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Encyclopedia > First Indochina War
First Indochina War

A French Foreign Legion unit patrols in a communist controlled area.
Date December 19, 1946August 1, 1954
Location French Indochina
Result Việt Minh victory.
Departure of the French from Indochina.
Provisional division of Vietnam.
Belligerents
Flag of France French Union
Flag of North Vietnam Viet Minh
Commanders
French Expeditionary Corps

Vietnamese National Army
Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 3000 pixel, file size: 771 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): First Indochina War Metadata This file... Legionnaire redirects here. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Vietnam. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer Government Constitutional monarchy King¹ Norodom Sihanouk Historical era Cold War  - Independence November 9, 1953  - Coup detat March 18, 1970  - South Vietnamese invasion April 29, 1970 ¹ Variously head of state and/or head of government as monarch, regent or prime minister. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ... Jean Etienne Valluy Jean-Étienne Valluy (May 15, 1899-January 4, 1970) was a French general. ... Général darmée Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1895-1977) was a French military officer who served in World War II and French Indochina. ... Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (February 2, 1889 - January 11, 1952) was a French military hero of World War II. Born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds (during the time of Georges Clemenceau, who was also born there), he graduated from school in 1911, and fought in World War I. He specialized... clarified and proofread. ... Henri Navarre (1898 - 1983) was the commander of French forces in Indochina during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in the First Indochina War. ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ...

Hồ Chí Minh,
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Strength
French Union: 190,000
Local Auxiliary: 55,000
State of Vietnam: 150,000[1]
125,000 Regulars,
75,000 Regional,
250,000 Popular Forces/Irregulars[2]
Casualties and losses
Combined total:
94,581 dead,
78,127 wounded,
40,000 captured
Combined total:
300,000+ dead,
500,000+ wounded,
100,000+ captured

The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War, the The Anti-French War, the Franco-Vietnamese War, the Franco-Vietminh War, the Indochina War and the Dirty War in France and in contemporary Vietnam, as the French War) was fought in French Indochina from December 19, 1946 until August 1, 1954 between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh, led by Hồ Chí Minh and Võ Nguyên Giáp. Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in Northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia. Nguyen Van Hinh was appointed the Vietnamese National Army Chief of State by Emperor Bao Dai. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... The military operation codenamed Lèa was an attempt of the french colonial forces in Indochina to capture the communist leaders of the vietnamese movement for independence (Viet Minh), which started on October 7th, 1947 and was unsuccessfully finished at December 22, 1947. ... The Battle of Dong Khe was a major battle of the First Indochina War. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 9,000 20,000 Casualties Unknown; but light 6,000 dead 8,000 wounded 500 captured The Battle of Vinh Yen, occurring from January 13, 1951 to January 17, 1951, was a major engagement in... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 400 3 destroyers 2 landing craft 10,000 Casualties 40 killed 150 wounded 3,000 The Battle of Mao Khe, occuring from March 23, 1951 to March 28, 1951, was a significant engagement in the... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Raoul Salan Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 15,000  ??? Operation Lorraine was a French military operation of the First Indochina War. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Raoul Salan Robert Gilles Louis Berteil Marcel Bigeard Vo Nguyen Giap Strength - - Casualties - 3,000 casualties The Battle of Na San (French: bataille de Na San) was fought between French Union forces and the communist forces of the Viet Minh... Combatants French Union Viet Minh Commanders General de Berchoux Colonel de Monclard Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 4 Mobile Groups 2 Amphibian Sub-Group 7th Regiment (Division 304) 48th Regiment (Division 320) Casualties unknown unknown Operation Bretagne was a French Union military operation between 1 October 1952 and 4 January 1953... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist) Vietnam (Viet Minh) Commanders Christian de Castries Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800 (Davidson, 224) As of March 13: 49,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel (Davidson, 223) Casualties 2,293 dead 2 dead (USA) 5,193 wounded 11,800... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Indochina Wars refers to wars of national liberation that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947 until 1979, between nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. ... Combatants Socialist Republic of Vietnam Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Pol Pot Strength 150,000+ Vietnamese troops, supported by around 20,000 KNUFNS 70,000+ Casualties 30,000? 30,000? The Cambodian-Vietnamese War, also known as Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ...


Following the reoccupation of Indochina by the French following the end of World War II, the area having fallen to the Japanese, the Việt Minh launched a rebellion against the French authority governing the colonies of French Indochina. The first few years of the war involved a low-level rural insurgency against French authority. However, after the Chinese communists reached the Northern border of Vietnam in 1949, the conflict became a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States and the Soviet Union.[3] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


French Union forces included colonial troops from the whole former empire (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, African, Laotian, Cambodian, Vietnamese and Vietnamese ethnic minorities) and professional troops (European of the French Foreign Legion). The use of metropolitan recruits was forbidden by the governments to prevent the war from becoming even more unpopular at home. It was called the "dirty war" (la sale guerre) by the French communists and leftist intellectuals (including Sartre) during the Henri Martin affair in 1950.[4][5] Legionnaire redirects here. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Henri Martin (1923-) is a militant of the French Communist Party (PCF) famous for having been in the heart of the sabotage scandal Henri Martin Affair during the First Indochina War. ...


While the strategy of pushing the Việt Minh to attack a well defended base in a remote part of the country at the end of their logistical trail was validated at the Battle of Na San), the lack of building materials (especially concrete), tanks (because of lack of road access and difficulty in the jungle terrain), and air cover precluded an effective defense. The French were defeated with significant losses among their most mobile troops, particularly through ambush. Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Raoul Salan Robert Gilles Louis Berteil Marcel Bigeard Vo Nguyen Giap Strength - - Casualties - 3,000 casualties The Battle of Na San (French: bataille de Na San) was fought between French Union forces and the communist forces of the Viet Minh...


After the war, the Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954, made a provisional division of Vietnam at the 17th parallel, with control of the north given to the Việt Minh as the Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Hồ Chí Minh, and the south becoming the State of Vietnam under Emperor Bảo Đại. A year later, Bảo Đại would be deposed by his prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, creating the Republic of Vietnam. Diệm's refusal to enter into negotiations with North Vietnam about holding nationwide elections in 1956, as had been stipulated by the Geneva Conference, would eventually lead to war breaking out again in South Vietnam in 1959 - the Second Indochina War. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. ... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

Contents

Background

Further information: Vietnam Expedition, French-Thai War, Second French Indochina Campaign, Empire of VietnamAugust RevolutionVietnamese Famine of 1945, Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and French Far East Expeditionary Corps

Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between 1858 and 1887 with Western influence and education, nationalism grew until World War II provided a break in French control. Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade China... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... On August 19, 1945 Vietnamese Communist forces led by Hồ Chí Minh began the August Revolution (Vietnamese: Cách mạng tháng Tám). ... The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Vietnamese: Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the At Dau year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam during the Japanese occupation of the country. ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1905, Vietnamese resistance centered on the intellectual Phan Bội Châu. Châu looked to Japan, which had modernized and was one of the few Asian nations to resist colonization, (Thailand being another). With Prince Cường Để, Châu started two organizations in Japan, the Duy Tân Hội (Modernistic Association) and Vietnam Cong Hien Hoi. Due to French pressure, Japan deported Phan Bội Châu to China. Witnessing Sun Yat-sen's 1911 nationalist revolution, Châu was inspired to commence the Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội movement in Guangzhou. From 1914 to 1917, he was imprisoned by Yuan Shi Kai's counterrevolutionary government. In 1925, he was captured by French agents in Shanghai and spirited to Vietnam. Due to his popularity, Châu was spared from execution and placed under house arrest, until his death in 1940. Phan Bá»™i Châu (Chữ nôm 潘佩珠 1867-1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese twentieth century nationalism. ... Cường Để (Chữ nôm 彊柢 1882-1951) was an early 20th century Vietnamese revolutionary who, along with Phan Boi Chau unsuccessfully tried to liberate Vietnam from French colonial occupation. ... Dr. Sun Yat-sen Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: SÅ«n Zhōngshān; or Sun Yixian (Pinyin: SÅ«n Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


In September 1940, shortly after Phan Bội Châu's death, Japan launched the First French Indochina Campaign and invaded French Indochina, coinciding with their ally Germany's invasion of metropolitan France. Keeping the French colonial administration, the Japanese ruled from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France. As far as Vietnamese nationalists were concerned, this was a double-puppet government. Emperor Bảo Đại collaborated with the Japanese, just as he had with the French, ensuring his lifestyle could continue. Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. ... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ...


From October 1940 to May 1941, during the French-Thai War, the Vichy French in Indochina were involved with defending the colony from the forces of invading Thailand while the Japanese sat on the sidelines. The Thai forces generally did well on the ground. But Thai objectives in the war were limited. In January, Vichy naval forces decisively defeated Thai naval forces in the Battle of Koh Chang. The war ended in May with the French agreeing to minor territorial gains for Thailand. Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Strength 1 light cruiser 2 sloops of war 2 gunboats 2 torpedo boats 1 coastal defense ship Casualties 1 light cruiser 2 torpedo boats sunk 1 coastal defense ship heavily damaged The Battle of Koh Chang took place on January 17, 1941 during the French-Thai...


Due to a combination of Japanese exploitation and poor weather, a famine broke out killing approximately 2 million. The Việt Minh arranged a relief effort and won over some people in the north. The Vietnamese Famine of 1945 (Vietnamese: Nạn đói Ất Dậu - Famine of the At Dau year) was a famine that occurred in northern Vietnam during the Japanese occupation of the country. ...


In March 1945, Japan launched the Second French Indochina Campaign and ousted the Vichy French and formally installed Emperor Bảo Đại in the short-lived Empire of Vietnam. Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Below is a list of Vietnamese monarchs. ... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945...


In August 1945, when the Japanese surrendered in Vietnam, they allowed the Việt Minh and other nationalist groups to take over public buildings without resistance and started the August Revolution. In order to further help the nationalists, the Japanese kept Vichy French officials and military officers imprisoned for a month after the surrender. On August 19, 1945 Vietnamese Communist forces led by Hồ Chí Minh began the August Revolution (Vietnamese: Cách mạng tháng Tám). ...


