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Encyclopedia > First Intifada
First Intifada
Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict, Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Date 1987-1991
Location West Bank, Gaza Strip, Israel
Casus
belli
growing sense of frustration among Palestinians
Result Oslo Accords
Combatants
Flag of Israel Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising
Commanders
Flag of IsraelYitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat
Casualties
160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children)

The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also "intifada" and "war of the stones") was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly spread throughout Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem.[2] Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-48 Palestinian Civil War lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 594 soldiers and >127 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded[1][2] 15–16 aircraft lost[3] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed 101–113 aircraft... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularized name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at Israel. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Jabalia (Arabic: جباليا) the largest Palestinian refugee camp in existence. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ...


Palestinian actions took a number of forms, including civil disobedience, general strikes, boycotts on Israeli products, graffiti, barricades, Molotov cocktails and grenades; but it was the stone-throwing demonstrations by youth against the heavily-armed Israeli Defense Forces that brought the intifada international renown.[3] Anti-war activist Midge Potts is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... Closeup of a collection of blinker equipped barricades A barricade is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces...


Over the course of the first intifada, an estimated 1100 Palestinians were killed by Israeli soldiers and settlers. Palestinians killed 160 Israelis and an additional 1000 Palestinians as alleged collaborators, though fewer than half of the latter had actually maintained contact with the Israeli authorities.[4]

Contents

General causes

As with all incidents within the Arab-Israeli conflict in general and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the context and causes for this event are heavily disputed. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land...


Most accounts [citation needed] point to a growing sense of frustration among Palestinians, particularly on the West Bank, but also in Gaza, at the lack of progress in finding a durable resolution for their humanitarian and nationalistic claims after the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the Six-Day War in 1967. The Palestine Liberation Organization had failed to make any significant headway against Israel since the 1960s, and in 1982, had been forced to establish its offices in Tunis. Although all Arab states with the exception of Egypt maintained an official state of war with Israel, rhetoric was toned down in the mid-1980s, and Palestinians found advocacy on their behalf weakened. The November 1987 Arab Summit in Amman, preoccupied by the Iran-Iraq War, downgraded the importance of the Palestinian issue for the first time in years.[5] Israeli military occupation of Southern Lebanon and the continued Israeli military involvement of the West Bank and Gaza fed a growing discontent with the status quo. Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks...


Muslim clerics used their pulpits to speak against the Israeli government. When an Israeli was stabbed to death on December 6, 1987 while shopping in Gaza, tensions heightened. On December 8th, when four Palestinian refugees from the Jabalya camp were killed in a traffic accident in Gaza, rioting broke out in Jabalya. An 18-year old Palestinian named Hatem al-Sisi was killed by Israeli soldiers during these riots after throwing stones, the net effect of which was the sparking of further riots. December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jabalia (Arabic: جباليا), with a registered population of 103,646 inhabitants (as of June 30 2002), is the largest Palestinian refugee camp in existence. ...


Palestinians and their supporters assert[citation needed] that the Intifada was a protest of Israel's 'brutal repression' which included extra-judicial killings, mass detentions, house demolitions, deportations, and so on. While relatively few houses were demolished in the years before the intifada, house demolitions then "appeared to have deterrent value" to Israel. After the start of the intifada, and after the PLO began compensating affected families, demolitions "were transformed into a stimulus to further escalation of resistance."[6] In addition to the political and national sentiment, further causes to the Intifada can be seen in the Egyptian withdrawal from their claims to the Gaza Strip as well as the Jordanian monarchy growing weary of supporting Jordanian claims to the West Bank. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... A Palestinian home after demolition by Israeli security forces House demolition in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a controversial tactic used by the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ...


Rapid birth rates and the limited allocation of land to new building or agriculture amidst land scarcity contributed to the increasing density of population in the Palestinian territories. Unemployment was growing. While income from service labor in Israel benefited the Palestinian economy, even those with a university education were hard pressed to find employment. This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


Others point out that Palestinians felt abandoned by their Arab allies and the PLO had failed to successfully challenge Israel and establish a Palestinian state in its stead as promised. However, it did manage to block the Israeli attempts to call for a puppet election inside the territories (beginning with 1974), and as it seemed to many of them, they would spend the rest of their lives as second class citizens, without full political rights.[citation needed] Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: , arabi) is a member of a complexly defined ethnic group who identifies as such on the basis of one or more of either genealogical, political, or linguistic grounds. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... It has been suggested that State of Palestine be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the political process. ...


