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Encyclopedia > First Nations

First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. First Nations are concentrated in Ontario and British Columbia but communities live across most of the other provinces. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ...

Contents

Controversial terminology

The term "First Nations" can be confusing. Collectively, First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples constitute Canada's aboriginal peoples, first peoples, or indigenous peoples.[1] Although "First Nations" seems to suggest that these people are the sole original occupiers of the land that is now Canada, the Inuit are also ancient inhabitants not included in the term. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


"First Nations" is a legally undefined term that came into common usage in the 1980s to replace the term "Indian band". Elder Sol Sanderson says that he coined the term in the early 1980s.[2] A band is a legally recognized "body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Canadian Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act".[3] There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands in Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The following is a list of First Nations governments: // Alberta Alexander First Nation Alexis Nakota Sioux First Nation Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation Beaver First Nation Beaver Lake Cree Nation Bigstone Cree Nation Chipewyan Prairie First Nation Cold Lake First Nations Dene Tha First Nation Driftpile First Nation Duncans First... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


As individuals, First Nations people are officially recognized by the Government of Canada by the archaic terms "registered Indians" or "status Indians" only if they are listed on the Indian Register and are thus entitled to benefits under the often controversial Indian Act[4], or as "Non-Status Indian" if they are not so listed and thus not entitled to benefits, according to the Canadian state. Administration of the Indian Act and Indian Register is carried out by the federal government's Department of Indian and Northern Affairs. The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ...


While still a legal term, the use of the word "Indian" is erratic and declining in Canada. Some see the term as offensive while others prefer it to terminology such as "aboriginal person/persons/people". Another reason for the decline in the use of this term is purely practical - according to the 2006 Census, there are now more Canadians who identify as being of East Indian ethnicity than there are members of First Nations. The use of the term "Native Americans" is not common in Canada, as it is seen to refer to the aboriginal peoples of the United States specifically.[5] The parallel term "Native Canadian" is not commonly used, but "natives" and "autochtones" (from Canadian French) are sometimes used. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta",[6] the Crown refers to indigenous peoples in British territory as "tribes" or "nations". The term "First Nations" is capitalized, unlike many of the alternative terms. Bands and nations may have slightly different meanings. Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ... Native Americans is a term which has several different common meanings and scope, according to regional use and context. ... Canadian French is an umbrella term for the dialects or varieties of French found in Canada [1] and areas of French Canadian settlement in the United States. ... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


There is some controversy over the use of the term "First Nations" to either self-describe indigenous peoples within Canada, or for non-indigenous peoples to refer to indigenous peoples in this fashion. Under international law covenants, "First Nations" per se have no standing, whereas "indigenous peoples" or "nations" do.[citation needed] The Canadian government, many indigenous people within Canada, and many non-indigenous people use the term "First Nations" out of respect for the right of indigenous people to describe themselves. In general, indigenous peoples within Canada who identify themselves as "First Nations" do not believe in the status of indigenous peoples as nation-states, while those who do not use the term, or insist on the term "indigenous peoples", are sovereigntists.[citation needed] There are also indigenous people in Canada who use the term "First Nation" for any tribal and/or nomadic ethnic group deprived of self-determination as a political recognition of colonization.[citation needed] Those groups work internationally on minority rights and self-determination. Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... The term sovereigntist has two meanings in political discourse. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts: first, normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class or religious minorities, and second, collective rights accorded to minority groups. ...


A national representative body is the Assembly of First Nations. Its chief, Phil Fontaine, and many others, have argued that a citizenship-based membership for each First Nation is needed, instead of only memberships based on bloodlines, race theories, and records of ancestry. If one has to always be a quarter or eighth "Indian", then over a long period of time and mixing with others, there might be very few official "Indians" or natives. Citizenship could be based on other factors, like loyalty to one's community, knowledge and education about the history and politics of that traditional territory, language spoken, and close family and friendship bonds with community members.[citation needed] The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of Aboriginal leaders in Canada. ... Larry Phillip (Phil) Fontaine, OM, (born September 20, 1944) is an Aboriginal Canadian leader. ...


History since European contact

See also: History of Canada#European contact

Despite an ancient history of their own, First Nations cultures are sometimes written about as if their history begins with the encroachment of Europeans onto the continent.[7] Nevertheless, First Nations' written history, in fact begins at the hands of European authors, as in accounts by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries (cf. the Codex canadiensis). Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... Codex canadiensis, the name of an illustrated book on the subject of the native peoples and wildlife in Canada, was written in or about 1700 by a French missionary priest called Louis Nicolas. ...