Hồ Chí Minh was able to persuade Emperor Bảo Đại to abdicate on August 25, 1945. Bảo Đại was appointed "supreme adviser" to the new Việt Minh led government in Hanoi, which asserted independence on September 2. Deliberately borrowing from the declaration of independence of the United States of America, Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed on September 2nd: "We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." [6] Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


With the fall of the short lived Japanese colony of the Empire of Vietnam, the Provisional Government of the French Republic wanted to restore its colonial rule in French Indochina as the final step of the Liberation of France. An armistice was signed between Japan and the United States on August 20. France signed the armistice with Japan onboard the USS Missouri on behalf of CEFEO Expeditionary Corps header General Leclerc, on September 2nd. Flag Capital Huế Language(s) Vietnamese Political structure Client state Prime Minister Trần Trọng Kim Historical era World War II  - Established March 11, 1945  - Disestablished August 23, 1945 Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945... The Provisional Government of the French Republic was an interim government which governed France from 1944 to 1946. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Philippe de Hauteclocque, often known by his French resistance alias Leclerc (November 22, 1902 - November 28, 1947), was a Marshal of France. ...


On September 13, a Franco-British task force landed in Java, capital of Sukarno's Dutch East Indies, and Saigon, capital of Cochinchina (southern part of French Indochina) both being occupied by the Japanese and ruled by Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi, Commander-in-Chief of Japan's Southern Expeditionary Army Group based in Saigon.[7] Ally troops in Saigon were an airborne detachment, two British companies of the 20th Hindi Division and the French 5th Colonial Infantry Regiment, with British General Sir Douglas Gracey as supreme commander. The latter proclaimed martial law on September 21. The following night the Franco-British troops took control of Saigon.[8] Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... Marshal ) (also frequently translated as (Field marshal) was the highest rank in the prewar Imperial Japanese Military, especially the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Count Terauchi Hisaichi (寺内 寿一) (1879 - June or November 1945) was the field marshal in command of Japans Southern Expeditionary Army Group during the World War II era. ... The Southern Expeditionary Army Group was part of the Japanese military during the World War II era. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... General Sir Douglas David Gracey (born 1894; died 1964), KCB, KCIE, CBE, MC was a British officer in both World War I and World War II. He also fought in French Indochina and was the second Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


Almost immediately afterward, the Chinese Government, as agreed to at the Potsdam Conference, occupied French Indochina as far south as the 16th parallel in order to supervise the disarming and repatriation of the Japanese Army. This effectively ended Hồ Chí Minh's nominal government in Hanoi. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


General Leclerc arrived in Saigon in October 9, with him was French Colonel Massu's March Group (Groupement de marche). Leclerc's primary objectives were to restore public order in south Vietnam and to militarize Tonkin (north Vietnam). Secondary objectives were to wait for French backup in view to take back Chinese occupied Hanoi, then to negotiate with the Việt Minh officials.[9] is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, First Indochina War, Algerian War and the Suez crisis. ...


Timeline

The Indochinese conflict broke out in Hải Phòng after a conflict of interest in import duty at Hải Phòng port between the Việt Minh government and the French. On November 23, 1946, the French fleet began a naval bombardment of the city that killed over 6,000 Vietnamese civilians in an afternoon according to one source[10] or over 2,000 according to another.[11] The Việt Minh quickly agreed to a cease-fire and left the cities. There was no intention among the Vietnamese to give up though, and General Võ Nguyên Giáp soon brought up 30,000 men to attack the city. Although the French were outnumbered, their better weaponry and naval support made any Việt Minh's attack impossible. In December, hostilities broke out in Hanoi between the Việt Minh and the French and Hồ Chí Minh was forced to evacuate the capital in favor of remote mountain areas. Guerrilla warfare ensued with the French in control of almost everything except very remote areas. Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, HÇŽifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ...


In 1947, General Võ Nguyên Giáp moved his command to Tân Trào. The French sent assault teams after his bases, but Giáp refused to meet them in battle. Wherever the French troops went, the Việt Minh disappeared. Late in the year the French launched Operation Lea to take out the Việt Minh communications center at Bac Kan. They failed to capture Hồ Chí Minh and his key lieutenants as they had hoped, but they killed 9,000 Việt Minh soldiers during the campaign which was a major defeat for the Việt Minh insurgency. General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... The military operation codenamed Lèa was an attempt of the french colonial forces in Indochina to capture the communist leaders of the vietnamese movement for independence (Viet Minh), which started on October 7th, 1947 and was unsuccessfully finished at December 22, 1947. ...


In 1948, France began to look for some way to oppose the Việt Minh politically, with an alternative government in Saigon. They began negotiations with the former Vietnamese emperor, Bảo Đại, to lead an "autonomous" government within the French Union of nations: the State of Vietnam. Two years before, the French had refused Hồ's proposal of a similar status (albeit with some restrictions on French power and the latter's eventual withdrawal from Vietnam), however they were willing to give it to Bảo Ðại as he had always cooperated with French rule of Vietnam in the past and was in no position to seriously negotiate any conditions (Bảo Ðại had no military of his own, but soon he would have one). Saigon redirects here. ... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26...


In 1949, France officially recognized the "independence" of the State of Vietnam within the French Union under Bảo Ðại. However, France still controlled all defense issues and all foreign relations as Vietnam was only an independent state within the French Union . The Việt Minh quickly denounced the government and stated that they wanted "real independence, not Bảo Ðại independence". Later on, as a concession to this new government and a way to increase their numbers, France agreed to the formation of the Vietnamese National Army to be commanded by Vietnamese officers. These troops were used mostly to garrison quiet sectors so French forces would be available for combat. Private Cao Đài, Hòa Hảo and the Bình Xuyên gangster armies were used in the same way. The Vietnamese Communists also got help in 1949 when Chairman Mao Zedong succeeded in taking control of China and defeating the Kuomintang, thus gaining a major ally and supply area just across the border. In the same year, the French also recognized the independence (within the framework of the French Union) of the other two nations in Indochina, the Kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese criminal organization. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ...


The United States recognized the South Vietnamese state, but many nations, even in the West, viewed it as simply a French puppet regime and would not deal with it at all[citation needed]. The United States began to give military aid to France in the form of weaponry and military observers. By then with almost unlimited Chinese military supplies entering Vietnam, General Giáp re-organized his local irregular forces into five full conventional infantry divisions, the 304th, 308th, 312th, 316th and the 320th. The war began to intensify when Giáp went on the offensive, attacking isolated French bases along the Chinese border. In February 1950, Giáp seized the vulnerable 150-strong French garrison at Lai Khe in Tonkin just south of the border with China. Then, on May 25, he attacked the garrison of Cao Bằng manned by 4,000 French-controlled Vietnamese troops, but his forces were repulsed. Giáp launched his second offense again against Cao Bằng again as well as Dong Khe on September 15. Dong Khe fell on September 18, and Cao Bằng finally fell on October 3. Lang Son, with its 4,000-strong French Foreign Legion garrison, was attacked immediately after. The retreating French on Route 4 were attacked all the way by ambushing Việt Minh forces, together with the relief force coming from That Khe. The French dropped a paratroop battalion south of Dong Khe to act as a diversion only to see it surrounded and destroyed. On October 17, Lang Son, after a week of attacks, finally fell. By the time the remains of the garrisons reached the safety of the Red River Delta, 4,800 French troops had been killed, captured or missing in action and 2,000 wounded out of a total garrison force of over 10,000. Also lost were 13 artillery pieces, 125 mortars, 450 trucks, 940 machine guns, 1,200 submachine guns and 8,000 rifles destroyed or captured during the fighting. China and the Soviet Union recognized Hồ Chí Minh as the legitimate ruler of Vietnam and sent him more and more supplies and material aid. 1950 also marked the first time that napalm was ever used in Vietnam (this type of weapon was supplied by the U.S. for the use of the French Aeronovale at the time). Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cao Bằng is a town in northern Vietnam. ... The Battle of Dong Khe was a major battle of the First Indochina War. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lang Son, a city in far northern Vietnam, is the capital of Lang Son province. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ...

General Trinh Minh The.
General Trinh Minh The.

The military situation began to improve for France when their new commander, General Jean Marie de Lattre de Tassigny, built a fortified line from Hanoi to the Gulf of Tonkin, across the Red River Delta, to hold the Việt Minh in place and use his troops to smash them against this barricade, which became known as the "De Lattre Line". This led to a period of success for the French. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Trình Minh Thế (1922 - May 3, 1955) was a Vietnamese nationalist and military leader during the end of the First Indochina War and the beginning of the Vietnam War. ... Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (February 2, 1889 - January 11, 1952) was a French military hero of World War II. Born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds (during the time of Georges Clemenceau, who was also born there), he graduated from school in 1911, and fought in World War I. He specialized... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... The Gulf of Tonkin is located to the south of China. ...


On January 13 1951, Giáp moved the 308th and 312th Divisions, made up of over 20,000 men, to attack Vinh Yen, 20 miles (32 km) northwest of Hanoi which was manned by the 6,000 strong 9th Foreign Legion Brigade. The Việt Minh entered a trap. Caught for the first time in the open, they were mowed down by concentrated French artillery and machine gun fire. By January 16, Giáp was forced to withdraw having lost over 6,000 killed, 8,000 wounded and 500 captured. The Battle of Vinh Yen had been a catastrophe. is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vinh Yen is the capital of Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 9,000 20,000 Casualties Unknown; but light 6,000 dead 8,000 wounded 500 captured The Battle of Vinh Yen, occurring from January 13, 1951 to January 17, 1951, was a major engagement in...


On March 23, Giáp tried again, launching an attack against Mao Khe, 20 miles (32 km) north of Hải Phòng. The 316th Division, composed of 11,000 men, with the partly rebuilt 308th and 312th Divisions in reserve, went forward and were repulsed in bitter hand-to-hand fighting, backed up by French aircraft using napalm and rockets as well as gunfire from navy ships off the coast. Giáp, having lost over 3,000 dead and wounded by March 28, withdrew. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 400 3 destroyers 2 landing craft 10,000 Casualties 40 killed 150 wounded 3,000 The Battle of Mao Khe, occuring from March 23, 1951 to March 28, 1951, was a significant engagement in the... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, HÇŽifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Giáp launched yet another attack on May 29 with the 304th Division at Phu Ly, the 308th Division at Ninh Binh, and the main attack delivered by the 320th Division at Phat Diem south of Hanoi. The attacks fared no better and the three divisions lost heavily. Taking advantage of this, de Lattre mounted his counter offensive against the demoralized Việt Minh, driving them back into the jungle and eliminating the enemy pockets in the Red River Delta by June 18 costing the Việt Minh over 10,000 killed. is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phủ Lý is the capital city of Hà Nam Province of Vietnam. ... Ninh Binh is a city in Vietnam. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On July 31, French General Chanson was assassinated during a kamikaze attentat at Sadec that was blamed on the Việt Minh, and it was argued that Cao Đài nationalist Trinh Minh The could have been involved in its planning. is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Trình Minh Thế (1922 - May 3, 1955) was a Vietnamese nationalist and military leader during the end of the First Indochina War and the beginning of the Vietnam War. ...


