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Encyclopedia > First Crusade
First Crusade
Part of the Crusades

The capture of Jerusalem marked the First Crusade's success
Date 1096 — 1099
Location Near East (Anatolia, Levant, Israel)
Result Decisive Christian victory and land control
Territorial
changes
Anatolia and Levant captured for Christendom;
Kingdom of Jerusalem/crusader states created
Belligerents
Christendom:

Holy Roman Empire
This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Depiction of the Siege File links The following pages link to this file: Crusade Northern Crusades Sixth Crusade Albigensian Crusade First Crusade Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Childrens Crusade Eighth Crusade Fifth Crusade Seventh Crusade High Middle Ages Template:Crusade Crusade of 1101 Ninth Crusade Siege of Jerusalem... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Image File history File links Holy_Roman_Empire_Arms-single_head. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Kingdom of France
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The Duchy of Lower Lorraine or Lower Lotharingia encompassed part of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany west of the Rhine, and a part of northern France (east of the Schelde). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Image File history File links France_Ancient. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Kingdom of England Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The County of Blois was centred on Blois, south of Paris. ... Coat of arms of the county of Boulogne. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Flanders (or a lion rampant sable, armed and langued gules). ... Vermandois was a French countship composed originally of the two burgraviates (chatellenies) of St Quentin (Aisne) and Peronne (Somme). ... Image File history File links Henry_II_Arms. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy...

Duchy of Apulia
Image File history File links Blason_duche_fr_Normandie. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... This is a list of Counts and Dukes of Apulia and Calabria in Southern Italy from the 11th century to the 12th century. ...

Byzantine Empire
Kingdom of Cilicia
Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ...

Saracen:

Great Seljuq Empire
Danishmends
Fatimids
Almoravids
Abbasids
Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_pre-1901. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ...

Commanders
Guglielmo Embriaco

Godfrey of Bouillon
Raymond IV
Stephen II
Baldwin of Boulogne
Eustace III of Boulogne
Robert II of Flanders
Adhemar of Le Puy
Hugh of Vermandois
Robert II of Normandy
Bohemond of Taranto
Tancred, Prince of Galilee
Alexios I Komnenos
Tatikios
Constantine I
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William or Guglielmo Embriaco, was a Genoese merchant who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Stephen II Henry (c. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Robert II of Flanders (c. ... A mitred Adhemar carrying the Holy Lance in battle. ... Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ... Image File history File links Blason_duche_fr_Normandie. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Bohemond looks on as a fellow Frank climbs the ladder, in an engraving by Gustave Doré. Bohemond I (also spelled Bohemund or Boamund; c. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Tatikios or Taticius (died after 1099) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus. ...

Kilij Arslan I

Yaghi-Siyan
Kerbogha
Duqaq
Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan
Ghazi ibn Danishmend
Iftikhar ad-Daula
Al-Afdal Shahanshah
Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... Was the ruler of Antioch in Turkey during the First Crusade. ... Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan or Rudwan; died December 10, 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Aleppo from 1095 to 1113. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_jihad. ... Iftikhar ad-Daula (also Iftikhar ad-Dawla, meaning pride of the nation) was the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem during the siege of 1099. ... al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 – December 11, 1121) was a vizier of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. ...

Strength
Crusaders: 30,000 men[1]
  • 5,000 cavalry[2]

Byzantines: 2,000 men[2]

The First Crusade was launched in 1096 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing the Eastern Christians from Islamic rule. What started as an appeal by Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus for western mercenaries to fight the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia quickly turned into a wholescale Western migration and conquest of territory outside of Europe. Both knights and peasants from many nations of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea towards Jerusalem and captured the city in July 1099, establishing the Kingdom of Jerusalem and other Crusader states. Although these gains lasted for less than two hundred years, the First Crusade was a major turning point in the expansion of Western power, as well as the first major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Combatants Crusaders, Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rum Commanders Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Manuel Boutoumites Kilij Arslan I Strength Crusaders: ~ 30,000 infantry ~ 4,200-4,500 cavalry [1] Byzantines: 2,000 peltasts [2] ~ 10,000 [3] + Nicaean garrison Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... Combatants Principality of Antioch County of Edessa Seljuk Turks Commanders Baldwin I of le Bourg, count of Edessa Bohemond I of Antioch Tancred Joscelin of Courtenay Jikirmish of Mosul Sukman ibn Artuq of Mardin Strength Unknown Sukman 7. ... Combatants Principality of Antioch Seljuk Turks Commanders Tancred Radwan Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Artah was fought in 1105 between Crusader forces and the Seljuk Turks. ... Battle of Ramla can refer to a number of battles in the early years of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The Siege of Tripoli lasted from 1102 until July 12, 1109. ... The Battle of Sarmin was fought in 1115 between a Seljuq army led by Borsoq and a Latin army (Anticohene and Edessan led by Roger of Salerno, the Prince of Antioch). ... The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood or the Battle of Sarmada, took place between the Crusader Principality of Antioch and the Ortoqid ruler of Aleppo in 1119. ... The Battle of Azaz took place between the Crusader States and the Seljuk Turks on June 11, 1125. ... The Battle of Marj es-Suffar was fought in 1126 between Crusaders and the Seljuk Turks. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... Occident redirects here. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...