Aboriginal people in Canada have interacted with Europeans as far back as 1000 AD,[8] but prolonged contact came once permanent European settlements were established. These accounts, though biased, generally speak of friendliness on the part of the First Nations, [9] some of whom profited in trade with Europeans. Such trade generally strengthened more organized political entities like the Iroquois Confederation.[10] The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


As far back as the late 18th century, First Nations have been targeted for assimilation into what is referred to as the European/Canadian culture.[11] These attempts reached a climax with the establishment of the Canadian residential school system, the prohibition of Indigenous cultural practices, and the Indian Acts of the late 19th and early 20th century.[12] St. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ...


Late 19th century

Painting of Ojibwa near Georgian Bay by Paul Kane
Painting of Ojibwa near Georgian Bay by Paul Kane

The situation for Indigenous people in the prairies grew very grave, very quickly. Between 1875 and 1885, the North American Bison were hunted almost to extinction; the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway brought large numbers of white settlers west; governments, police forces, and courts of law were established; and various epidemics continued to devastate Indigenous communities. All of these factors had a profound effect on Indigenous people, particularly those from the plains who relied on the return of the bison every year. Most of those nations that agreed to treaties had negotiated for a guarantee of food, and help to begin farming.[13] Just as the bison finally disappeared (the last Canadian hunt was in 1879), Lieutenant-Governor Edgar Dewdney cut rations to reduce government costs. Between 1880 and 1885, approximately 3,000 Indigenous people starved to death in the Northwest Territories.[13] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (2250 × 1390 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (2250 × 1390 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the native North American people. ... Georgian Bay (French: baie Georgienne) is a large bay of Lake Huron, located in Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the painter. ... Map of the Canadian Prairie provinces, which include boreal forests, taiga, and mountains as well as the prairies (proper). ... Binomial name Bison bison Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies B. b. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... Edgar Dewdney (1835 to August 8, 1916) was a Canadian politician originally born in Devonshire, England. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ...


Some Cree chiefs resisted these treaties, offended by the very idea. Big Bear refused to sign Treaty 6 until starvation among his people forced his hand in 1882.[13] His attempts to unite Indigenous nations made some progress, and in 1884, two thousand Cree from several reserves met near Battleford in an attempt to organize themselves into a large cohesive resistance. Discouraged by the lack of government response but encouraged by the efforts of the Metis at armed rebellion, Wandering Spirit and other young militant Cree attacked the small town at Frog Lake, killing Thomas Quinn, the hated Indian Agent and eight others.[13] Big Bear actively opposed this violence, but was put on trial for treason and sentenced to three years in prison. For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Chief Mistahimaskwa, 1885 Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa (c. ... Treaty no. ... Battleford is a town located just across the river from North Battleford, Saskatchewan. ... wwwww Combatants Dominion of Canada • Métis Provisional Government •Cree–Assiniboine Natives Commanders Leif Crozier Frederick Middleton William Otter Thomas Bland Strange Sam Steele Big Bear Fine-Day Gabriel Dumont Louis Riel Wandering Spirit The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a... Wandering Spirit (a. ... The Frog Lake Massacre was a Cree uprising during the North-West Rebellion. ... Chief Mistahimaskwa, 1885 Big Bear or Mistahimaskwa (c. ...


Early 20th century

As Canadian ideas of progress evolved at the turn of the century, the federal Indian policy pushed harder to remove Indigenous people from their lands and to encourage assimilation.[13] Amendments to the Indian Act in 1905 and 1911 made it easier to expropriate reserve lands from First Nations. Nearly half of the Blackfoot reserve in Alberta was sold, and when the Kainai (Blood) Nation refused to accept the sale of their lands in 1916 and 1917, the Department of Indian Affairs held back funding necessary for farming until they relented.[13] In British Columbia, the McKenna-McBride Royal Commission was created in 1912 to settle disputes over reserve lands in the province. The claims of Indigenous people were ignored, and the commission allocated new, less valuable lands (reserves) for many First Nations.[13] For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... The Kainai Nation (or Kainah, Kainaiwa) is an Native American tribe in southern Alberta, Canada. ... The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (FIP: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, French: Affaires indiennes et du Nord Canada, DIAND) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies relating to First Nations of Canada and Canadas three northern territories. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ...


