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Encyclopedia > First Nations of Canada

First Nations is a common title used in Canada to describe the various societies of indigenous peoples of North America located in what is now Canada, who are not of Inuit or Métis descent. The proper term for all three groups collectively is Aboriginal peoples in Canada or First Peoples. The First Nations of Canada are represented by the Assembly of First Nations. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of article quality. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ... Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French: or ) are one of three recognized Canadian aboriginal groups whose homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories. ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a collective name for the original inhabitants of the region of North America that is now Canada, and their descendants. ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of aboriginal leaders in Canada. ...


They have also been known as Indians, Native Americans, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amerindians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which defines the status of First Nations, and in the Indian Register, the official record of members of First Nations. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ...


The First Nations people of Canada are made up of four main groups, excluding the Inuit and Métis. Each of these main groups contain many tribes, each of which have adapted to their environments which were all slightly different. The four main groups are subdivided by the following geographic areas: Inuit woman Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, SAMPA: [meti], in French: [metis] or, [mEtIs]) are an ethnic group of the Canadian prairies and Ontario. ...

  • The Pacific coast and mountains.
  • The Plains.
  • The St. Lawrence valley.
  • The North-East Woodlands (broad region, encompassing the woods near the Atlantic/maritimes to the tree-line in the Arctic).

The term is also used to designate bands of aboriginal people for whom reserves have been provided under the Canadian Indian Act. A representative body for Canadian First Nations is the Assembly of First Nations. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Saint Lawrence River (French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of aboriginal leaders in Canada. ...


The use of the word "Indian" in day-to-day language is erratic in Canada, with some seeing the term as offensive while some aboriginal people prefer it to alternate terminology such as "aboriginal."

Contents

Pacific Coast peoples

Among the largest tribes are the Haida, Nuu-chah-nulth, and Salish. These people traditionally ate fish, primarily salmon and silvery eulachon from the ocean, as well as fish from lakes and rivers, and roots and berries. They made use of the forests of the Pacific to build dug-out canoes, and houses made of evenly-split planks of wood. They used tools made of stone and wood. The native peoples of the Pacific coast also made totem poles, a trait attributed to other tribes as well. Haida Copper Shield The Haida are the Indigenous Peoples of the west coast of North America. ... The Nootka or Nuu-Chah-Nulth people are indigenous peoples of Canada. ... The Coast Salish are a Salishan-speaking First Nations/Native American culture that inhabited an area centered in southwestern British Columbia in Canada and western Washington in the United States for several millennia up to the time of arrival of the Europeans in the 19th century. ... The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow up to 58 long and 126 pounds. ... The candlefish, also eulachon or hooligan, is a small ocean fish, Thaleichthys pacificus, a smelt found along the northern Pacific coast of North America from Oregon to Alaska. ... Canoe at El Nido, Philippines A canoe is a relatively small human-powered boat. ... Totem poles are monumental sculptures carved from great trees, typically Western Redcedar, by a number of Native American cultures along the Pacific northwest coast of North America. ...


Plains Indians

The plains include primarily the Sioux, Blackfoot, the Plains-Cree, and the Plains-Ojibwa. These people traditionally used tipis covered with skins as their homes. Their main sustenance was the buffalo, which they used as food, and for all their garments. Tribal leaders often wore large headdresses made of feathers, something which is wrongfully attributed to all first nations peoples. Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... Blackfoot is a name applied to four Native American groups in the northwestern plains. ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ...


First Nations of the St. Lawrence

The largest group near the St. Lawrence waterway are the Iroquois. They included the Huron peoples of central Ontario and the League of Five Nations who lived in the United States, south of Lake Ontario. The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... This article is about the First Nations people, the Wyandot, also known as the Huron. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


First Nations of the North-East Woodlands

These include the Algonquins, Mi'kmaqs in the Maritimes, the Innu in Quebec, and the Cree and Ojibwa in northern Ontario and Manitoba. This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Mikmaq (also Míkmaq, Micmac, Migmaw; in Quebec, Migmaq) are a Canadian First Nations people indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Maritimes, and the Gaspé Peninsula of the province of Quebec. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces is a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula in Eastern Canada. ... ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... One Called From A Distance (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, 1894 The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) are the third-largest group of Native Americans in the United States, surpassed only by Cherokee and Navajo. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th)  - Land 553,556 km²  - Water 64,241 km² (14. ...