Considering all of the above and the mass scale of the uprising, it is of little doubt that it was not initiated by any single person or organization. However, the PLO was very quick to take matters into its hands, sponsoring provocateurs and enhancing their presence in the territories (called the "tandhim", or "organization"). The PLO was not uncontested, however, competing in its activities for the first time with radical Islamic organizations - Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. And most importantly, the uprising was predominantly led not by any of these groups, but by community councils consisting of ordinary Palestinians creating autonomous structures and networks in the midst of Israeli occupation. These councils, though they mainly engaged in armed resistance, also focused on creating independent, often-underground infrastructure, such as autonomous schools, medical care, food aid and other basic institutions. Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ...


Prior events

The uprising of the Palestinians in the First Intifada is generally understood to have been a spontaneous phenomenon.[citation needed] The PLO later claimed that it had organized it,[citation needed] but most historians view this as an attempt to create an appearance of having more control.[citation needed] On October 1, 1987 Israeli military ambushed and killed seven men from Gaza believed to be members of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad terrorist group.[citation needed] Several days later an Israeli settler shot a Palestinian schoolgirl in the back.[citation needed] On December 4, 1987 Shlomo Sakal, an Israeli plastics salesman, was stabbed to death in Gaza.[citation needed] On December 8, there was a traffic accident in which an Israel Defense Force truck crashed into a van, killing 4 Palestinians from Jabalya. [citation needed] Under these already heated circumstances, many rumors began to spread. Rumor reinforced by real incidents caused anger and street fights against Israeli policemen and soldiers.[citation needed] The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... An Israeli settlement refers to a housing development for Israeli Jewish settlers in areas which came under the control of Israel as a result of the 1967 Six-Day War beyond the boundaries defined by the 1949 Armistice Agreements. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces... Jabalia (Arabic: جباليا), with a registered population of 103,646 inhabitants (as of June 30 2002), is the largest Palestinian refugee camp in existence. ...


The uprising

"Intifada" A poster from 1990
"Intifada" A poster from 1990

On December 8, an Israeli truck hit two vans carrying Gaza labourers in Jabalya, a refugee camp packed at that time with 60,000 residents. It instantly killed four of them. Rumor spread quickly that the wreck was no accident, but an act of vengeance on the part of an Israeli stabbed to death several days earlier in the Gaza market. That evening, an uprising began in Jabalya where hundreds burned tires and attacked the Israel Defense Forces stationed there. The uprising spread to other Palestinian refugee camps and eventually to Jerusalem. On December 22, the United Nations Security Council condemned Israel for violating Geneva Conventions due to the number of Palestinian deaths in these first few weeks of the Intifada. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (838x1120, 91 KB) This is a work of art (poster) done by Ayman Bardaweel in 1990, the image is allowed to be used given that the artist is credited. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (838x1120, 91 KB) This is a work of art (poster) done by Ayman Bardaweel in 1990, the image is allowed to be used given that the artist is credited. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jabalia (Arabic: جباليا), with a registered population of 103,646 inhabitants (as of June 30 2002), is the largest Palestinian refugee camp in existence. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Much of the Palestinian violence was low-tech; dozens of Palestinian teenagers would confront patrols of Israeli soldiers, showering them with rocks. However, at times this tactic gave way to Molotov cocktail attacks, over 100 hand grenade attacks and more than 500 attacks with guns or explosives. Many Israeli civilians and soldiers were killed this way. Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Additionally, an estimated 1,000 alleged informers were killed by Arab civilian militias,[citation needed] though Palestinian Arab human rights groups contend many were not "collaborators" but victims of revenge murders.[citation needed]


In 1988, the Palestinians initiated a nonviolence movement to withhold taxes - the legality of which under international law is disputed. When time in prison didn't stop the activists, Israel crushed the boycott by imposing heavy fines while seizing and disposing of the equipment, furnishings, and goods from local stores, factories, and even homes.