Those nations who managed to maintain their ownership of good lands often farmed successfully. Indigenous people living near the Cowichan and Fraser Rivers, and those from Saskatchewan managed to produce good harvests.[13] Since 1881, those living in the Prairie Provinces required permits from Indian Agents to sell any of their produce, and a pass system was later introduced in the old Northwest Territories requiring indigenous people to seek written permission from an Indian agent before leaving their reserves for any length of time.[13] Those laws, as well as bans on sun dances and potlatches, were regularly defied, as indigenous people attempted to retain their freedom and their culture. The Cowichan River is a moderately sized river in British Columbia, Canada. ... For other uses of this name see Fraser River (disambiguation). ... The Canadian prairies is a vast area of flat sedimentary land that stretches from Ontario and the Canadian Shield to the Canadian Rockies covering much of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta - the Prairie Provinces. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... For other uses, see Potlatch (disambiguation). ...


The 1930 Constitution Act or Natural Resources Transfer Agreement allowed for provincial control of crown land and allowed Provincial laws respecting game to apply to Indians, but ensures that "Indians shall have the right ... of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food at all seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which the said Indians may have a right of access."[14]


Late 20th century

Following the end of the Second World War, laws concerning First Nations in Canada began to change, albeit slowly. The federal prohibition of potlatch and sun dance ceremonies ended in 1951, and provinces began to accept the right of Indigenous people to vote. In June 1956, section 9 of the Citizenship Act was amended to grant formal citizenship to Status Indians and Inuit, retroactively as of January 1947. All First Nations people were granted the right to vote in federal elections in 1960. By comparison, Native Americans in the United States had been allowed to vote since the 1920s.[15] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses, see Potlatch (disambiguation). ... Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... The Canadian Citizenship Act is an Act of the Government of Canada, which came into effect on July 1, 1947, recognizing the definition of a Canadian, including reference to them being British subjects. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ...


1969 White Paper

In his 1969 White Paper, then-Minister of Indian Affairs, the Hon. Jean Chrétien, proposed the abolition of the Indian Act of Canada, the rejection of Aboriginal land claims, and the assimilation of First Nations people into the Canadian population with the status of "other ethnic minorities" rather than a distinct group. The 1969 White Paper was a Canadian policy document in which Minister of Indian Affairs, the Hon. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development really heads two different departments. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... Aboriginal land claims are claims of Native or Aboriginal peoples (also referred to as Indigenous peoples) about their ownership of land before the arrival of settlers, primarily Europeans. ...


A response by Harold Cardinal and the Indian Chiefs of Alberta (entitled "Citizens Plus" but commonly known as the "Red Paper") explained the widespread opposition to Chrétien's proposal from Status Indians in Canada. Prime Minister Trudeau and the Liberals began to back away from the 1969 White Paper, particularly after the Calder case decision in 1973.[16] Dr. Harold Cardinal (January 27, 1945 – June 3, 2005) was a Cree writer, political leader, teacher, negotiator and lawyer. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Calder v. ...


Ontario Minamata disease

In 1970, severe mercury poisoning called Ontario Minamata disease was discovered at Asubpeeschoseewagong First Nation and Wabaseemoong Independent Nation, both near Dryden, Ontario, where there was extensive mercury pollution caused by Dryden Chemicals Company's waste water effluent that was being discharged into the Wabigoon-English River system.[17][18] Because the local fish were no longer safe to eat, the Ontario provincial government closed the commercial fisheries run by the First Nation people and ordered them to stop eating local fish, which previously had made up the majority of their diet.[19] In addition to the acute mercury poisoning in northwestern Ontario, Aamjiwnaang First Nation, near Sarnia, Ontario, experienced a wide range of chemical effects, including severe mercury poisoning, and have severely affected birth rates, birth gender ratio and general health of the population.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Acrodynia be merged into this article or section. ... The Ontario Minamata diseases are a group of severe mercury poisoning cases in Ontario, Canada, affecting many sites, but affected three separate First Nation communities severely. ... Asubpeeschoseewagong (Asabiinyashkosiwagong, in the Anishinaabe language), also known as Grassy Narrows #149, is an Ojibwe Indian reserve located 80km north of Kenora, Ontario. ... Dryden (aka Sunset Country) (2001 population 10,100) is a city in northwestern Ontario, Canada located on Wabigoon Lake. ... The Wabigoon River is a river in northwesten Ontario which flows from Wabigoon Lake at Dryden, Ontario to join the English River. ... The English River flows through Lac Seul to join the Winnipeg River. ... The Aamjiwnaang First Nation is located near Sarnia, Ontario, in Canada. ... Sarnia is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada (city population 71,419, census area population 88,793, in 2006). ...