List of First Nations groups

This is a list of Canada's First Nations.


Pacific Coast

The Coast Salish are a Salishan-speaking First Nations/Native American culture that inhabited an area centered in southwestern British Columbia in Canada and western Washington in the United States for several millennia up to the time of arrival of the Europeans in the 19th century. ... The Shishalh (Sechelt) people, at the time of the first European contact had a population near 26,000. ... The District of Sechelt is centrally located on the Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. ... Snuneymuxw First Nation is a band of Coast Salish people who have lived along the eastern coast of south-central Vancouver Island for 5,000 years. ... Nanaimo (2004 pop. ... Categories: Stub | British Columbia communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... Tsawwassen is a neighbourhood in the southwestern part of the Corporation of Delta. ... Sooke is an incorporated community situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, Canada. ... The Dakelh or Carrier are the indigenous people of a large portion of the central interior of British Columbia. ... The Slavey (comprised of two groups, North and South Slavey) are a native American group indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... Haida Copper Shield The Haida are the Indigenous Peoples of the west coast of North America. ... Kootenai Group Near Tipis (ca. ... The Kootenay Region (in common parlance The Kootenays) comprises the southeastern portion of British Columbia. ... Kwakiutl is a term used to describe a group of Canadian First Nations, numbering about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Island, and the mainland. ... Kwakiutl is a term used to describe a group of Canadian First Nations, numbering about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Island, and the mainland. ... The Haisla (also Xa’islak’ala, X̄a’islak̕ala, X̌àʔislak̕ala, X̄a’islak’ala, X̣aʔislak’ala, Xaislakala) are a First Nation people living at Kitamaat in British Columbia. ... Heiltsuk (also Bella Bella) is a dialect (or a sublanguage) of the North Wakashan (Kwakiutlan) language Heiltsuk-Oowekyala that is spoken by a few Haihai and Bella Bella Native Americans around Bella Bella and Klemtu, British Columbia. ... Categories: Stub | British Columbia communities | Coastal towns of Canada ... The Nisgaa are of the First Nations of Canada. ... The Nootka or Nuu-Chah-Nulth people are indigenous peoples of Canada. ... First Nation Tla-o-qui-aht The Tla-o-qui-aht, formerly Clayoquot, are a First Nation of Canada band, living on ten reserves along the Pacific Rim National Park on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. ... The Nuxalk nation is an aboriginal people living in the area in and around Bella Coola, British Columbia. ... Bella Coola may refer to several things, all closely related to a geographic area within British Columbias Central Coast. ... Map of the regional districts that the Okanagan covers The Okanagan is a region located in the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... The Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in) are a Northern Athabaskan people that live in British Columbia and Washington. ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... The Tsimshian, translated as People Inside the Skeena River, are Native Americans who live around Terrace, Prince Rupert, and Kitimat, on the north coast of British Columbia and the southernmost corner of Alaska on Annette Island. ...

Plains First Nations

Anishinaabe is a self-description often used by people belonging to the indigenous Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples of North America, who share closely related Algonkian languages. ... Blackfoot is a name applied to four Native American groups in the northwestern plains. ... The Chipewyan are a aboriginal people of Canada. ... Kainah is a Native American tribe, part of the Blackfoot (Nitsitapii) nation. ... See Blackfoot for the rock band. ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... See Blackfoot for the rock band. ... Alternative meaning: Lakota, Côte dIvoire is a département of Côte dIvoire. ... The Tasttine (also Beaver) are Athapaskan aboriginals whose traditional territory is around the Peace River of Alberta, Canada. ... The Tsuu T’ina (also Sarsi or Sarcee) are a nation of the First Nations of Canada. ...