Every effort by Võ Nguyên Giáp to break the line failed and every attack he made was answered by a French counter-attack that destroyed his forces. Việt Minh casualties rose alarmingly during this period, leading some to question the leadership of the Communist government, even within the party. However, any benefit this may have reaped for France was negated by the increasing opposition to the war in France. Although all of their forces in Indochina were volunteers, their officers were being killed faster than they could train new ones[citations needed]. Their only response was to ask for more millions of dollars from America[citations needed].

French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with a FM 24/29 during an ambush (1952).
French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with a FM 24/29 during an ambush (1952).

On November 14, 1951, the French seized Hòa Binh, 25 miles (40 km) west of the De Lattre line, by a parachute drop and expanded their perimeter. But Việt Minh launched attacks on Hòa Binh forcing the French to withdraw back to their main positions on the De Lattre line by February 22, 1952. Each side lost nearly 5,000 men in this campaign and it showed that the war was far from over. In January, General de Lattre fell ill from cancer and had to return to France for treatment; he died there shortly thereafter and was replaced by General Raoul Salan as the overall commander of French forces in Indochina. Within that year, throughout the war theater, the Việt Minh cut French supply lines and began to seriously wear down the resolve of the French forces. There were continued raids, skirmishes and guerrilla attacks, but through most of the rest of the year each side withdrew to prepare itself for larger operations. On October 17 1952, Giáp launched attacks against the French garrisons along Nghia Lo, northwest of Hanoi, breaking them off when a French parachute battalion intervened. Giáp by now had control over most of Tonkin beyond the De Lattre line. Raoul Salan, seeing the situation as critical, launched Operation Lorraine along the Clear river to force Giáp to relieve pressure from the Nghia Lo outposts. On 29 October 1952, in the largest operation in Indochina to date, 30,000 French Union soldiers moved out from the De Lattre line to attack the Việt Minh supply dumps at Phu Yen. Salan took Phu Tho on 5 November, and Phu Doan on 9 November by a parachute drop, and finally Phu Yen on 13 November. Giáp at first did not react to the French offensive. He planned to wait until their supply lines were over extended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta. Salan correctly guessed what the Việt Minh were up to and cancelled the operation on 14 November, beginning to withdraw to the de Lattre line. The only major fighting during the operation came during the withdrawal, when the Việt Minh ambushed the French column at Chan Muong on 17 November. The road was cleared after a bayonet charge by the Indochinese March Battalion and the withdrawal could continue. Though the operation was partially successful, it proved that although the French could strike out at any target outside the De Lattre line, it failed to divert the Việt Minh offensive or serious damage its logistical network. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... clarified and proofread. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Raoul Salan Vo Nguyen Giap Strength 15,000  ??? Operation Lorraine was a French military operation of the First Indochina War. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Phu Yen (in Vietnamese Phú Yên  ) is a province in the South Central Coast of Vietnam. ... Phú Thọ Province ( ; Hán Tá»±: 富壽) is a province in northern Vietnam. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the device. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...

A Bearcat of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (11.1953).
A Bearcat of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (11.1953).

On April 9, 1953 Giáp after having failed repeatedly in direct attacks on the French changed strategy and began to pressure the French by invading Laos. The only real change came in May when General Navarre replaced General Salan as supreme commander in Indochina. He reports to the government "…that there was no possibility of winning the war in Indo-China" saying that the best the French could hope for was a stalemate. Navarre, in response to the Việt Minh attacking Laos, concluded that "hedgehog" centers of defense were the best plan. Looking at a map of the area, Navarre chose the small town of Ðiện Biên Phủ, located about 10 miles (16 km) north of the Lao border and 175 miles (282 km) west of Hanoi as a target to block the Việt Minh from invading Laos. Ðiện Biên Phủ had a number of advantages; it was on a Việt Minh supply route into Laos on the Nam Yum River, it had an old Japanese airstrip built in the late 1930s for supply and it was situated in the T'ai hills where the T'ai tribesmen, still loyal to the French, operated. Operation Castor was launched on November 20, 1953 with 1,800 men of the French 1st and 2nd Airborne Battalions dropping into the valley of Ðiện Biên Phủ and sweeping aside the local Việt Minh garrison. The paratroopers managed control of a heart-shaped valley 12 miles (19 km) long and eight miles (13 km) wide surrounded by heavily wooded hills. Encountering little opposition, the French and T'ai units operating from Lai Châu to the north patrolled the hills. The operation was a tactical success for the French. However Giáp, seeing the weakness of the French position, started moving most of his forces from the De Lattre line to Ðiện Biên Phủ. By mid-December, most of the French and T'ai patrols in the hills around the town were wiped out by Việt Minh ambushes.[citations needed] The fight for control of this position would be the longest and hardest battle for the French Far East Expeditionary Corps and would be remembered by the veterans as "57 Days of Hell". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Grumman F8F Bearcat (affectionately called Bear) was the companys final piston engined fighter aircraft. ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6,800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... A simulated Napalm explosion during MCAS Air Show in 2003. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Navarre (1898 - 1983) was the commander of French forces in Indochina during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in the First Indochina War. ... clarified and proofread. ... Dien Bien Phu (Điện Biên Phủ) is a small town in northwestern Vietnam in the province of Điện Biên. ... Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist) Vietnam (Viet Minh) Commanders Christian de Castries Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800 (Davidson, 224) As of March 13: 49,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel (Davidson, 223) Casualties 2,293 dead 2 dead (USA) 5,193 wounded 11,800... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lai-Chau (Vietnamese: Lai Châu) is a province in northwest Vietnam. ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ...

Franco-Vietnamese medicals treating a wounded Việt Minh POW at Hung Yen (1954).
Franco-Vietnamese medicals treating a wounded Việt Minh POW at Hung Yen (1954).

By 1954, despite official propaganda presenting the war as a "crusade against communism",[12][13] the war in Indochina was still growing unpopular with the French public. The political stagnation of the Fourth Republic meant that France was unable to extract itself from the conflict. The United States initially sought to remain neutral, viewing the conflict as chiefly a decolonization war. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu occurred in 1954 between Việt Minh forces under Võ Nguyên Giáp supported by China and the Soviet Union and the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps supported by Indochinese allies and the United States. The battle was fought near the village of Dien Bien Phu in northern Vietnam and became the last major battle between the French and the Vietnamese in the First Indochina War. The battle began on March 13 when the Việt Minh attacked preemptively surprising the French with heavy artillery. Their supply lines interrupted, the French position became untenable, particularly when the advent of the monsoon season made dropping supplies and reinforcements by parachute difficult. With defeat imminent, the French sought to hold on till the opening of the Geneva peace meeting on April 26. The last French offensive took place on May 4, but it was ineffective. The Việt Minh then began to hammer the outpost with newly supplied Katyusha rockets. The final fall took two days, May 6 and 7th, during which the French fought on but were eventually overrun by a huge frontal assault. General Cogny based in Hanoi ordered General de Castries, who was commanding the outpost to cease fire at 5:30PM and to destroy all material (weapons, transmissions, etc.) to deny their use to the enemy. A formal order was given to not use the white flag so that it would not be considered to be a surrender but a ceasefire. Much of the fighting ended on May 7th, however a ceasefire was not respected on Isabelle, the isolated southern position, and the battle lasted until May 8th 1:00AM.[14] At least 2,200 members of the 20,000-strong French forces died during the battle. Of the 100,000 or so Vietnamese involved, there were an estimated 8,000 killed and another 15,000 wounded.[citations needed] The prisoners taken at Dien Bien Phu were the greatest number the Việt Minh had ever captured: one-third of the total captured during the entire war. One month after Dien Bien Phu, the composite Groupe Mobile 100 (GM100) of the French Union forces evacuated the An Khe outpost and was ambushed by a larger Việt Minh force at the Battle of Mang Yang Pass from June 24 to July 17th. The Việt Minh victory at Dien Bien Phu heavily influenced the outcome of the 1954 Geneva accords that took place on July 21. In August began Operation Passage to Freedom consisting of the evacuation of catholic and loyalist Vietnamese civilians from communist North Vietnamese prosecution. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 597 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2989 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 597 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2989 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hung Yen is a city in Vietnam. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Dien Bien Phu (Điện Biên Phủ) is a small town in northwestern Vietnam in the province of Điện Biên. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... An Khe is episode 102 of The West Wing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Passage to Freedom was the name of the sea lift of anti-communist Vietnamese out of communist-held territory following the Geneva peace agreements in 1954. ...


Geneva Conference and Partition

Further information: Geneva Conference (1954) and Partition of Vietnam
Geneva Conference.
Geneva Conference.

Negotiations between France and the Việt Minh started in Geneva in April 1954 at the Geneva Conference. During this time the French Union and the Việt Minh were fighting the most epic battle of the war at Dien Bien Phu. In France, Pierre Mendès-France, opponent of the war since 1950, had been invested on June 17, 1954, on a promise to put an end to the war, reaching a ceasefire in four months: The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... The Partition of Vietnam refers to the establishment of the 17th parallel as the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone in 1954, splitting Vietnam into halves after the First Indochina War. ... Image File history File links General Michel Aoun, Lebanese soldier and politician. ... Image File history File links General Michel Aoun, Lebanese soldier and politician. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ...