Elijah Harper & the Meech Lake Accord

In 1981, Elijah Harper, a Cree from Red Sucker Lake, Manitoba, became the first "Treaty Indian" in Canada to be elected as a provincial politician. In 1990, Harper achieved national fame by holding an eagle feather as he took his stand in the Manitoba legislature and refused to accept the Meech Lake Accord, a constitutional amendment package negotiated to gain Quebec's acceptance of the Constitution Act, 1982. The accord was negotiated in 1987 without the input of Canada's aboriginal peoples. That was made more irksome given the recent conclusion of the third, final and unsuccessful constitutional conference on aboriginal peoples. To proceed with its intention, the Manitoba assembly was required to unanimously consent to a motion allowing it to hold a vote on the accord, because of a procedural rule. With only twelve days before the ratification deadline for the Accord, Harper began a filibuster which prevented the assembly from ratifying the accord. Because Meech Lake failed in Manitoba, the proposed constitutional amendment failed.[20] Harper also opposed the Charlottetown Accord in 1992, even though Assembly of First Nations Chief Ovide Mercredi supported it. AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Elijah Harper (born March 3, 1949) is an Aboriginal Cree Canadian politician and band chief. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... A Member of the Legislative Assembly, or MLA, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to the Legislature or legislative assembly of a subnational jurisdiction. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of Aboriginal leaders in Canada. ...


Women's status and Bill C-31

According to Indian Act, indigenous women who married white men lost their treaty status, and their children would not get status at all. In the reverse situation (indigenous men married to white women), men could keep their status, and their children would also get treaty status. In the 1970s, the Indian Rights for Indian Women and National Native Women's Association groups campaigned against this policy on the grounds that it discriminated against women and failed to fulfill treaty promises.[13] They successfully convinced the federal government to change the section of the act with the adoption of Bill C-31 on June 28, 1985. Women who had lost their status and children who had been excluded were then able to register and gain official Indian status. Despite these changes, First Nations women who married white men could only pass their status on one generation; their children would gain status, but (without a marriage to a full status Indian) their grandchildren would not. A First Nations male who married a white woman retained status as did his children, but his wife did not gain status, nor his grandchildren. The Indian Act of Canada (1876) (full title An Act respecting Indians) is an Act which establishes the rights of registered Indians and of their bands. ... The Indian Register is the official record of Status Indians or Registered Indians in Canada. ...


Bill C-31 also gave elected bands the power to regulate who was allowed to reside on their reserves and to control development on their reserves. It abolished the concept of "enfranchisement" by which First Nations people could gain certain rights by renouncing their Indian status.[21]


The Erasmus-Dussault commission

In 1991, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney created the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Their report was issued in 1996; its most revolutionary proposal was the creation of a government for (and by) the First Nations that would be fully responsible within its own jurisdiction, and with which the federal government would speak on a "Nation-to-Nation" basis. This proposal offered a far different way of doing politics than the traditional policy of assigning all First Nations matters under the jurisdiction of the Indian and Northern Affairs, managed by one minister of the federal cabinet. The report also recommended providing the governments of the First Nations with up to $2 billion every year until 2010, in order to reduce the economic gap between the First Nations and the rest of the Canadian citizenry. The money would represent an increase of at least 50% to the budget of Indian and Northern Affairs. Finally, the report insisted on the importance of First Nations leaders to actively think of ways to cope with the challenging issues their people were facing, so the First Nations could take their destiny into their own hands. Image File history File links 060420_native_protest_gal04. ... Image File history File links 060420_native_protest_gal04. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ... Six Nations protesters at the site. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples was a royal commission established in 1991 to address many issues of Aboriginal status that had come to light with recent events such as the Oka Crisis and the Meech Lake Accord. ...


