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Encyclopedia > First Fitna
Civil Wars of the Early Caliphates
Ridda warsFirst Fitna – Ibn al-Zubair's revolt – Kharijite RevoltSecond FitnaBerber RevoltZaidi RevoltAbassid Revolt
First Fitna
BassorahSiffinKarbala
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Islam
The Ridda wars were a set of military campaigns against apostasy in Arabia during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... Zayd ibn Ali (d. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 20,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 655 between forces... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abu Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abu Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the Second Muslim... Combatants Umayyads Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength 4,000 - 4,500 72 Casualties unknown 72 The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...

History of Islam For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Mosque02. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

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Prophets of Islam This page is a list of Muslims in various professions and fields. ... Muhammad (Arabic ; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants[1] [2] [3]) 570-632 C.E.,[4] was an Arab religious and political leader who preached a religion he called Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib (Arabic: ‎ Persian: ‎ )‎ (599 – 661) was an early Islamic leader. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابة) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. ...

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The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

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The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Mu'awiya's assumption of the caliphate. This civil war is often called the Fitna, and regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic ummah (nation). Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... Fitna is an Arabic word for civil war, disagreement, division within Islam. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Umma (Arabic: ‎) is an Arabic word meaning community or nation. ...


In 656 CE, the then caliph, or Muslim leader Uthman ibn Affan, was murdered by rebellious Muslim soldiers as he sat reading the Qur'an in his home in Medina, in north-western Arabia. Medina fell into chaos and uproar. Citizens flocked to Ali ibn Abu Talib, the prophet Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, and a respected community leader who had been passed over for the leadership three times since the death of the prophet. Now they urged him to take the caliphate. Initially reluctant due to the circumstances of the caliph's death, he eventually chose to accept. Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran (the traditional term in English), and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Medina (Arabic: ‎ or المدينة ; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... Muhammad (Arabic ; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants[1] [2] [3]) 570-632 C.E.,[4] was an Arab religious and political leader who preached a religion he called Islam. ...


Ali then had to fight against numerous challengers to his rule. He fought and defeated Muhammad's widow Aisha at the Battle of the Camel; he fought Uthman's kinsman Mu'awiya, the governor of Syria, at the Battle of Siffin to a stalemate and then lost a controversial arbitration; and he fought his own mutinous soldiers (the first Kharijites). Large sections of the new empire created in the twenty-four years since Muhammad were lost (due to several reasons, unrelated to Ali) and the prophet's followers fled Mecca for Medina. Aisha bint Abu Bakr (also spelled Ayşe, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Arabic: ‎ `āisha, she who lives) was the final wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... In 655 a Muslim force led by Caliph Ali defeated a superior force of rebel Arabs in the Battle of Bassorah (Bassorah = Basra). ... Muˤāwiyya I, or Muˤāwiyya ibn Abī-Sufyān (Arabic: ). (602 - May 6, 680) was the fifth Muslim Caliph and founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of Islamic caliphs. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abu Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abu Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the Second Muslim... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hijaz region. ...


In 661 CE, Ali was assassinated in the Qibla by a relative of one of the rebel soldiers he had defeated and killed. His last words were "Fuztu wa rabb al-Ka'bah" - meaning "By The Lord of the Ka'bah, I have succeeded".


His son Hasan ibn Ali briefly assumed the caliphate upon being appointed by Ali, but realized that he could not prevail. He came to an agreement with Mu'awiya, of which various accounts are given. He retired to Medina with a state pension, to live as an Imam, not Caliph, while Mu'awiya assumed control of the empire and founded the Umayyad dynasty of Caliphs. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام ,Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


 
 

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