On April 19, 1988, a leader of the PLO, Abu Jihad, was assassinated in Tunis. During the resurgence of rioting that followed, about 16 Palestinians were killed. In November of the same year and October of the next, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolutions condemning Israel. April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Khalil Al-Wazir (October 10, 1935–April 16, 1988), better known by the kunya Abu Jihad (Arabic: father of the struggle) and Al-Wazir (the top minister), was a founder of the Palestinian group Fatah (which later formed the dominant part of the PLO), and later a top aide to... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...


As the Intifada progressed, Israel introduced various riot control methods that had the effect of reducing the number of Palestinian fatalities. Another contributor to the high initial casualties was Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin's aggressive stance towards the Palestinians. On a tour of the Jalazon Refugee Camp in January 1988, Rabin said, "The first priority of the security forces is to prevent violent demonstrations with force, power and blows ... We will make it clear who is running the territories".[2] His successor Moshe Arens subsequently proved to have a better understanding of pacification, which perhaps reflects in the lower casualty rates for the following years. For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Moshe Arens Moshe Arens (born December 27, 1925 in Kaunas, Lithuania) is an Israeli politician. ...


In July 1989, the first suicide attack occurred inside Israel's borders, the Tel Aviv Jerusalem bus 405 massacre. No further attacks of this scale occurred until after the Oslo Accords. A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, and knows that they will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... The Tel Aviv-Jerusalem bus 405 massacre occurred on July 6, 1989. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...


Benny Morris describes the situation by June 1990: "By then the Intifada seemed to have lost direction. A symptom of the PLO's frustration was the great increase in the killing of suspected collaborators; in 1991 the Israelis killed fewer Palestinians - about 100 - than the Palestinians did themselves - about 150."[7] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Attempts at the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict were made at the Madrid Conference of 1991. The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ...


Outcome

By the time the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993, 1,162 Palestinians (241 of them children, some of whom took an active role in the violence) had been killed by Israelis and 160 Israelis (5 of them children) had been killed by Palestinians[8] In addition, approximately 1,000 Palestinians had been killed by Palestinians as alleged collaborators, though only 40-45% of those killed had maintained contacts with Israeli authorities.[4] Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...


In the first thirteen months of the intifada, 332 Palestinians and 12 Israelis had been killed.


The Intifada was never a military endeavour in either a conventional or guerrilla sense. The PLO (which had limited control of the situation) never expected the uprising to make any direct gains against the Israeli state, as it was a grassroots, mass movement and not their venture. However, the Intifada did produce a number of results the Palestinians considered positive: The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...

  1. By engaging the Israelis directly, rather than relying on the authority or the assistance of neighbouring Arab states, the Palestinians were able to globally cement their identity as a separate nation worthy of self-determination. The era marked the end of the Israelis referring to Palestinians as "South Syrians" and largely ended Israeli discussion of a "Jordanian solution".
  2. The harsh Israeli countermeasures (particularly during the earlier years of the Intifada) resulted in international attention returning to the plight of the Palestinians, as prisoners in their own land. The fact that 159 Palestinian children below the age of 16 (many of them shot while throwing stones at IDF soldiers) were killed was especially alarming for international observers. Significantly, numerous American media outlets openly criticized Israel in a way that they had not previously and have not since. The conflict succeeded in putting the Palestinian question back on the international agenda, particularly in the UN, but also for Europe and the United States as well as the Arab states. Europe became an important economic contributor towards the nascent Palestinian Authority, and American aid and support of Israel became - at least in appearance - more conditional than it was previously.
  3. The intifada also dealt a heavy economic blow to Israel. The Bank of Israel estimated it cost the country $650 million in lost exports, largely through successful Palestinian boycotts and the creation of local microindustries. The impact on the services sector, including the important Israeli tourist industry, was notably bad.
  4. The uprising can be linked to the Madrid Conference of 1991, and thereby to the return of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation from their Tunisian exile. Although the negotiations failed to fulfill their potential, it is notable that prior to the first Intifada, it was doubtful whether there would ever be a Palestinian state. After the Oslo accords, an independent Palestine of some sort, at some time in the future seemed relatively certain.