The federal government, then headed by Jean Chrétien, responded to the report a year later by officially presenting its apologies for the forced acculturation the federal government had imposed on the First Nations, and by offering an "initial" provision of $350 million. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ...


In the spirit of the Eramus-Dussault commission, several tripartite (federal, provincial, and First Nations) accords have been signed since the report was issued. Several political crises between different provincial governments and different bands of the First Nations also occurred in the late 20th century, notably:

Pte. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Burnt Church Crisis was a conflict between the Mikmaq people of the Burnt Church First Nation and non-Aboriginal New Brunswick fisheries, from 1999 to 2001. ... The Gustafsen Lake Standoff was an Indigenous land dispute involving the Secwepemc Nation which began on June 15, 1995, and lasted until September 17, 1995. ...

Early 21st century

See also: Caledonia land dispute and Kelowna Accord
The Defence of Cree Rights
The Defence of Cree Rights

In 2001, the Quebec government, the federal government, and the Cree Nation signed "La Paix des Braves" (The Peace of the Braves, a reference to the 1701 peace treaty between the French and the Iroquois League). The agreement allowed Hydro-Québec to exploit the province's hydroelectric resources in exchange for an allocation of $3.5 billion to be given to the government of the Cree Nation. Later, the Inuit of northern Quebec joined in the agreement. Six Nations protesters at the site. ... The Kelowna Accord (sometimes referred to as the Kelowna Accords) is a series of agreements between the Canadian government under (now former) Prime Minister Paul Martin and the leaders of many Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... La Paix des Braves (French for The Peace of the Braves) is an agreement between the Government of Quebec, Canada, and the Grand Council of the Crees. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Hydro-Québec is a crown corporation that provides hydroelectric power for Quebec, Canada and the north-eastern parts of the United States. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, the leaders of the First Nations, various provincial governments, and the federal government produced a working paper called the Kelowna Accord, which would have yielded $5 billion for 5 years, but the new federal government of Stephen Harper (2006) did not fully follow through on the working paper. The Kelowna Accord (sometimes referred to as the Kelowna Accords) is a series of agreements between the Canadian government under (now former) Prime Minister Paul Martin and the leaders of many Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...


At present, many First Nations, along with the Métis and the Inuit, claim to receive inadequate funding for education, and allege their rights have been overlooked in many instances. Recently James K. Bartleman, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, listed the encouragement of indigenous young people as one of his key priorities. During his term that began in 2002, he has launched several initiatives to promote literacy and bridge building. Bartleman himself is the first aboriginal person to hold the Lieutenant Governor's position in Ontario. His Honour The Honourable James Karl Bartleman, O.Ont , BA (born 24 December 1939, in Orillia, Ontario), is a Canadian diplomat, author, and the 27th Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. ... This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Ontario. ...


As of 2006, over 75 First Nations communities exist in boil-water advisory conditions.[22] In late 2005, the drinking water crisis of the Kashechewan First Nation received national media attention when E. coli was discovered in their water supply system, following two years of living under a boil-water advisory. The drinking water was supplied by a relatively new treatment plant built in March 1998. The cause of the tainted water was a plugged chlorine injector that was not discovered by local operators, who were not qualified to be running the treatment plant. When officials arrived and fixed the problem, chlorine levels were around 1.7 mg/l, which was blamed for chronic skin disorders such as impetigo and scabies. An investigation led by Health Canada revealed that the skin disorders were likely due to living in squalor. The evacuation of Kashechewan is largely viewed by Canadians as a cry for help for other underlying social and economic issues which Aboriginal people in Canada face. A boil water advisory is a public health advisory given by government or health authorities to communities when a communitys drinking water is contaminated by pathogens. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... The Kashechewan First Nation is a Cree First Nation located near James Bay in Northern Ontario, Canada. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... A water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components, including: (1) the watershed or geographic area that collects the water, see Water purification-Sources of Drinking Water; (2) a raw (untreated) water reservoir (above or below ground) where the water gathers, such as a lake, a... sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ...