"Today it seems we can be reunited in a will for peace that may express the aspirations of our country... Since already several years, a compromise peace, a peace negotiated with the opponent seemed to me commanded by the facts, while it commanded, in return, to put back in order our finances, the recovery of our economy and its expansion. Because this war placed on our country an unbearable burden. And here appears today a new and formidable threat: if the Indochina conflict is not resolved — and settled very fast — it is the risk of war, of international war and maybe atomic, that we must foresee. It is because I wanted a better peace that I wanted it earlier, when we had more assets. But even now there is some renouncings or abandons that the situation does not comprise. France does not have to accept and will not accept settlement which would be incompatible with its more vital interests [applauding on certain seats of the Assembly on the left and at the extreme right]. France will remain present in Far-Orient. Neither our allies, nor our opponents must conserve the least doubt on the signification of our determination. A negotiation has been engaged in Geneva... I have longly studied the report... consulted the most qualified military and diplomatic experts. My conviction that a pacific settlement of the conflict is possible has been confirmed. A "cease-fire" must henceforth intervene quickly. The government which I will form will fix itself — and will fix to its opponents — a delay of 4 weeks to reach it. We are today on 17th of June. I will present myself before you before the 20th of July... If no satisfying solution has been reached at this date, you will be freed from the contract which would have tied us together, and my government will give its dismissal to Mr. the President of the Republic."[15] The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ...

The Geneva Conference on July 21, 1954 recognized the 17th parallel as a "provisional military demarcation line" temporarily dividing the country into two zones, Communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam. The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... On the Earth, a circle of latitude is an imaginary east-west circle that connects all locations with a given latitude. ... The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... Occident redirects here. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...

Image:Charles DeGaulle and Hồ Chí Minh are hanged in effigy during the National Shame Day celebration in Saigon, July 1964.jpg
Students demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements.

The Geneva Accords promised elections in 1956 to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. However, the United States and the State of Vietnam refused to sign the document. From his home in France Emperor Bảo Đại appointed Ngô Ðình Diệm as Prime Minister of South Vietnam. With American support, in 1955 Diệm used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam. Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... Bảo Đại (保大帝, 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997) was the 13th and last ruler of the Nguyá»…n Dynasty. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... // Republic of Cochin China (1 June 1946 – 14 June 1949) President of Cochin China Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (27 May 1948 – 14 June 1949) President (Pre-Vietnam) State of Vietnam (14 June 1949 - 26 October 1955) Chief (Quoc Truong) Prime Ministers of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...


When the elections were prevented from happening by the Americans and the South, Việt Minh cadres who stayed behind in South Vietnam were activated and started to fight the government. North Vietnam also invaded and occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the guerilla fighting National Liberation Front in South Vietnam. The war gradually escalated into the Second Indochina War, more commonly known as the Vietnam War in the West and the American War in Vietnam. Viet Cong redirects here. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Occident redirects here. ...


Hồ Chí Minh

Main article: Ho Chi Minh

Interestingly the US Communist Party was outlawed in 1954,[16] the very same year Wallace Buford and James McGovern Jr. became the first American casualties in Vietnam. Their C-119 transport aircraft was shot down by Việt Minh artillery while on mission to drop supplies to the garrison of Dien Bien Phu.[17] The war ended that year but its sequel started in French Algeria where the French Communist Party played an even stronger role by supplying the National Liberation Front (FLN) rebels with intelligence documents and financial aids. They were called "the suitcase carriers" (les porteurs de valises). For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... James B. Earthquake McGoon McGovern Jr. ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ... The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... The Jeanson Network (French: Réseau Jeanson) was a group of French militants led by Francis Jeanson who helped the Algerian National Liberation Front during the Algerian War of Independence. ...

308th Division parading onboard Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks in Hanoi (10.1954).
308th Division parading onboard Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks in Hanoi (10.1954).

In 1923, Hồ Chí Minh moved to Guangzhou, China. From 1925-26 he organized the 'Youth Education Classes' and occasionally gave lectures at the Whampoa Military Academy on the revolutionary movement in Indochina. He stayed there in Hong Kong as a representative of the Communist International. In June 1931, he was arrested and incarcerated by British police until his release in 1933. He then made his way back to the Soviet Union, where he spent several years recovering from tuberculosis. In 1938, he returned to China and served as an adviser with the Chinese Communist armed forces. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... See also GAZ Categories: Automobile stubs ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Whampoa Military Academy emblem includes its motto, which was first proclaimed by Sun Yat-sen at the Whampoa Academys opening in 1924. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...

Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1942).
Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1942).

In 1941, Hồ Chí Minh, a nationalist who saw communist revolution as the path to freedom, returned to Vietnam and formed the Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội (Allied Association of Independent Vietnam), also called the Việt Minh. He spent many years in Moscow and participated in the International Comintern. At the direction of Moscow, he combined the various Vietnamese communist groups into the Indochinese Communist Party in Hong Kong in 1930. Hồ Chí Minh created the Việt Minh as an umbrella organization for all the nationalist resistance movements, de-emphasizing his communist social revolutionary background. Late in the war, the Japanese created a nominally independent government of Vietnam under the overall leadership of Bảo Đại. Around the same time, the Japanese arrested and imprisoned most of the French officials and military officers left in the country. After the French army and other officials were freed from Japanese prisons in Vietnam, they began reasserting their authority over parts of the country. At the same time, the French government began negotiations with both the Việt Minh and the Chinese for a return of the French army to Vietnam north of the 16th parallel. The Việt Minh were willing to accept French rule to end Chinese occupation. Hồ Chí Minh and others had fears of the Chinese, based on China's historic domination and occupation of Vietnam. The French negotiated a deal with the Chinese where pre-war French concessions in Chinese ports such as Shanghai were traded for Chinese cooperation in Vietnam. The French landed a military force at Haiphong in early 1946. Negotiations then took place about the future for Vietnam as a state within the French Union. These talks eventually failed and the Việt Minh fled into the countryside to wage guerrilla war. In 1946, Vietnam gained its first constitution. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... General Võ Nguyên Giáp (born circa 1912[1]) Vietnamese general and statesman. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ...

Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, Feb. 28 1946).
Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, Feb. 28 1946).

The British had supported the French in fighting the Việt Minh, the armed religious Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo sects, and the Bình Xuyên organized crime groups which were all individually seeking power in the country. In 1948, seeking a post-colonial solution, the French re-installed Bảo Ðại as head of state of Vietnam under the French Union. The Việt Minh were ineffective in the first few years of the war and could do little more than harass the French in remote areas of Indochina. In 1949, the war changed with the triumph of the communists in China on Vietnam's northern border. China was able to give almost unlimited amounts of weapons and supplies to the Việt Minh which transformed itself into a conventional army. After World War II, the United States and the USSR entered into the Cold War. The Korean War broke out in 1950 between communist North Korea (DPRK) supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea (ROK) supported by the United States and its allies in the United Nations. The Cold War was now turning 'hot' in East Asia, and American government's fears of communist domination of the entire region would have deep implications for the American involvement in Vietnam. The US became strongly opposed to the government of Hồ Chí Minh, in part, because it was supported and supplied by China. Hồ's government gained recognition from China and the Soviet Union by January 1950 in response to Western support for the State of Vietnam that the French had proposed as an associate state within the French Union. In the French-controlled areas of Vietnam, in the same year, the government of Bảo Đại gained recognition by the United States and the United Kingdom. Download high resolution version (583x756, 123 KB)Letter from Ho Chi Minh to President Harry S. Truman, 02/28/1946. ... Download high resolution version (583x756, 123 KB)Letter from Ho Chi Minh to President Harry S. Truman, 02/28/1946. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Cao Dais Holy See, called the Tay Ninh Holy See, is located in Tay Ninh, Viet Nam Caodaism (Vietnamese:  ) is a relatively new, syncretist, monotheistic religion, officially established in Tây Ninh, southern Vietnam, in 1926. ... Hòa Hảo (Chu Nom: 和好) is a Buddhist religious tradition founded in 1939 by Huynh Phu So, a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam. ... Binh Xuyen was a powerful Vietnamese criminal organization. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... UN redirects here. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ...


French domestic situation

The 1946 Constitution creating the Fourth Republic (1946-1958) made France a Parliamentary republic. Because of the political context, it could find stability only by an alliance between the three dominant parties: the Christian Democratic Popular Republican Movement (MRP), the French Communist Party (PCF) (founded by Hồ Chí Minh himself) and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). Known as tripartisme, this alliance lasted from 1947 until the May 1947 crisis, with the expulsion from Paul Ramadier's SFIO government of the PCF ministers, marking the official start of the Cold War in France. However, this had the effect of weakening the regime, with the two most important movements of this period, Communism and Gaullism, in opposition. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The Popular Republican Movement (Mouvement Républicain Populaire or MRP) was a French Christian democratic party of the Fourth Republic. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The French Section of the Workers International (Section Française de lInternationale Ouvrière, SFIO), founded in 1905, was a French socialist political party, designed as the local section of the Second International (i. ... The Three-parties alliance (Tripartisme in French) was a coalition which governed in France from 1944 to 1947, composed of the Communists (PCF), the Socialists (SFIO) and the Christian-Democrats (MRP), which at the beginning regrouped Gaullists. ... French prime minister Paul Ramadier Paul Ramadier (March 17, 1888 - October 14, 1961) was a prominent French Socialist politician of the Third and Fourth Republics. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ...


Unlikely alliances had to be made between left and right-wing parties in order to have a government invested by the National Assembly, resulting in strong parliamentary unstability. Hence, France had fourteen prime ministers in succession between the creation of the Fourth Republic in 1947 and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The turnover of governments (there were 17 different governments during the war) left France unable to prosecute the war with any consistent policy according to veteran General René de Biré (Lieutenant at Dien Bien Phu).[18] The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195...


