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Encyclopedia > First Opium War
First Opium War
Part of the Opium Wars

Date 1839-1842
Location China
Casus
belli
Various economic and political disputes
Result Decisive British victory; Treaty of Nanjing
Territorial
changes
Hong Kong ceded to United Kingdom
Combatants
Qing China British East India Company
Commanders
Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham

The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British opium. It is often seen as the beginning of European imperial hegemony toward China. The conflict began a long history of Chinese suspicion of Western society, which still lingers today in East Asia. Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1858-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and... The Nemesis destroys a Chinese ship during the Opium War. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Signing of the Treaty of Nanjing The Treaty of Nanking (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and Empire of China. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Daoguang Emperor (September 16, 1782 – February 25, 1850) was the seventh emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. ... Charles Elliot, also Charles Elliott (義律, b. ... General Sir Anthony Blaxland Stransham, GCB, (d. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...

Contents

Background

During the 19th century, trading in goods from China was extremely lucrative for Europeans and Chinese merchants alike. Due to the Qing Dynasty's trade restrictions, whereby international trade was only allowed to take place in Canton (Guangzhou) conducted by imperially sanctioned monopolies, it became uneconomic to trade in low-value manufactured consumer products that the average Chinese could buy from the British like the Indians did. Instead, the Sino-British trade became dominated by high-value luxury items such as tea (from China to Britain) and silver (from Britain to China), to the extent that European specie metals became widely used in China. Britain had been on the gold standard since the 18th century, so it had to purchase silver from continental Europe to supply the Chinese appetite for silver, which was a costly process at a time before demonetization of silver by Germany in the 1870s. In casting about for other possible commodities, the British soon discovered opium, and production of the commodity was subsidized in British India. Between 1821 and 1837 imports of the drug to China increased five-fold, as the demand for the equalizing of the trade balance reversed a previous decision by the British authorities to respect the Qing government ban on the drug, dating from 1729. British importation of opium in large amounts began in 1781. The drug was produced in India under a British government monopoly (Bengal) and in the Princely states (Malwa) and was sold on the condition that it be shipped by British traders to China. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An example of Chinese export porcelain. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. ... The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Events July 30 - Baltimore, Maryland is founded. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ...

Image File history File links Hkhistory. ...

History of Hong Kong
Timeline

    Prehistoric
    Imperial (221 BC - 1800s)
    Colonial (1800s - 1930s)
    Occupied (1940s)
    Modern Hong Kong (1950s - 1997)
        1950s | 60s | 70s | 80s | 90s
        Handover to PRC rule
    At present
The History of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of Hong Kong: See also History of Hong Kong Categories: Articles to be expanded ... In the prehistory of Hong Kong, according to archaeological studies and many other resources, human activity in Hong Kong dates back over five millennia. ... The History of Hong Kong in Imperial China began in 214 BC under the Qin Dynasty. ... The Colonial Hong Kong period began in the 19th century when the British, Dutch, French, Indians and Americans saw China as the worlds largest untapped market. ... The Japanese prostitutes of Hong Kong began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting. ... The History of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... 1950s in Hong Kong began after the Japanese rule ended in 1945 with sovereignty returning to the British. ... Hong Kongs development in the 1960s are most notably at industries. ... In the 1970s, Hong Kong underwent many changes that were to shape the future of the city. ... [[1980s injkfsld;js;dlkjgfksldjg s;djfsa;ljfsaljfawsde recognized internationally for its politics, entertainment and skyrocketing real estate prices. ... The 1990s in Hong Kong was defined by the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, a statement that paved the way for a series of changes that would facilitate the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, often referred to as The Handover, occurred on July 1, 1997. ... 2000s in Hong Kong began a new millennium under the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

   Aviation history
   Bus history
   Technical standards
Seven years after the first flight of a heavier-than-air controlled aeroplane in 1903, planes were already flying in Hong Kong. ... Collection of KMB bus models, from past to present. ... This article gives readers an insight on how the British colonial rule affected the technical standards in Hong Kong. ...