On June 29, 2007, Canadian aboriginal groups held countrywide protests aimed at ending First Nations poverty, dubbed the Aboriginal Day of Action. The demonstrations were largely peaceful, although some groups disrupted transportation with blockades or bonfires; a stretch of the Highway 401 was shut down, as was the Canadian National Railway's line between Toronto and Montreal.[23] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Aboriginal Day of Action (also known as the Aboriginal Day of Protest) was a day of organized protest and demonstration by Canadian First Nations groups on June 29, 2007. ... Highway 401 redirects here. ... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Demographics

See also: Demographics of Canada

In the 20th century the First Nations population of Canada increased tenfold.[24] Between 1900 and 1950 the population grew only by 29% but after the 1960’s the infant mortality level on reserves dropped dramatically and the population grew by 161%. Since the 1980’s the number of First Nations babies more than doubled and currently almost half of the First Nations population is under the age of 25. As a result the First Nations population of Canada is expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades.[24] Demographics of Canada, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ...


The 2006 census counted a total aboriginal population of 1,172,790 (3.75%) which includes 698,025 North American Indians (2.23%).[25]


Diversity

Tsuu T'ina children at a parade
Tsuu T'ina children at a parade

There are many distinct First Nations cultures in Canada, originating from all regions of the country.Indian reserves, established in Canadian law by treaties such as Treaty 7, are the very limited contemporary lands of First Nations recognised by the non-indigenous governments. Some reserves are within cities, such as the Opawikoscikan Reserve in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan and such as the Huron-Wendat village in Québec City. There are more reserves in Canada than there are First Nations, as some First Nations were ceded multiple reserves by treaty. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 908 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 908 pixel, file size: 900 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Tsuu T’ina (also Sarsi or Sarcee) are a nation of the First Nations of Canada. ... The following is a list of First Nations peoples organized by Indigenous geographic area. ... The following is a list of First Nations peoples organized by Indigenous geographic area. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Treaty 7 is an agreement concluded on 22 September 1877 between several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes, and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom in what is today the southern portion of Alberta. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Ville de Québec, Québec, Canada Location. ...


Culture areas

First Nations can be grouped into cultural areas based on their ancestors’ primary lifeway, or occupation, at the time of European contact. These culture areas correspond closely with physical and biological regions of Canada. Cultural regions of North American people at the time of European contact. ... For the religious publishing house, see LifeWay Christian Resources. ... Continent North America Subregion Northern America Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water Ranked 2nd 9,984,670 km² 891,163 km² (8. ... This is a list of regions of Canada that are not provinces or counties. ...


The Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast were centred around ocean and river fishing; in the interior of British Columbia, hunting and gathering and river fishing. In both of these areas the salmon was of chief importance. For the people of the plains, bison hunting was the primary activity. In the subartic forest, other species such as the moose were more important. For peoples near the Great Lakes and St. Laurence river, shifting agriculture was practised, including the raising of maize, beans, and squash. Chief Anotklosh of the Taku Tribe, ca. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Slash and burn. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is on the plant. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Today, First Nations people work in a variety of occupations and many also live outside their ancestor's homes. Nevertheless, the traditional cultures of their ancestors, shaped by nature, still exert a strong influence on their culture, from spirituality to political attitudes.


Language diversity

At European contact, First Nations peoples spoke a wide variety of languages grouped into several language families. Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture. For example, Cree language speakers lived both in the forests and on the prairies. Similarly, peoples with related languages were not always allies. Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi) is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Labrador, making it by far the most spoken aboriginal language in Canada. ...


While a number of First Nation languages are still found in Canada, many of them are presently endangered, with decreasing numbers of speakers.


Political organization

At contact, First Nations organization ranged in size from band societies of a few people to multi-nation confederacies like the Iroquois. First Nations leaders from across the country form the Assembly of First Nations, which began as the National Indian Brotherhood in 1968. A Band Society is the simplest form of human society. ... The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation meet at Frankfurt in 1863. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Assembly of First Nations (AFN) is a body of Aboriginal leaders in Canada. ...


Today's political organizations are largely the by-product of interaction with European-style methods of government. As well, First Nations political organizations are spread throughout Canada and vary in political standing, viewpoints, and reasons for forming. Most First Nations political organizations arise from the need to be united and to have their opinions heard. First Nations negotiate with the Canadian Government through Indian and Northern Affairs Canada in all affairs concerning land, entitlement, and rights. System of government Canada is a constitutional monarchy as a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ...


However, not all first nation groups belong to these groups. Some groups operate independently.


First Nation issues

First Nations peoples face a number of problems to greater degrees than Canadians overall. They have higher unemployment[26], rates of crime and incarceration[27], substance abuse[28], health problems and lower levels of education[29][30]. Suicide rates are more than twice the sex-specific rate and three times the age-specific rates of non-aboriginal Canadians[31]. Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ...