France was increasingly unable to afford the costly conflict of Indochina and, by 1954, the United States was paying 80% of France's war effort which was $3,000,000 per day in 1952.[19][20]


A strong anti-war movement existed in France coming mostly from the then powerful French Communist Party (outpowering the socialists) and its young militant associations, major trade unions like the General Confederation of Labour as well as notable leftist intellectuals.[5][21] The first occurrence was probably at the National Assembly on March 21, 1947 when the communists deputees refused to vote the military credits for Indochina. The following year a pacifist event was organized by soviet organizations with the French communist atomic physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie as president. It was the World Peace Council's predecessor known as the "1st Worldwide Congress of Peace Partisans" (1er Congrès Mondial des Partisans de la Paix) which took place from March 25 to March 28, 1948 in Paris.[22] Later in April 28, 1950, Joliot-Curie would be dismissed from the military and civilian Atomic Energy Commission. Young communist militants (UJRF) were also involved in sabotage actions like the famous Henri Martin Affair and the case of Raymonde Dien who was jailed one year for having blocked an ammunition train, with the help of other militants, in order to prevent the supply of French forces in Indochina in February 1950.[18][5] Similar actions against trains occurred in Roanne, Charleville, Marseille, Paris. Even ammunition sabotage by PCF agents have been reported, such as grenades exploding in the hands of legionaries.[18] These actions became so important by 1950 that the French Assembly voted a law against sabotage from March 2 to 8th. At this session tension was so high between politicians that fighting ensued in the assembly following communist deputees speeches against the Indochinese policy.[22] This month saw the French navy mariner and communist militant Henri Martin arrested by the military police and jailed for five years for sabotage and propaganda operations in Toulon's arsenal. On May 5 the communist Ministers were dismissed from the government, marking the end of the Tripartism.[22] A few months later on November 11, 1950, the French Communist Party leader Maurice Thorez went to Moscow. Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... The Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT or General Confederation of Work) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frédéric Joliot-Curie Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Soviet propaganda poster: Peoples of world do not want the hardship of war again! (I. Stalin) The World Peace Council (or World Council of Peace) was formed in 1949 in order to promote peaceful coexistence and nuclear disarmament. ... Soviet propaganda poster: Peoples of world do not want the hardship of war again! (I. Stalin) The World Peace Council (or World Council of Peace) was formed in 1949 in order to promote peaceful coexistence and nuclear disarmament. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commissariat à l’énergie atomique or CEA, the Atomic Energy Commission, in English, is a French “public establishment of an industrial and commercial character” whose mission is to develop all applications of atomic energy, both civilian and military. ... The Henri Martin Affair was a political-military scandal that happened under the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War. ... Roanne is a town and commune in southern France in the Loire département, about 90km north-west of Lyon. ... Charleville-Mézières is a town and commune in northeastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Ardennes département which is itself part of the Champagne-Ardenne région. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henri Martin (1923-) is a militant of the French Communist Party (PCF) famous for having been in the heart of the sabotage scandal Henri Martin Affair during the First Indochina War. ... Panorama of Toulon area. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maurice Thorez Maurice Thorez (April 28, 1900–July 11, 1964) was a French statesman and longtime leader of the French Communist Party (PCF) from 1930 until his death. ...



Some military officers involved in the Revers Report scandal (Rapport Revers) like General Salan were very pessimistic about the way the war was managed.[23] Actually multiple political-military scandals happened during the war starting with the Generals' Affair (Affaire des Généraux) from September 1949 to November 1950. The Generals Affair (also known as Revers Report, Rapport Revers) was a political-military scandal that happened under the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War. ... clarified and proofread. ... The Generals Affair (also known as Revers Report, Rapport Revers) was a political-military scandal that happened under the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War. ...


As a result General Revers was dismissed in December 1949 and socialist Defense Ministry Jules Moch (SFIO) was brought on court by the National Assembly in November 28th 1950. Emerging medias played their role, and this scandal started the commercial success of the first French news magazine L'Express created in 1953.[24] Jules Moch , a French politician, was born in Paris on March 15, 1893 and died on August 1, 1985 in Cabris (Alpes-Maritimes). ... The French Section of the Workers International (Section Française de lInternationale Ouvrière, SFIO), founded in 1905, was a French socialist political party, designed as the local section of the Second International (i. ... LExpress is Frances first weekly news magazine. ...


The third scandal was a financial-political scandal, concerning military corruption, money and arms trading involving both the French Union army and the Việt Minh, known as the Piastres Affair. 100 piastres, French Indochina circa 1954 The Piastres Affair also known as Piastres Scandal and Piastres Trade (laffaire des piastres, le scandale des piastres, or le trafic de pistres) was a financial-political scandal of the French Fourth Republic that broke up in 1950 during the First Indochina War. ...



In the French news the Indochina War was presented as a direct continuation of the Korean War where France had fought as a UN French battalion then incorporated in a U.S. unit, which was later involved in the terrible Battle of Mang Yang Pass of June and July 1954.[12] In an interview taped in May 2004, General Bigeard (6th BPC) argues that "one of the deepest mistakes done by the French during the war was the propaganda telling you are fighting for Freedom, you are fighting against Communism",[13] hence the sacrifice of volunteers during the climactic battle of Dien Bien Phu. In the latest days of the siege, 652 non-paratrooper soldiers from all army corps from cavalry to infantry to artillery dropped for the first and last time of their life to support their comrades. The Cold War excuse was later used by General Challe through his famous "Do you want Mers El Kébir & Algiers to become soviet bases as soon as tomorrow?", during the Generals' putsch (Algerian War) of 1961, with limited effect though.[25] The same propaganda existed in the United States with local newsreels using French news footages, probably supplied by the army's cinematographic service. Happening right in the Red Scare years, propaganda was necessary both to justify financial aid and at the same time to promote the American effort in the ongoing Korea War.[19][26] A few hours after the French Union defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954, the U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an official speech depicting the "tragic event" and "its defense for fifty seven days and nights will remain in History as one of the most heroic of all time." Later on he denounced Chinese aid to the Việt Minh, explained that the United States couldn't act openly because of international pressure, and concluded with the call to "all concerned nations" concerning the necessity of "a collective defense" against "the communist aggression".[27] Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... UN redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ... Maurice Challe (5 September 1905 - 8 January 1979) was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch. ... Mers-el-Kébir (Arabic: ‎, “Great Harbor”) is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran, in the Oran Province. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The Algiers putsch (French: Le Putsch dAlger or Coup détat dAlger), also known as the Generals putsch (Le Putsch des Généraux), took place from the 21 April PM to the 26 April 1961 in the midst of the... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... Political cartoon of 1919 depicting a European anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) served as U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. ...


War crimes & re-education camps

Further information: War crimes and reeducation camp
  • The Boudarel Affair. Georges Boudarel was a French communist militant who used brainswashing and tortures against French Union POWs in Việt Minh reeducation camps.[28] The French national association of POWs brought Boudarel to court for a war crime charge. Most of the French Union prisoners died in the Việt Minh camps, many POWs from the Vietnamese National Army are missing.
  • Passage to Freedom was a Franco-American operation to evacuate refugees. Loyal Indochinese evacuated to metropolitan France were kept in camps.[29]
  • In 1957, the French Chief of Staff with Raoul Salan would use the POWs experience with the Việt Minh reeducation camps to create two "Instruction Center for Pacification and Counter-Insurgency" (Centre d'Instruction à la Pacification et à la Contre-Guérilla aka CIPCG) and train thousands of officers during the Algerian War.

In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Reeducation camp (trại học tập cải tạo) is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân đội Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56...

Other countries' involvement

Further information: French Union

By 1946, France headed the French Union. As successive governments had forbidden the sending of metropolitan troops, the French Far East Expeditionary Corps (CEFEO) was created in March 1945. The Union gathered combatants from almost all French territories made of colonies, protectorates and associated states (Madagascar, Senegal, Tunisia, etc.) to fight in French Indochina, which was then occupied by the Japanese. About 325,000 of the 500,000 French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units.[30] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... The French Far East Expeditionary Corps (French: ) was an expeditionary force of the French Army that fought in the First Indochina War. ... Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. ...


The A.O.F. (Afrique Occidentale Française) was a federation of African colonies. Senegalese and other African troops were sent to fight in Indochina. Some African alumni were trained in the Infantry Instruction Center no.2 (Centre d'Instruction de l'Infanterie no.2) located in southern Vietnam. Senegalese of the Colonial Artillery fought at the siege of Dien Bien Phu. As a French colony (later a full province), French Algeria sent local troops to Indochina including several RTA (Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens) light infantry battalions. Morocco was a French protectorate and sent troops to support the French effort in Indochina. Moroccan troops were part of light infantry RTMs (Régiment de Tirailleurs Marocains) for "Moroccan Sharpshooters Regiment". Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... A US Marine marksman. ...


As a French protectorate, Bizerte, Tunisia, was a major French base. Tunisian troops, mostly RTT (Régiment de Tirailleurs Tunisiens), were sent to Indochina. Part of French Indochina, then part of the French Union and later an associated state, Laos fought the communists along with French forces. The role played by Laotian troops in the conflict was depicted by veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer's famous 317th Platoon released in 1964.[31] The French Indochina state of Cambodia played a significant role during the Indochina War through its infantrymen and paratroopers.[citation needed] Bizerte or Bizerta (Arabic: بنزرت; transliterated: Binzart) is a capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. ...


