain and loss of the tooth but is rarely life threatening.
  • Wounds and bleeding, including laceration, incision and abrasion, and avulsion.

Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), altitude illness, or soroche, is a pathological condition that is caused by acute exposure to low air pressure (usually outdoors at high altitudes). ... Cerebral edema is swelling of the brain which can occur as the result of a head injury, cardiac arrest or from the lack of proper altitude acclimatization. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone has cracked or broken. ... A splint is a medical device for the immobilization of limbs or of the spine. ... For other uses, see Burn. ... For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The Heimlich maneuver The Heimlich maneuver, also known as abdominal thrusts, is a first aid procedure for clearing an obstructed airway. ... Parturition redirects here. ... This article is about muscular pain. ... Dislocated left index finger Lateral X-ray of left index finger dislocation Joint dislocation (Latin: luxatio) [1] occurs when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned. ... Divers face specific physical and health risks when they go underwater (e. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Gastrointestinal bleeding describes every form of hemorrhage (blood loss) in the gastrointestinal tract, from the pharynx to the rectum. ... Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation. ... In testicular torsion the spermatic cord that provides the blood supply to a testicle is twisted, cutting off the blood supply, often causing orchalgia. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Hyperthermia in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Heat syncope another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemia, or high blood sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes mellitus is comatose (unconscious) because of one of three acute complications of diabetes: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Advanced diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... A small boy biting an older boy. ... A strain is an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical condition. ... A sprain (from the French espraindre - to wring) is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by a sudden overstretching (for the muscle injury, see strain). ... In materials science, a dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. ... This article is about a joint in zootomical anatomy. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ... An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma dressing used in first aid. ... A toothache, also known as odontalgia or, less frequently, as odontalgy, is an aching pain in or around a tooth. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... For other uses, see Bleeding (disambiguation). ... Definition A cut is an injury that results in a break or opening in the skin. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... the loss or seperation of a bodypart. ...

See also

For choking meaning compression of the neck, see Strangling. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of First Aid Artificial respiration is a technique for providing air for a person who is not breathing on their own, but whose heart is still beating. ... CPR redirects here. ... An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma dressing used in first aid. ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen first aid or oxygen administration is a first aid treatment for many medical emergencies involving the organs of respiration and circulation such as heart attack, drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, decompression illness, lung barotrauma and gas embolism. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ... A tourniquet can be defined as a constricting or compressing device used to control venous and arterial circulation to an extremity for a period of time. ... A form of the recovery position. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c First Aid: From Witchdoctors & Religious Knights to Modern Doctors, retrieved December 10, 2006.
  2. ^ Industrial Revolution: St. John Ambulance, retrieved December 10, 2006.
  3. ^ American Red Cross -- Museum, retrieved December 10, 2006.
  4. ^ St. John Ambulance (2006). First Aid Training:First on the Scene. Student Reference Guide Activity book. St. John Ambulance. page 23-7. ISBN 1-894070-56-9

is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ...

External links

Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Emergency Medicine is a speciality of medicine that focuses on diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses and injuries that require immediate medical attention. ... Advanced cardiac life support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions. ... Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ... Basic life support (BLS) is a specific level of prehospital medical care provided by trained responders, including emergency medical technicians, in the absence of advanced medical care. ... CPR redirects here. ... Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) is a system of Advanced Life Support applied to infants and children. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A disposable BVM Resuscitator A bag valve mask (also known as a BVM or Ambu bag) is a hand-held device used to provide ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of the bone. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... In medicine, a nasopharyngeal airway, also known as a nasal trumpet because of its flared end, is a tube that is designed to be inserted into the nasal passageway to secure an open airway. ... An oropharyngeal airway inserted into a mans throat An oropharyngeal airway or (OPA) is a medical device used to maintain a patent (open) airway. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognized symbol for Emergency medical services. ... An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agent. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... In emergency medicine the golden hour is the first sixty minutes after the occurrence of multi-system trauma. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ... Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...

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Although commonly associated with first aid, the symbol of a red cross is an official symbol of the Red Cross.
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