Life expectancy at birth is significantly lower for First Nations babies than for babies in the Canadian population as a whole. As of 2001, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada estimates First Nations life expectancy to be 8.1 years shorter for males and 5.5 years shorter for females.[32]


See also

Aboriginal people in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of Aboriginal communities in Canada. ... This list of place names in Canada of Aboriginal origin contains Canadian places whose names originate from the words of the First Nations, Métis, or Inuit, collectively referred to as Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/info/tln_e.html Terminology - Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
  2. ^ Assembly of First Nations, p. 74.
  3. ^ Terminology Guide Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
  4. ^ [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cs/I-5/bo-ga:s_1//en#anchorbo-ga:s_1 Indian Act
  5. ^ National Museum of the American Indian
  6. ^ The Royal Proclamation of 1763
  7. ^ George Woodcock A Social History of Canada, 1988; Eric Wolf, Europe and the People Without History, 1982.
  8. ^ Woodcock, part I
  9. ^ Woodcock, part I
  10. ^ Wolf, chapter 6
  11. ^ Stage Three: Displacement and Assimilation, Volume 1, Part 1, Chapter 6 of the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 26 August 1991
  12. ^ Conceptions of History Volume 1, Part 1, Chapter 3 of the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 26 August 1991
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of the Canadian Peoples, 1867-Present," Alvin Finkel and Margaret Conrad, 1998
  14. ^ Statutes of Great Britain (1930), 20-21 George V, chapter 26.
  15. ^ The Effect of Expansion of the Franchise on Turnout, Michael Kinnear, "Electoral Insight," November 2003
  16. ^ With an ear to the ground: The CCF/NDP and aboriginal policy in Canada, 1926-1993 Journal of Canadian Studies, Spring 1999 by Frank James Tester, Paule McNicoll, Jessie Forsyth
  17. ^ D'ltri, P A and D'ltri, F M (Jan 1978). "Mercury contamination: A human tragedy". Environmental Management 2 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1007/BF01866442. ISSN 1432-1009. 
  18. ^ McDonald, A. "Indigenous peoples' vulnerabilities exposed: Lessons learned from Canada's Minamata incident: An Environmental analysis based on the case study of methyl-mercury pollution in northwestern Ontario, Canada". Japanese Association for Canadian Studies. Retrieved on 2007-12-14.
  19. ^ http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-70-1178-6450/disasters_tragedies/grassy_narrows_mercury_pollution/clip1, Mercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy Narrows, CBC TV, November 1st, 1970. Accessed 2007-07-26
  20. ^ Cohen, Andrew. A Deal Undone: The Making and Breaking of the Meech Lake Accord, Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1990.
  21. ^ BILL C-31
  22. ^ "Water still a problem on 76 reserves", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-02-20. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. 
  23. ^ Sibonney, Claire. "Poverty the focus of Canada-wide native protests", Reuters, 2007-06-29. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. 
  24. ^ a b Aboriginal peoples of Canada: A demographic profile. Retrieved on 2008-05-14.
  25. ^ Aboriginal Identity (2006 Census)
  26. ^ http://www.indianz.com/News/2005/008747.asp Natives in Canada suffer from high unemployment - June 14, 2005
  27. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1309/is_3_44/ai_n24217352 Discrimination of aboriginals on native lands in Canada: a comprehensive crisis - September, 2007
  28. ^ http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/substan/ads/nnadap-pnlaada_e.html Health Canada - National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program
  29. ^ http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/pubs/gen/stats_profil_e.html Health Canada - Statistical Profile on the Health of First Nations in Canada
  30. ^ http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp325-e.htm#B.%20Peopletxt Health issues in rural Canada - B. People of Aboriginal Origin
  31. ^ http://www.religioustolerance.org/sui_nati.htm Suicide among Canada's First Nations
  32. ^ First Nations Comparable Health Indicators. Retrieved on 2008-05-14.

The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ... George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 - January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer. ... Eric Wolf (1923-1999) was an anthropologist best known for his studies of Latin America and his advocacy of Marxist perspectives within anthropology. ... Europe and the People Without History is a book by anthropologist Eric Wolf. ... The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ... The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... The Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, also referred to as Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing First Nations and Canadas three northern territories. ...

 
 

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