While Bao Dai's State of Vietnam (formerly Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchine) had the Vietnamese National Army supporting the French forces, some minorities were trained and organized as regular battalions (mostly infantry tirailleurs) that fought with French forces against the Việt Minh. The Tai Battalion 2 (BT2, 2e Bataillon Thai) is famous for its desertion during the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Propaganda leaflets written in Tai and French sent by the Việt Minh were found in the deserted positions and trenches. Such deserters were called the Nam Yum rats by Bigeard during the siege, as they hid close to the Nam Yum river during the day and searched at night for supply drops.[32] Another allied minority was the Muong people (Mường). The 1st Muong Battalion (1er Bataillon Muong) was awarded the Croix de Guerre des TOE after the victorious battle of Vinh Yen in 1951.[33] In the 1950s, the French established secret commando groups based on loyal montagnard ethnic minorities referred as "partisans" or "maquisards", called the Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Composite Airborne Commando Group or GCMA), later renamed Groupement Mixte d'Intervention (GMI, or Mixed Intervention Group), directed by the SDECE counter-intelligence service. The SDECE's "Service Action" GCMA used both commando and guerrilla techniques and operated in intelligence and secret missions from 1950 to 1955.[34][35] Declassified information about the GCMA include the name of its commander, famous Colonel Roger Trinquier, and a mission on April 30th 1954, when Jedburgh veteran Captain Sassi led the Mèo partisans of the GCMA Malo-Servan in Operation Condor during the siege of Dien Bien Phu.[36] In 1951, Adjutant-Chief Vandenberghe from the 6th Colonial Infantry Regiment (6e RIC) created the "Commando Vanden" (aka "Black Tigers", aka "North Vietnam Commando #24") based in Nam Dinh. Recruits were volunteers from the Thổ people, Nung people and Miao people. This commando unit wore Việt Minh black uniforms to confuse the enemy and used techniques of the experienced Bo doi (Bộ đội, regular army) and Du Kich (guerrilla unit). Việt Minh prisoners were recruited in POW camps. The commando was awarded the Croix de Guerre des TOE with palm in July 1951, however Vandenberghe was betrayed by a Vet Minh recruit, commander Nguien Tinh Khoi (308th Division's 56th Regiment), who assassinated him (and his Vietnamese fiancee) with external help on the night of January 5th 1952.[37][38][39] Coolies and POWs known as PIM (Prisonniers Internés Militaires which is basically the same as POW) were civilians used by the army as logistical support personnel. During the battle of Dien Bien Phu, coolies were in charge of burying the corpses - the first days only, after they were abandoned hence a terrible smell according to veterans - and they had the dangerous job of gathering supply packets delivered in drop zones while the Viet Minh artillery was firing hard to destroy the crates. The Viet Minh also used thousands of coolies to carry the Chu-Luc (regional units) supplies and ammunition during assaults. The PIM were civilian males old enough to join Bao Dai's army. They were captured in enemy controlled villages, and those who refused to join the State of Vietnam's army were considered prisoners or used as coolies to support a given regiment.[40] Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) 1949-1954 borders Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Head of State¹ Emperor Bảo Đại Prime minister Ngo Dinh Diem Historical era Cold War  - Independence declared (from France) June 14, 1949  - Recognised 1954  - Disestablished October 26... The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army (Vietnamese: Quân Ä‘á»™i Quốc gia Việt Nam, National Army of Vietnam) was the State of Vietnams military force created in 1950 at the instigation of French General de Lattre. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai... The Mường is the third largest of Vietnam’s 53 minority groups, with an estimated population of 1. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Jean de Lattre de Tassigny Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 9,000 20,000 Casualties Unknown; but light 6,000 dead 8,000 wounded 500 captured The Battle of Vinh Yen, occurring from January 13, 1951 to January 17, 1951, was a major engagement in... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Airborne Mixed Commando Group) commonly referred as just GCMA, was the Action Service of the SDECE French counter-intelligence service active during the Cold War. ... The Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Airborne Mixed Commando Group) commonly referred as just GCMA, was the Action Service of the SDECE French counter-intelligence service active during the Cold War. ... The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage (External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service, SDECE) was Frances external intelligence agency from November 6, 1944 to April 2, 1982 when it was replaced by the Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE). ... Roger Trinquier (March 20, 1908 - 1986) was a French army officer with an immense impact on the development of Counter-insurgency theory. ... Jedburgh was an operation in World War II in which men from the Office of Strategic Services and the British Special Operations Executive parachuted into Nazi occupied France to conduct sabotage and guerilla warfare, and to lead French Maquis forces against the Germans. ... Sassi passing by Mèo GCMA commmandos during Operation Condor. ... The Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Airborne Mixed Commando Group) commonly referred as just GCMA, was the Action Service of the SDECE French counter-intelligence service active during the Cold War. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (French: Opération Condor) was the name of the French intelligence agency SDECEs special service GCMA secret operation against the Viet Minh supply column. ... The Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés (Airborne Mixed Commando Group) commonly referred as just GCMA, was the Action Service of the SDECE French counter-intelligence service active during the Cold War. ... Nam Dinh   is a city in northern Vietnam. ... The Thổ ethnic group (also Keo, Mon, Cuoi, Ho, Tay Poong) inhabits the mountainous regions of Northern Vietnam, mainly Nghệ An province southwest of Hanoi. ... The Nùng are an ethnic minority in Vietnam. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


One point that neither the Americans nor ther French seemed to grasp, was the concept of sanctuary. As long as the revolutionaries who are fighting a guerilla war have a sanctuary, in which they can hide out, recoup after losses, and store supplies, it is almost impossible for any foreign enemy to ever destroy them.

China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of soviet-built GAZ-51 ("Molotova") trucks in the 1950s.
China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of soviet-built GAZ-51 ("Molotova") trucks in the 1950s.

In the early 1950s, southern China was used as a sanctuary by Việt Minh guerrillas. Several hit and run ambushes were successfully operated against French Union convoys along the neighboring Route Coloniale 4 (RC 4) which was a major supply way in Tonkin (northern Vietnam). One of the most famous attack of this kind was the battle of Cao Bằng. China supplied the Việt Minh guerrillas with food (thousands of tons of rice), money, medics, arms (Sung Khong Zat cannons), ammunitions (SKZ rockets), artillery (24 guns were used at Dien Bien Phu) and other military equipment including a large part of material captured from Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army during the Chinese Civil War. Evidences of the Chinese secret aid were found in caves during Operation Hirondelle in July 1953.[41][42] 2,000 Chinese and Soviet Union military advisors trained the Viet Minh guerrilla to turn it into a full range army.[18] On top of this China sent two artillery battalions at the siege of Dien Bien Phu on May 6th 1954. One operated SKZ (Sung Khong Zat) 75 mm recoilless cannons while the other used 12 x 6 Katyusha rockets[43] China and the Soviet Union were the first nations to recognize North Vietnam. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB) Pl: Samochód Lublin-51 (licencja GAZ) En: Lublin-51 truck, Polish truck (Russian GAZ-51 license) Photo taken by RJT in 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: GAZ-51 Lublin truck ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB) Pl: Samochód Lublin-51 (licencja GAZ) En: Lublin-51 truck, Polish truck (Russian GAZ-51 license) Photo taken by RJT in 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: GAZ-51 Lublin truck ... See also GAZ Categories: Automobile stubs ... Combatants France Vietnam Commanders Gen. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , sometimes shortened to 國軍 or National Army) was the party army of the Kuomintang (KMT) from 1925 until 1947, as well as the national army of the Republic of China during the KMTs period of party rule beginning in 1928. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ...

Chinese operated soviet-built Katyushas were used at Dien Bien Phu on May 6, 1954.

The USSR was the other ally of the Việt Minh supplying GAZ trucks, truck engines, fuel, tires, arms (thousands of Skoda light machine guns), all kind of ammunitions, anti-aircraft guns (4 x 37 mm type) and cigarettes. During Operation Hirondelle, the French Union paratroopers captured and destroyed tons of Soviet supply in the Ky Lua area.[44][45] According to General Giap, the Viet Minh used 400 GAZ-51 soviet-built trucks at the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Using highly effective camouflage, the French Union reconnaissance planes were not able to notice them. On May 6, 1954 during the siege, Stalin's organs were successfully used against the outpost. Together with China, the Soviet Union sent 2,000 military advisors to train the Viet Minh guerrilla and turn it into a fully organized army.[18] The Soviet Union was with China the first nations to recognize Hồ Chí Minh's North Vietnam. Image File history File links Zalp_katyush. ... Image File history File links Zalp_katyush. ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... GAZ(RTS:GAZA) or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Russia, Nizhny Novgorod), translated as Gorky Automobile Plant (Russian: ), started in 1929 as NNAZ, a cooperation between Ford and the Soviet Union. ... Å koda Works (Czech: Å kodovy závody; today Å koda Holding, a. ... See also GAZ Categories: Automobile stubs ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ...


Mutual Defense Assistance Act (1950-1954)

Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague during operation Passage to Freedom in 1954.
Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague during operation Passage to Freedom in 1954.

At the beginning of the war, the U.S. was neutral in the conflict because of opposition to imperialism and consequently to help colonial empires regain their power and influence, because the Viet Minh had recently been their allies, and because most of its attention was focused on Europe where Winston Churchill argued an Iron Curtain had fallen. This was the beginning of the Cold War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2443 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 488 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2443 × 3000 pixel, file size: 1. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... There were 558 Landing Ship, Medium type amphibious assault ships made for the United States Navy between 1944 and 1945. ... USS Montague (AKA-98) was an Andromeda class attack cargo ship named after a county in Texas. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


Then the U.S. government gradually began supporting the French in their war effort, primarily through Mutual Defense Assistance Act, as a means of stabilizing the French Fourth Republic in which the French Communist Party - created by Hồ Chí Minh himself - was a significant political force. A dramatic shift occurred in American policy after the victory of Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War. By 1949, however, the United States became concerned about the spread of communism in Asia, particularly following the end of the Chinese Civil War, and began to strongly support the French as the two countries were bound by the Cold War Mutual Defense Programme.[46] After the Moch-Marshall meeting of September 23, 1950, in Washington, the United States started to support the French Union effort politically, logistically and financially. Officially, US involvement did not include use of armed force. However, recently it has been discovered that undercover (CAT) -or not- US Air Force pilots flew to support the French during Operation Castor in November 1953. Two US pilots were killed in action during the siege of Dien Bien Phu the following year. These facts were declassified and made public more than 50 years after the events, in 2005 during the Légion d'honneur award ceremony by the French ambassador in Washington.[47] The Mutual Defense Assistance Act commonly known as the Battle Act was a 1949 law passed by the United States. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Jules Moch , a French politician, was born in Paris on March 15, 1893 and died on August 1, 1985 in Cabris (Alpes-Maritimes). ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Civil Air Transport (CAT) was a CIA-owned airline that supported United States covert operations throughout East and Southeast Asia. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist) Vietnam (Viet Minh) Commanders Christian de Castries Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800 (Davidson, 224) As of March 13: 49,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel (Davidson, 223) Casualties 2,293 dead 2 dead (USA) 5,193 wounded 11,800... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Hmong mercenaries Viet Minh Commanders Christian de Castries # Pierre Langlais # René Cogny Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800[1] As of March 13: 48,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel[2] Casualties 2,293 dead, 5,195... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


In May 1950, after the capture of Hainan island by Chinese Communist forces, U.S. President Harry S. Truman began covertly authorizing direct financial assistance to the French, and in June 27, 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, announced publicly that the U.S. was doing so. It was feared in Washington that if Ho were to win the war, with his ties to the Soviet Union, he would establish a puppet state with Moscow with the Soviets ultimately controlling Vietnamese affairs. The prospect of a communist dominated Southeast Asia was enough to spur the U.S. to support France, so that the spread of Soviet-allied communism could be contained. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


On June 30, 1950, the first U.S. supplies for Indochina were delivered. In September, Truman sent the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) to Indochina to assist the French. Later, in 1954, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained the escalation risk with the Domino theory. During the Korean war, the conflict in Vietnam was also seen as part of a broader proxy war with China and the USSR in Asia. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) is a designation for American military advisors sent to assist in the training of conventional armed forces of Third World countries. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Escalation is the phenomenon of something getting worse step by step, for example a quarrel, or, notably, military presence and nuclear armament during the Cold War. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ...