History of China
History of the UK
The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Other Hong Kong topics
Culture - Economy
Education - Geography - Politics
Hong Kong Portal

Alarmed by the reverse in silver flow and the epidemic of addiction (an estimated 2 million Chinese were habitual users[1]), the Qing government attempted to end the opium trade. The effort was initially claimed to be successful, with the official in charge of the effort Lin Zexu, who wrote a "memorial" (摺奏)[1] to the Queen of Great Britain in an unsuccessful attempt to stop this illegal trade, which had poisoned thousands of Chinese civilians (the memorial was given to Charles Elliott who refused to forward it to her majesty). In one isolated incident, in 1818, the Laurel carried word to Sydney of a US ship laden with Opium and treasure which was invaded by Chinese pirates. The crew of the US vessel had all been killed, but for the escaping first mate, who later identified the pirates to the authorities. Lin Zexu eventually forced the British Chief Superintendent of Trade in China, Charles Elliott to hand over all remaining stocks of opium (20,000 chests[2], each holding about 120 pounds[3]) for destruction in May 1839. Chinese people in Hong Kong have adopted many western folkways, but a substantial number of them still adhere to traditional Chinese traditions on various aspects of social living; for instance family solidarity, “courtesy and face” in interpersonal relationship. ... Other Hong Kong topics Culture - Economy Education - Geography - History Hong Kong Portal Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... Charles Elliot, also Charles Elliott (義律, b. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


However, in July 1839 rioting British sailors destroyed a temple near Kowloon and murdered a Chinese man Jin how, who tried to stop them. Because China did not have a jury trial system or evidentiary process (the magistrate was the prosecutor, judge, jury and would-be executioner), the British government and community in China wanted "extraterritoriality", which meant that British subjects would only be tried by British judges. When the Qing authorities demanded the men be handed over for trial, the British refused. Six sailors were tried by the British authorities in Guangzhou (Canton), but they were immediately released after they reached England. Charles Elliott's authority is in dispute; the British government later claimed that without authority from the Qing government he had no legal right to try anyone, although according to the British Act of Parliament that gave him authoity over British merchants and sailors, 'he was expressly appointed to preside over ' Court of Justice with Criminal an Admiralty Jurisdiction for the trial of offenses committed by His Majesty's subjects in the said Dominions or on the high sea within a hundred miles of the coast of China'".2 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In modern day Hong Kong, Kowloon refers to the urban area made up of Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon, bordered by the Lei Yue Mun strait in the east, Mei Foo Sun Chuen and Stonecutters Island in the west, Tates Cairn and Lion Rock in the north, and... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Qing authorities also insisted that British merchants not be allowed to trade unless they signed a bond, under penalty of death, promising not to smuggle opium, agreeing to follow Chinese laws, and acknowledging Qing legal jurisdiction. Refusing to hand over any suspects or agree to the bonds, Charles Elliot ordered the British community to withdraw from Guangzhou and prohibited trade with the Chinese. Some merchants who didn't deal in opium were willing to sign the bond, thereby weakening the British trading position. Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