Ultimately, Israel was successful in containing the uprising. The Palestinians' force was inferior in relation to the well equipped and trained Israel Defense Forces. However, the Intifada pinpointed numerous problems with the IDF's conduct in the operative and tactical fields, as well as the general problem of Israel's prolonged control of the West Bank and Gaza strip. These problems were noticed and widely criticized, both in international forums (in particular, when humanitarian questions were at stake), but also in Israeli public opinion, in which the Intifada had caused a split. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "uprising by Palestinians against Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip territories." Intifada, Microsoft Encarta.
  2. ^ a b The Intifada - An Overview: The First Two Years
  3. ^ BBC: A History of Conflict
  4. ^ a b Collaborators, One Year Al-Aqsa Intifada, The Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group, October 2001. Accessed May 15, 2007.
  5. ^ *Aryeh Shalev (1991). The Intifada: Causes and Effects. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Post & Westview Press, 33. ISBN 0-8133-8303-X. 
  6. ^ *Aryeh Shalev (1991). The Intifada: Causes and Effects. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Post & Westview Press, 111-114. ISBN 0-8133-8303-X. 
  7. ^ Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999, Knopf, 1999. p.612
  8. ^ First_Intifada_Tables (B'Tselem)

Encarta Dictionary Technology (to be written) Encarta made use of various Microsoft technologies. ... The Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group is a diverse human rights gourp founded in December 1996 by a group of prominent Palestinians, including members of the Palestinian Legislative Council (the legislative arm of the Palestinian Authority). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... BTselem (Hebrew: , in the image of, as in Genesis 1:27) is an Israeli non-governmental organization (NGO) that describes itself as The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories. ...

Further Reading

  • Eitan Alimi (2006). Israeli Politics and the First Palestinian Intifada. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415385601. 
  • Geoffrey Aronson (1990). Israel, Palestinians, and the Intifada: Creating Facts on the West Bank. London: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 0-7103-0336-X. 
  • Joel Beinin; Zachary Lockman (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 0-89608-363-2. 
  • Joost R. Hiltermann (1991). Behind the Intifada: Labor and Women's Movements in the Occupied Territories. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07869-6. 
  • Mary Elizabeth King (2007). A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books. ISBN 1560258020. 
  • Benny Morris (1999). Righteous Victims: a History of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-74475-4. 
  • Don Peretz (1990). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-0860-7. 
  • Andrew Rigby (1991). Living the Intifada. London: Zed Books. ISBN 1-85649-040-8. 
  • Aryeh Shalev (1991). The Intifada: Causes and Effects. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Post & Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-8303-X. 
  • Ze'ev Schiff, Ehud Ya'ari (1989). Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising: Israel's Third Front. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-67530-3. 

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zeev Schiff (1932 - June 19, 2007) (Hebrew: זאב שיף) was a French-born, journalist, author and military commentator who worked for the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. ... Ehud Yaari (אֶהוּד יָעָרִי)is a well-known Israeli commentator and expert on Middle Eastern issues, who frequently collaborated with and wrote books with the late Zeev Schiff. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Intifada - Search View - MSN Encarta (703 words)
The first intifada began in late 1987 in the Gaza Strip and spread rapidly across the Gaza and West Bank territories.
Israel first attempted to repress the movement by increasing police and army presence, closing universities, deporting suspects, enforcing economic sanctions, and expanding Israeli settlement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The intifada was a factor leading to the September 1993 Oslo Accords between the PLO and Israel.
First Intifada (692 words)
The first Intifada was the intifada that took place from 1987 to 1991 (end of massive Israeli violence) or 1993 (Oslo accords).
The first Intifada was sometimes also called "the war of stones", because the Palestinians generally used stones and other makeshift weapons.
The intifada was a partially spontaneous phenomenon; after it began, the PLO attempted to claim that it had organized it, but historians view this as an after-the-fact attempt to assert more control than it really had.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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