FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > First Estate
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system
History
Capetian dynasty
Valois dynasty
Bourbon dynasty
Estates-General

In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term First Estate (Fr. premier état) indicated the clergy; the Second Estate were the nobility, and the rest of the population constituted the Third Estate. From these terms came the name of the medieval French national assembly: the Estates-General (Fr. Etats-Généraux), the analogue to the British Parliament but with no constitutional tradition of vested powers: the French monarchy remained absolute. Administrative map of ancien régime France Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... Parlements (pronounced in French) in ancien régime France — contrary to what their name would suggest to the modern reader — were not democratic or political institutions, but law courts . ... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... The seigneurial system was the semi-feudal system of noble privilege in France and its colonies. ... France under the Ancien Régime, the socio-political system which persisted throughout the rule of the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, was a nation half-way between feudalism and modernity, ruled over by a powerful absolute monarchy which relied on the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings and the... The direct Capetian Dynasty followed the Carolingian rulers of France from 987 to 1328. ... The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... It has been suggested that France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty be merged into this article or section. ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: États-Généraux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ... Administrative map of ancien régime France Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... During the French Revolution (1789–1799) democracy and republicanism overthrew the absolute monarchy in France, and the French portion of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: États-Généraux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the...


In principle, the responsibilities of the First Estate included "the registration of births, marriages and deaths; they collected the tithe (usually 10%); they censored books; served as moral police; operated schools and hospitals; and distributed relief to the poor. They also owned 10-15% of all the land in France. This land, of course, was all held tax-free." [1] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The First Estate comprised the entire clergy, traditionally divided into "higher" and "lower" clergy. Although there was no formal demarcation between the two categories, the upper clergy were, effectively, clerical nobility, from the families of the Second Estate. At the other extreme, parish priests and many monks had more in common with the Third Estate than the Second, and, within the Third Estate, more in common with the peasants and wage-earners than with the bourgeoisie. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century Bourgeoisie (boorzhwäz-ee´) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied classes in a capitalist society. ...


The French inheritance system of primogeniture meant that nearly all French fortunes would pass largely in a single line, through the eldest son. Hence, it became very common for second sons to join the clergy. Although some great churchmen came out of this system, much of the higher clergy continued to live the lives of aristocrats, enjoying the wealth derived from church lands and tithes and, in some cases, paying little or no attention to their churchly duties. The ostentatious wealth of the higher clergy was, no doubt, partly responsible for the widespread anticlericalism in France, dating back as far as the Middle Ages, and was certainly responsible for the element of class resentment within the anticlericalism of many peasants and wage-earners. Primogeniture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Similar class resentments existed within the First Estate.


During the latter years of the ancien régime, the Catholic Church in France (the Gallican Church) was a separate entity within the realm of Papal control, both a State within a State and Church within a Church. The King had the right to make appointments to the bishoprics, abbeys, and priories and the right to regulate the clergy. [2] The term Gallican Church usually refers to the Roman Catholic Church in France from the time of the Declaration of the Clergy of France (1682) to that of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) during the French Revolution. ...

Contents


Use of this term outside of France

The notion of Estates of the realm also exists in Britain, where the closest analogue to the French First Estate would be the Lords Spiritual, corresponding to the highest reaches of the French higher clergy. In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


This notion also applied in Sweden and Finland at one time.


The Estates General

See main article French States-General. In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (in French: États-Généraux), was an assembly of the different classes of French citizenry. ...


The first Estates-General was called by Philip IV in 1302, in order to obtain national approval for his anticlerical policy. Philip organized the assembly into three divisions, and every following Estates-General down to 1789 maintained the division. Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ...


The Estates-General of France dwindled in importance, and after 1614 it was not called again for 175 years. Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ...


1789: End of The Estates General

See main article Estates-General of 1789. The Estates-General of 1789 was the first meeting of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry, since 1614. ...


In 1789, the First Estate numbered somewhat over 100,000, with about 10% of these being "higher clergy." The lower clergy would have been about equally divided between parish priests on the one hand and monks and nuns on the other. Almost all of the 139 dioceses were controlled by the great nobles in France. [3] 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In May 1789, Louis XVI convened the Estates-General in order to address the financial crisis of the kingdom, which was effectively bankrupt. By this point, however, the French aristocracy has declined in power and influence, while the bourgeoisie had become much more important and conscious of itself as a class. The Third Estate, containing representatives of the bourgeois, asked for greater share of representation than it had possessed in earlier centuries; they were given twice as many representatives, but since voting was to be by the three Estates rather then by individual representatives, this gave them no immediately meanigful advantage. The Third Estate then asked for all estates to meet together as a single body. Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


On June 12, 1789 the Communes (the representatives of the Third Estate, including some clergy, notably Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès) invited the other orders to join them. Some clergy who were representatives of the First Estate did so as soon as the following day, and so were among the group that, on June 17, 1789 declared itself the National Assembly and on June 20 of the same year signed the Tennis Court Oath demanding a constitution for France. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the revolutionary and Napoleonic era. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. ...


Over the next week, most of the First Estate (and some of the Second) joined the National Assembly; on June 27 the king ordered the rest to follow. This was the end of the formal system of Estates of the Realm. June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ...


See also

See also:

In France under the ancien régime, the Estates of the realm were the three divisions of the Estates-General. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Second Estate (Fr. ... In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... The term Fourth Estate refers to the press, both in its explicit capacity of advocacy and in its implicit ability to frame political issues. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Estates of the realm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1891 words)
The Second Estate is traditionally divided into "noblesse d'épée" ("nobility of the sword") and "noblesse de robe" ("nobility of the robe"), the magisterial class that administered royal justice and civil government.
The Estates-General was reconstituted first as the National Assembly (June 17, 1789) and then as the National Constituent Assembly (July 9, 1789), a unitary body composed of the former representatives of the three estates.
The Estates in Sweden and Finland were nobility, clergy, burghers, and land-owning peasants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m