War

Preparing for war, the British seized Hong Kong (then a minor outpost) as a base on August 23, 1839. In late October the Thomas Coutts arrived in China and sailed to Guangzhou. This ship was owned by Quakers who refused to deal in opium, and its captain, Smith, believed Elliot had exceeded his legal authority by banning trade. The captain negotiated with the governor of Canton and hoped that all British ships could unload their goods at Chuenpeh, an island near Humen. In order to prevent other British ships from following the Thomas Coutts, Elliot ordered a blockade of the Pearl River (China). Fighting began on November 3, 1839, when a second British ship, the Royal Saxon, attempted to sail to Guangzhou. Then the Volage and Hyacinth fired a warning shot at the Royal Saxon. The official Qing navy's report claimed that the navy attempted to protect the British merchant vessel and also reported a great victory for that day. Elliot reports that they were protecting their 29 ships in Chuenpeh between the Qing batteries. Elliot knew that Chinese would reject any contacts with British and there would be an attack with fire boats. Elliot ordered all ships to leave Chuenpeh and head for Tung Lo Wan, 20 miles from Macau, but the merchants liked to harbour in Hong Kong. In reality, they were out-classed by the Royal Naval vessels and many Chinese ships were sunk. In 1840 Elliot asked the Portuguese governor in Macau to let British ships loading and unloading their goods at Macau and they would pay rents and any duties. The governor refused for fear that the Qing Government would discontinue to supply foods and other necessities to Macau. On January 14, 1840, the Qing Emperor asked all foreigners in China to stop helping British in China. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Humen is a town within the Dongguan prefecture-level city in the Pearl River Delta, in the Guangdong Province of southern China. ... Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (珠江 Pinyin: Zhū Jiāng), or Pearl River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In retaliation, the British Government and British East India Company had reached a conclusion that they would attack Canton. The military cost would be paid by the British Government. In June 1840, an expeditionary force of 15 barracks ships, 4 steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats with 4000 marines reached Kwangtung from Singapore. The marines were headed by James Bremer. Bremer demanded the Qing Government compensate the British for losses suffered from interrupted trade. The Qing Government refused and the British attacked. The mouth of the Pearl River was heavily defended under Commissioner Lin so the British fleet went northward to Xiamen. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants Great Britain China Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Canton was fought on May 24, 1841 between Great Britain and China. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sir James John Gordon Bremer (September 26, 1786 - February 14, 1850) was rear-admiral in the British Royal Navy. ...


The next year, 1841, the British captured the Bogue forts which guarded the mouth of the Pearl River — the waterway between Hong Kong and Guangzhou. By January 1841, British forces commanded the high ground around Guangzhou and defeated the Chinese at Ningbo and at the military post of Chinghai. Pearl River in Guangzhou Pearl River at night, Guangzhou The Zhu Jiang, (珠江 Pinyin: ZhÅ« Jiāng), or Pearl River, is Chinas third longest river (2,200 km, after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River), and second largest by volume (after the Yangtze). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 1,219,900 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: Qīnghǎi; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ...


By the middle of 1842, the British had defeated the Chinese at the mouth of their other great riverine trade route, the Yangtze, and were occupying Shanghai. The Qing government proved incapable of dealing with Western Powers on an equal basis, either politically or militarily. The First Opium War signalled the beginning of the end of the Manchu monopoly on the human resources of China, marking the beginning of modern Chinese history. The war finally ended in August 1842, with the signing of China's first Unequal Treaty, the Treaty of Nanjing. Gen. Sir Anthony Blaxland Stransham led the Royal Marines during the Opium War as a young officer, and as the 'Grand Old Man of the Army', was awarded two knighthoods by Queen Victoria. 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, ì—´ê°•) during the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Signing of the Treaty of Nanjing The Treaty of Nanking (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and Empire of China. ... General Sir Anthony Blaxland Stransham (d. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ...


Settlement

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanjing committed the Qing government to nominal tariffs on British goods as well as granted the right of extraterritoriality. Hong Kong Island was ceded to the UK, and the Treaty Ports of Guangzhou, Xiamen (Amoy), Fuzhou (Foochow), Shanghai, and Ningbo were opened to all traders. The Qing government was forced to pay reparations for the British opium and war costs. There was also a most-favoured nation clause, stating that Britain would automatically be entitled to any rights the Qing government granted to another nation. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Signing of the Treaty of Nanjing The Treaty of Nanking (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and Empire of China. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ... The night view of the Island side as seen from the Kowloon side - the opposite side of the Victoria Harbour Hong Kong Island (Traditional Chinese: 香港島; Simplified Chinese: 香港岛; Cantonese Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 dou2; Mandarin Pinyin: XiānggÇŽngdÇŽo) is the island where the colonial settlement of the Hong Kong territory... Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the so-called Unequal Treaties, i. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A view of the Xiamen University campus Xiamen (Simplified Chinese: 厦门; Traditional Chinese: 廈門; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a coastal sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chou; BUC: Hók-ciÅ­; EFEO: Fou-Tcheou; also seen as Foochow or Fuchow) is the capital and the largest prefecture-level city of Fujian (福建) province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 1,219,900 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Most favoured nation (or most favored nation, MFN) is a term used in international trade. ...