US Navy assistance (1951-1954)

Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood) transferred to France in 1953.
Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood) transferred to France in 1953.

The USS Windham Bay delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat to Saigon in January 26th 1951.[48] The Aircraft Carrier USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24), Public domain photo from history. ... The Aircraft Carrier USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24), Public domain photo from history. ... New Haven (CL-76), reclassified CV-24 and renamed Belleau Wood on 16 February 1942 and reclassified CVL-24 on 15 July 1943, was a United States Navy Independence class aircraft carrier active during World War II. Belleau Wood was launched 6 December 1942 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... USS Windham Bay (CVE-92) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1129) on 5 January 1944 at Vancouver, Wash. ... The Grumman F8F Bearcat (affectionately called Bear) was the companys final piston engined fighter aircraft. ...


On March 2nd, the US Navy transferred the USS LST 490 (Agenor) to the French navy in Indochina per the MAAG-led MAP. Renamed RFS Vulcain (A-656), she was used in Operation Hirondelle in 1953. The USS Sitkoh Bay carrier delivered Grumman F8F Bearcat aircraft to Saigon on March 26, 1951. During September 1953, the USS Belleau Wood -renamed Bois Belleau- was lent to France and sent to French Indochina to replace the Arromanches. She was used to support delta defenders in the Halong bay in May 1954. In August, she joined the Franco-American evacuation operation Passage to Freedom. The USS Agenor (ARL-3) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Agenor (in history and Greek mythology, a king of Tyre), she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... The USS Agenor (ARL-3) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Agenor (in history and Greek mythology, a king of Tyre), she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... USS Sitkoh Bay (CVE-86), an escort aircraft carrier, was converted from a Maritime Commission hull (MC hull 1123) by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Company of Vancouver, Washington. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Haven (CL-76), reclassified CV-24 and renamed Belleau Wood on 16 February 1942 and reclassified CVL-24 on 15 July 1943, was a United States Navy Independence class aircraft carrier active during World War II. Belleau Wood was launched 6 December 1942 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... The fourth and last HMS Colossus (R15) had a relatively brief time with the Royal Navy. ... Ha Long Bay (Vietnamese: Vịnh Hạ Long) is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Quảng Ninh province, Vietnam. ...


The same month the United States delivered additional aircraft using the USS Windham Bay carrier.[49] She would return to Saigon in 1955. On April 18, 1954, during the siege of Dien Bien Phu, the USS Saipan delivered 25 Korean War AU-1 Corsair aircraft to be used by the French Aeronavale to support the bessieged garrison. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... The first USS Saipan (CVL-48) was a light aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class of carrier. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ...


US Air Force assistance (1952-1954)

A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla who fought at Dien Bien Phu.
A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla who fought at Dien Bien Phu.

A total of 94 F4U-7s were built for the Aeronavale in 1952, with the last of the batch, the final Corsair built, rolled out in December 1952. The F4U-7s were actually purchased by the U.S. Navy and passed on to the Aeronavale through the U.S. Military Assistance Program (MAP). They were supplemented by 25 ex-U.S.MC AU-1s (previously used in the Korean War) and moved from Yokosuka, Japan to Tourane Air Base (Da Nang), Vietnam in April 1954. US Air Force assistance followed in November 1953 when the French commander in Indochina, General Navarre, asked General McCarty, commander of the Combat Cargo Division, for 12 Fairchild C-119 for Operation Castor at Dien Bien Phu. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1526x1179, 636 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): F4U Corsair User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1526x1179, 636 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): F4U Corsair User:GeeJo/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... The Aviation Navale (Naval Aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable) and 6,800 men, both civilians and military personel. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ... This article is about the city of Da Nang. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Henri Navarre (1898 - 1983) was the commander of French forces in Indochina during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in the First Indochina War. ... The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was a U.S. military transport aircraft developed from the World War II Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, litter patients, and mechanized equipment, and to drop cargo and troops by parachute. ... Combatants France, Vietnam (loyalist) Vietnam (Viet Minh) Commanders Christian de Castries Vo Nguyen Giap Strength As of March 13: 10,800 (Davidson, 224) As of March 13: 49,000 combat personnel, 15,000 logistical support personnel (Davidson, 223) Casualties 2,293 dead 2 dead (USA) 5,193 wounded 11,800...


On March 3, 1954, twelve C-119s of the 483rd Troop Carrier Wing ("Packet Rats") based at Ashiya, Japan, were painted with France's insignia and loaned to France with 24 CIA pilots for short term use. Maintenance was carried out by the US Air Force and airlift operations were commanded by McCarty.[47] is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Ashiya (芦屋町; -machi) is a town located in Onga District, Fukuoka, Japan. ...


Central Intelligence Agency covert operations (1954)

France-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954.

Two CIA pilots (CAT) were killed in action during the siege of Dien Bien Phu in 1954.[47] Twenty four CIA pilots supplied the French Union garrison by airlifting paratroopers, ammunition, artillery pieces, tons of barbed wire, medics and other military material. With the reducing DZ areas, night operations and anti-aircraft artillery assaults, many of the "packets" fell into Viet Minh hands. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was a U.S. military transport aircraft developed from the World War II Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, litter patients, and mechanized equipment, and to drop cargo and troops by parachute. ... CIA redirects here. ... Civil Air Transport (CAT) was a CIA-owned airline that supported United States covert operations throughout East and Southeast Asia. ... Drop zone in Empuriabrava, Catalonia Drop zone in Pepperell, MA (USA) seen from the air In parachuting, a Drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land. ...


The 37 CIA pilots completed 682 airdrops under anti-aircraft fire between March 13 and May 6th. The ceasefire began the following day at 5:00 PM under Hanoi-based General Cogny's orders.[47] On February 25, 2005, the French ambassador to the United States, Jean-David Levitte, awarded the seven remaining CIA pilots with the Légion d'honneur.[47] is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Levitte as Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, addressing the Security Council before its vote on resolution 1441. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


Operation Passage to Freedom (1954)

Main article: Operation Passage to Freedom

In August 1954, in support to the French navy and the merchant navy, the U.S. Navy launched Operation Passage to Freedom and sent hundreds of ships, including USS Montague, in order to evacuate 293,000 non-communist -especially catholic- Vietnamese refugees prosecuted by the communist Viet Minh in North Vietnam following the July 20, 1954 armistice and partition of Vietnam.[50][29] The last French Union troops left Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos in 1956. Operation Passage to Freedom was the name of the sea lift of anti-communist Vietnamese out of communist-held territory following the Geneva peace agreements in 1954. ... Operation Passage to Freedom was the name of the sea lift of anti-communist Vietnamese out of communist-held territory following the Geneva peace agreements in 1954. ... USS Montague (AKA-98) was an Andromeda class attack cargo ship named after a county in Texas. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... The Partition of Vietnam refers to the establishment of the 17th parallel as the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone in 1954, splitting Vietnam into halves after the First Indochina War. ...


Popular culture

Although a kind of taboo in France, "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs. Since its declasification in the 2000s television documentaries have been released using new perspectives about the U.S. covert involvement and open critics about the French propaganda used during wartime.


Famous Communist propagandist Roman Karmen was in charge of the media exploitation of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. In his documentary Vietnam (Вьетнам, 1955) he staged the famous scene with the raising of the Viet Minh flag over de Castries' bunker which is similar to the one he staged over the Nazi Reichstag roof during World War II (Берлин, 1945) and the "S" shaped POW column marching after the battle, where he used the same optical technique he experimented before when he staged the German prisoners after the Siege of Leningrad (Ленинград в борьбе, 1942) and the Battle of Moscow (Разгром немецких войск под Москвой, 1942).[51][52] Roman Karmen (16 November 1906 – April 1975) was a Soviet war camera-man and film director and one of the most influential figures in documentary film making; he could be considered Russias answer to Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Reichstag building. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2...


The first movie about the war Shock Patrol (Patrouille de Choc) aka Patrol Without Hope (Patrouille Sans Espoir) by Claude Bernard-Aubert came out in 1956. The French censorship has cut some violent scenes and made the director change the end of his movie which was seen as "too much pessismistic".[53] The second film The 317th Platoon (La 317ème Section) was released in 1964, it was directed by Indochina War (and siege of Dien Bien Phu) veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer. Schoendoerffer has since become a mediatic specialist about the Indochina War and has focused his production on realistic war movies. He was cameraman for the army ("Cinematographic Service of the Armies", SCA) during his duty time, moreover as he had covered the Vietnam War he released the The Anderson Platoon, which won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature. The popular Hollywood Vietnam war movies Apocalypse Now Redux, and most obviously Platoon, are inspired by Schoendoerffer's work on the First Indochina War. An interesting detail about Apocalypse Now is all its First Indochina War related scenes (including the line "the White leaves but the Yellow stays" which is borrowed from the The 317th Platoon) and explicit references were removed from the edited version that was premiered in Cannes, France in 1979. French director Schoendoerffer, was acclaimed in France at 1973 Cannes Film Festival for his Drum Crab (Le Crabe Tambour) war movie, but he first met success with his 1965 The 317th Platoon (La 317e Section) Indochina War feature. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Anderson Platoon (original French title: La Section Anderson) is a war documentary movie directed by Pierre Schoendoerffer. ... The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is one of the most prestigious awards for documentary films. ... Apocalypse Now Redux is an extended, definitive version of Apocalypse Now. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... For the annual festival, see Cannes Film Festival. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Empire of Japan France Strength 55,000 Casualties  ? 2,129 Europeans killed (military & civil) The Second French Indochina Campaign also known as the Japanese coup of March 1945, was a Japanese military operation in all Vietnam, then a French colony. ... The Indochina Wars refers to wars of national liberation that erupted in the wake of World War II, fought in Southeast Asia from 1947 until 1979, between nationalist Vietnamese against French, American, and Chinese forces. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... Combatants Socialist Republic of Vietnam Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Pol Pot Strength 150,000+ Vietnamese troops, supported by around 20,000 KNUFNS 70,000+ Casualties 30,000? 30,000? The Cambodian-Vietnamese War, also known as Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch...