Northeast Woodlands

Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree form an aboriginal nation of North America. ... The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula in Eastern Canada. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ... The Saulteaux First Nation of western Canada is a branch of the Ojibwa, Ojibway, or Chippewa people. ...

Atlantic Coastal Region

The Beothuks were the native inhabitants of the island of Newfoundland at the time of European contact in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula in Eastern Canada. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and in French also as Étchemins and Malécites) are a Native American tribe that inhabits the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New Brunswick and Quebec in Canada, and Maine in the United States. ... The Mikmaq (also Míkmaq, Micmac, Migmaw; in Quebec, Migmaq) are a Canadian First Nations people indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Maritimes, and the Gaspé Peninsula of the province of Quebec. ... Passamaquoddy is the name of a tribe of Native Americans located in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ...

St. Lawrence River Valley

This article is about the Native American tribe. ... The Haudenosaunee is the traditional leadership of the Iroquois Confederacy, comprised of the six Native American nations of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora. ... Cayuga is the name of a town in Canada and some places in the United States of America: Cayuga, Ontario Cayuga, Indiana Cayuga County, New York Village of Cayuga in New York Cayuga Lake. ... The Kanienkehaka, or Mohawk tribe of Native American people live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... Oneida is the name of several places in the United States of America, derived from the Oneida tribe of the Iroquois: Oneida, Illinois Oneida, Kansas Oneida, New York Oneida, Pennsylvania Oneida, Tennessee Oneida (town), Wisconsin in Outgamie County Oneida, Wisconsin unincorporated community in both Outgamie and Brown Counties There is... The Onondaga (Onundagaono or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). ... The Seneca Tribe, or Onodowohgah (People of the Hill Top), traditionally lived in New York State between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. ... The Tuscarora are a Native American tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... The Wyandot or Wendat (also called the Huron) are a First Nations people originally from Southern Ontario, Canada. ...

Arctic Canada

The Dene are a group of indigenous peoples that live in the Arctic regions of Canada. ... The Chipewyan are a aboriginal people of Canada. ... The Sahtu are a Dene people living in the vicinity of Great Bear Lake (Sahtu, the source of their name), Northwest Territories, Canada. ... The Slavey (comprised of two groups, North and South Slavey) are a native American group indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ... The Tli Cho (Tłįchǫ) First Nation, formerly known as the Dogrib, are an Aboriginal Canadian people living in the Northwest Territories (NWT). ...

Status

Members of First Nations are known officially as registered Indians if they are entitled to benefits under the Indian Act; a more common term is status Indian (from treaty status), with non-status Indian designating a member of a First Nation who is not entitled to benefits. All members of First Nations who are entitled to benefits are entered in the Indian Register. Administration of the Indian Act is carried out by the federal Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ...


Treatment

Until the late 1960s First Nations were treated in order to try to assimilate them into Canadian culture. They still claim to receive inadequate education funding and claim to have had their rights overlooked in many instances. James K. Bartleman, Lieutenant Govenor of Ontario, has listed the encouragement of aboriginal young people as one of his key priorities, and during his term (begun in 2002) has launched initiatives to promote literacy and bridge building. The Honourable James Karl Bartleman (born 24 December 1939, in Orillia, Ontario), is the 27th Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. ...


First Nations as bands

The term First Nation is also used to designate bands for whom reserves have been designated. For example, the Moravian of the Thames First Nation is a Munsee (Lenape) band for whom Moravian No. 47 reserve has been designated. However, they do not constitute all Munsee in Canada – other Munsee groups live on Munsee-Delaware Nation and Six Nations of the Grand River reserves. The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... Moravian No. ... The Munsee-Delaware Nation No. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ...


See also

Native American, List of aboriginal communities in Canada, List of place names in Canada of aboriginal origin Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The following is a list of aboriginal communities in Canada. ... This List of place names in Canada of aboriginal origin contains Canadian places whose names originate from the words of the First Nations, Métis, or Inuit. ...


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