Legacy of the War

The ease with which the British East India Company's forces had defeated the Chinese armies seriously affected the Qing Dynasty's prestige. This almost certainly contributed to the Taiping Rebellion (18501864). The success of the First Opium War allowed the British to resume the opium trade with China. It also paved the way for the opening of the lucrative Chinese market and Chinese society to missionary endeavors. The First Opium War was a war that some Chinese political historians feel was initiated by the British in order to make a great profit from the trade of opium. The British government still refuses to apologize to China; rather, this kind of invasion was encouraged by Queen Victoria in the following conflicts in China and the rest of Asia. Such teachings remain a major factor in Asian resentment toward Western countries today. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ...


See also

Lin Zexu Lin Zexu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (August 30, 1785 - November 22, 1850) was a Chinese scholar and official during the Qing dynasty. ... David Sassoon (1792-1864) was a philanthropist and a prominent Bombay businessman. ... Anglo-Chinese relations (Traditional Chinese: 中英關係; Simplified Chinese: 中英关系; Hanyu Pinyin: ), also known as Sino-British relations, refers to the interstate relations between China and the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Qing China United Kingdom French Empire Commanders Unknown Michael Seymour James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros The Second Opium War or Arrow War was a war of the United Kingdom and France against the Qing Dynasty of China from 1856 to 1860. ... William Jardine Dr. William Jardine (1784-1843) was a ship surgeon who went into the opium trading business in China, where he became a powerful merchant and was instrumental in starting the First Opium War. ... General Sir Anthony Blaxland Stransham, GCB, (d. ... William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier (1786 - October 11, 1834) was a Royal Navy officer, politician and diplomat. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The History of Hong Kong began as a coastal island geographically located in southern China. ... British military history is a long and varied topic, extending from the prehistoric and ancient historic period, through the Roman invasions of Julius Cæsar and Claudius and subsequent Roman occupation; warfare in the Mediaeval period, including the invasions of the Saxons and the Vikings in the Early Middle Ages... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Treaty ports were port cities in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the so-called Unequal Treaties, i. ... This article is about the Forbes family related to US Senator John Kerry. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or the Anglo-Chinese Wars were two wars fought around the middle of the 19th century (1839-1842 and 1858-1860 respectively)[1] that were the climax of a long dispute between China and...

References

  1. ^ Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839. From Chinese Repository, Vol. 8 (February 1840), pp. 497-503; reprinted in William H. McNeil and Mitsuko Iriye, eds., Modern Asia and Africa, Readings in World History Vol. 9, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), pp. 111-118. The text has been modernized by Prof. Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. This text is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook.

2Hanes, W. Travis III, Ph.D. and Frank Sanello, 'The Opium Wars; the Addiction of One Empire and the Corruption of Another',New York: Barnes & Noble, 2002. Jerome S. Arkenberg is a History Professor at McHenry County College, the contributing editor for Internet History Sourcebooks Project, and the author of entries in readers guides, dictionaries and specialist encyclopedias. ... The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies and is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
China: The First Opium War (1840-42) (445 words)
Quite apart from the physical dangers to native Chinese of opium smoking, there was, particularly since 1830 or thereabouts, the considerable economic damage caused by the drainage of cash silver from the country to pay for the illegal imports.
Thus was set in train the series of events that led to the opium war between China and Britain.
And it is specially to be understood that proof of British property and value of all British owned opium, surrendered to me agreeable to this notice, shall be determined upon principles, and in a manner hereafter to be defined by Her Majesty's Government.
Opium Wars - MSN Encarta (1144 words)
The wars are so named because they centered on the trade of opium, a powerful narcotic that British merchants were smuggling into China in vast quantities.
The importation and cultivation of opium were outlawed in China in 1796, reflecting the inroads that Indian opium had made there, but the ban was ineffective.
The breakup of the EEIC monopoly was the immediate cause of the First Opium War, both because it led to a huge increase in opium traffic and because, without the EEIC to serve as a buffer, the British government now found itself obliged to intervene more frequently in China.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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