Notes

  1. ^ Windrow, Martin (1998). The French Indochina War 1946-1954 (Men-At-Arms, 322). London: Osprey Publishing, p. 11. ISBN 1855327899. 
  2. ^ Windrow p. 23
  3. ^ Fall, Bernard, Street Without Joy, p. 17.
  4. ^ Those named Martin, Their history is ours - The Great History, (1946-1954) The Indochina War (French). documentary. Channel 5 (France). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  5. ^ a b c Ruscio, Alain. "Guerre d'Indochine: Libérez Henri Martin", l'Humanité, 2003-08-02. Retrieved on 2007-05-20. (French) 
  6. ^ Stanley Karnow, Vietnam: A History, (New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1997), 146
  7. ^ Allies Reinforce Java and Saigon, British Paramount News rushes, 1945
  8. ^ Philipe Leclerc de Hauteloque (1902-1947), La légende d'un héro, Christine Levisse-Touzé, Tallandier/Paris Musées, 2002
  9. ^ Philipe Leclerc de Hauteloque (1902-1947), La légende d'un héro, Christine Levisse-Touzé, Tallandier/Paris Musées, 2002
  10. ^ Barnet, Richard J. (1968). Intervention and Revolution: The United States in the Third World. World Publishing, 185. ISBN 0529020149. 
  11. ^ Prados, John (August 2007, Volume 20, Number 1). The Smaller Dragon Strikes. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, 50. ISSN 1040-5992. 
  12. ^ a b La Guerre En Indochine (video). newsreel (1950-10-26). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  13. ^ a b Bigeard et Dien Bien Phu (video). TV news. Channel 2 (France) (2004-05-03). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  14. ^ DienBienPhu.org the official web site of the battle
  15. ^ June 17, 1954 discourse of Mendès-France on the website of the French National Assembly
  16. ^ Five columns on the cover's dossiers: Communism in the United States (May 4th 1965) French public channel ORTF
  17. ^ William M. Leary, CAT at Dien Bien Phu, Aerospace Historian 31 (Fall / September 1984)
  18. ^ a b c d e Hercombe, Peter (2004). Dien Bien Phu, Chronicles of a Forgotten Battle. documentary. Transparences Productions/Channel 2 (France).
  19. ^ a b France's war against Communists rages on (video). newsreel. News Magazine of the Screen/Warner Bros. (May 1952). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  20. ^ A Bernard Fall Retrospective, presentation of Bernard B. Fall, Vietnam Witness 1953-56, New York, Praeger, 1966, by the Ludwig von Mises Institute
  21. ^ Nhu Tang, Truong. "A Vietcong Memoir: An Inside Account of the Vietnam War and Its Aftermath", Vintage, 1986-03-12. Retrieved on 2007-06-27. (English) 
  22. ^ a b c France History, IV Republic (1946-1958) (French). Quid Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  23. ^ Patrick Pesnot, Rendez-vous Avec X - Dien Bien Phu, France Inter, December 4th 2004 (Rendez-vous With X broadcasted on public station France Inter)
  24. ^ "We wanted a newspaper to tell what we wanted" interview by Denis Jeambar & Roland Mihail
  25. ^ General Challe's appeal (April 22th 1961)
  26. ^ The war in Indo-China goes on (video). newsreel. News Magazine of the Screen/Warner Bros. (December 1953). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  27. ^ [http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2082a_john-foster-dulles-on-the-fall-of-d_events John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu
  28. ^ Boudarel affair in the ANAPI official website
  29. ^ a b USS Skagit and Operation Passage To Freedom. self-published. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  30. ^ Alf Andrew Heggoy and Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1972, p.175
  31. ^ The 317th Platoons script
  32. ^ Original audio recordings of General de Castries (Dien Bien Phu) and General Cogny (Hanoi) transmissions on May 7, 1954, during the battle of Dien Bien Phu (from the European Navigator based in Luxembourg)
  33. ^ French Defense Ministry archives, ECPAD
  34. ^ Service Spéciaux - GCMA Indochine 1950/54, Commandant Raymond Muelle & Eric Deroo, Crépin-Leblond editions, 1992, ISBN 2703001002
  35. ^ Guerre secrète en Indochine - Les maquis autochtones face au Viêt-Minh (1950-1955), Lieutenant-Colonel Michel David, Lavauzelle editions, 2002, ISBN 2702506364
  36. ^ Dien Bien Phu - Le Rapport Secret, Patrick Jeudy, TF1 Video, 2005
  37. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  38. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  39. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  40. ^ Dr. Jacques Cheneau in "In Vietnam, 1954. Eight episode"
  41. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  42. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  43. ^ Chinese General Hoang Minh Thao and Colonel Hoang Minh Phuong quoted by Pierre Journoud researcher at the Defense History Studies (CHED), Paris University Pantheon-Sorbonne, in Paris Hanoi Beijing published in Communisme magazine and the Pierre Renouvin Institute of Paris, July 20th 2004.
  44. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  45. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  46. ^ Replacing France: The Origins of American Intervention in Vietnam (PDF). book. University Press of Kentucky (2007-07). Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  47. ^ a b c d e French-American relations. Embassy of France in the U.S. (2005-02-24). Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  48. ^ French Defense Ministry archives
  49. ^ http://www.ina.fr/archivespourtous/index.php?vue=corpus&code=C0524208764# Indochina War: The "good offices" of the Americans (National Audiovisual Institute)
  50. ^ U.S. Defense service
  51. ^ Pierre Schoendoerffer interview with Jean Guisnel in Some edited pictures
  52. ^ Roman Karmen, un cinéaste au service de la révolution, Dominique Chapuis & Patrick Barbéris, Kuiv Productions / Arte France, 2001
  53. ^ The Cinematheque of Toulouse

Bernard B. Fall (November 19, 1926-February 21, 1967) was a prominent war correspondent, historian, political scientist, and expert on Indochina during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bernard B. Fall (November 19, 1926-February 21, 1967) was a prominent war correspondent, historian, political scientist, and expert on Indochina during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, Auburn, Alabama The Ludwig von Mises Institute (LvMI), based in Auburn, Alabama, is a libertarian academic organisation engaged in research and scholarship in the fields of economics, philosophy and political economy. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Summers, JR., Harry G. Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995. ISBN 0-395-72223-3
  • Wiest, Andrew (editor). Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84693-020-6
  • Windrow, Martin. The French Indochina War 1946-1954 (Men-At-Arms, 322). London: Osprey Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85532-789-9

External links

  • Pentagon Papers, Chapter 2
  • Vietnam: The Impossible War
  • Fall, Bernard B. Street Without Joy: The French Debacle In Indochina
  • ANAPI's official website (National Association of Former Pows in Indochina)
  • Hanoi upon the army's return in vitory (bicycles demystified) Viet Nam Portal
  • (French) Operation reports & 90,000 pictures about the First War of Indochina (Defense Mediatheque) (ECPAD)

Bernard B. Fall (November 19, 1926-February 21, 1967) was a prominent war correspondent, historian, political scientist, and expert on Indochina during the 1950s and 1960s. ...

Media links

During "Operation Chaumière", a Sergeant of the 1st Vietnamese Parachutist Battalion (1er BPVN aka TDND 1) armed with an US-built M1 carbine (with retractable butt) is covering during the sabotage of a tool-machine in a Viet Minh underground armament factory. (April 25, 1952).
During "Operation Chaumière", a Sergeant of the 1st Vietnamese Parachutist Battalion (1er BPVN aka TDND 1) armed with an US-built M1 carbine (with retractable butt) is covering during the sabotage of a tool-machine in a Viet Minh underground armament factory. (April 25, 1952).
  • (English) Universal Newsreels (January 17th, 1947)
  • (English) The News Magazine of the Screen (May 1952)
  • (English) The News Magazine of the Screen (December 1953)
  • (English) The News Magazine of the Screen (May 1954)
  • (English) Coronet Instructional Films - Communism (1952)
  • (French) Les Actualités Françaises (October 26th, 1950) (The War in Indo-China)
  • (French) Les Actualités Françaises (November 5th, 1953) (Operation Mouette in the delta)
  • (French) Jeeps in Indochina (January 1946-July 1954)
  • (French) French Foreign Legion in Indochina (March 1950-September 1954)
  • (French) French Algeria, Morroco and Tunisia sharpshooters (October 1950 May 1951)
  • (French) Carriers in Indochina (January 1951-August 1954)
  • (French) Commandos & Special Forces (February 1951-February 1954)
  • (French) Portraits of combatants in Indochina (March 1951-October 1954)
  • (French) Cavalry Armoured Corps (April 1951-July 1954)
  • (French) Vietnamese National Army (May 1951-June 1954)
  • (French) Outposts in Cambodia (October 1951-October 1953)
  • (French) Operation Hirondelle (July 1953)
  • (French) Operation Castor and building of the Dien Bien Phu outpost (November 1953-February 1954)
  • (French) Airforce in Dien Bien Phu (January-May 1954)
  • (French) The battle of Dien Bien Phu (March-May 1954)
  • (French) Operation Passage to Freedom (July 1954-March 1955)
Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) Western Imperialism (1887–1945) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945–1976) State of Vietnam (1949–1955) Republic of Vietnam (1955–1975) Republic of South Vietnam (1969... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Đổi má»›i (renovation) is the name given to the economic reforms initiated by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1986. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ...

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First Indochina War - MSN Encarta (960 words)
First Indochina War, armed conflict fought in Vietnam from 1946 to 1954 between the military forces of France and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), led by Ho Chi Minh.
By 1950 the war became entwined with the Cold War when the new Communist government in China began to support the DRV, while the United States, fearful of the spread of Communism in Asia, provided military support to the French.
During the first stage, Viet Minh units retreated into the mountains north of the Red River delta to organize guerrilla forces and seek broad support from the population.
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SuzetteHolt32
20th July 2010
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