Contents

Background

The origins of the Crusades in general, and of the First Crusade in particular, stem from events earlier in the Middle Ages. The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in previous centuries, combined with the relative stability of European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings and Magyars, gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to do but fight among themselves. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


By the early 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had rapidly captured North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Spain from a predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire. During the 12th century, the Reconquista picked up an ideological potency that is considered to be the first example of a concerted "Christian" effort to recapture territory lost to Muslims, as part of the expansion efforts of the Christian kingdoms along the Bay of Biscay. Spanish kingdoms, knightly orders and mercenaries began to mobilize from across Europe for the fight against the surviving and predominantly Moorish Umayyad caliphate at Cordoba. Another factor that contributed to the change in Western attitudes towards the East came in the year 1009, when the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed. Flag Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent Capital Damascus Capital-in-exile Córdoba Language(s) Arabic Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - Established 660  - Disestablished 750 Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Age of the Caliphs The Muslim conquest of Syria occured in the first half of the 7th century. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


Other Muslim kingdoms emerging from the collapse of the Umayyads in the 8th century, such as the Aghlabics, had entered Italy in the 9th century. The Kalbid state that arose in the region, weakened by dynastic struggles, became prey to the Normans capturing Sicily by 1091. Pisa, Genoa, and Aragon began to battle other Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign and battles at Mallorca and Sardinia. An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Kalbids were a Muslim dynasty in Sicily, which ruled from 948 to 1053. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Henry, son of William I attempted a coup against his brothers but failed to seize the English throne. ... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Mahdia campaign of 1087 A.D. was an attack on the North African town of Mahdia by armed ships from Genoa and Pisa in northern Italy. ... Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ...


The idea of a Holy War against the Muslims seemed acceptable to medieval European secular and religious powers, as well as the public in general, for a number of reasons, such as the recent military successes of European kingdoms along the Mediterranean. In addition there was the emerging political conception of Christendom, which saw the union of Christian kingdoms under Papal guidance for the first time (in the High Middle Ages) and the creation of a Christian army to fight the Muslims. Many of the Muslim lands had previously been Christian prior to their conquest by the Islamic armies, namely those which had formed part of the Roman and Byzantine empires - Syria, Egypt, the rest of North Africa, Hispania (Spain), Cyprus, Judaea. Finally, Jerusalem, along with the surrounding lands including the places where Christ lived and died, was understandably sacred to Christians. Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


In 1074, Pope Gregory VII called for the milites Christi ("soldiers of Christ") to go to the aid of the Byzantine Empire in the east. The Byzantines had suffered a serious defeat at the hands of the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert three years previously.[3] This call, while largely ignored and even opposed, combined with the large numbers of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the 11th century, focused a great deal of attention on the east.[4] Preaching by monks such as Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, which spread reports of Muslims abusing Christian pilgrims travelling to Jerusalem and other Middle Eastern holy sites, further stoked the crusading zeal. It was Pope Urban II who first disseminated to the general public the idea of a Crusade to capture the Holy Land. Upon hearing his dramatic and inspiring speech, the nobles and clergy in attendance began to chant the famous words, Deus vult! ("God wills it!").[3] Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Peter the Hermit shows the crusaders the way to Jerusalem. ... Walter the Penniless (in French Fr. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Deus lo volt was the battle-cry of the Crusaders. ...


East in the late eleventh century

Western Europe's immediate neighbour to the southeast was the Byzantine Empire, fellow Christians but who had long followed a separate Orthodox rite. Under Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, the empire was largely confined to Europe and the western coast of Anatolia, and faced many enemies: the Normans in the west and the Seljuks in the east. Further east, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt were all under Muslim control, but were politically, and to some extent, culturally fragmented at the time of the First Crusade, which certainly contributed to the Crusade's success. Anatolia and Syria were controlled by the Sunni Seljuks, formerly in one large empire ("Great Seljuk") but by this point divided into many smaller states. Alp Arslan had defeated the Byzantine Empire at Manzikert in 1071 and incorporated much of Anatolia into Great Seljuk.[3] However, this empire was split apart after the death of Alp Arslan in 1072. The same year, Malik Shah I succeeded Alp Arslan and would continue to reign until 1092. During this period, the Seljuk empire faced internal rebellion. In the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia, Malik Shah I was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I and in Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095. Tutush's sons Radwan and Duqaq inherited Aleppo and Damascus respectively, further dividing Syria amongst emirs antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of Mosul.[5] These states were on the whole more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours, than with cooperating against the crusaders. Byzantine redirects here. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... Abu Said Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (died in 1095) was the Seljuk ruler (probably sultan or emir) of Damascus from 1079 to 1095, succeeding Abaaq al-Khwarazmi. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan or Rudwan; died December 10, 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Aleppo from 1095 to 1113. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...

Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent.
Umayyad Caliphate at its greatest extent.

Elsewhere in nominal Seljuk territory were the Ortoqids in northeastern Syria and northern Mesopotamia. They controlled Jerusalem until 1098. In eastern Anatolia and northern Syria, a state was founded by Danishmend, a Seljuk mercenary; the crusaders did not have significant contact with either group until after the Crusade. The Hashshashin were also becoming important in Syrian affairs.[6] Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... The Ortoqid dynasty was an Oghuz Turk dynasty that ruled in the Jezirah (northern Iraq) in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ...


When Palestine was under Persian and early Islamic rule, Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land were generally treated well. The early Islamic ruler, Caliph Umar, allowed Christians to perform all of their rites – minus any overt pomp.[7] But beginning in the early eleventh century, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah began to persecute the Christians of Palestine. In 1009, he destroyed Christianity's holiest shrine the Holy Sepulcher. He eventually relented and instead of burning and killing, he implemented a toll tax for Christian pilgrims entering Jerusalem. The worst was yet to come. A group of Turkish Muslims, the Seljuks, very powerful, very aggressive and very stringent followers of Islam, began their rise to power. The Seljuks viewed Christian pilgrims negatively as pollutants and ‘cracked down’ on Christians in Palestine. Barbaric stories of persecution began to filter back to Latin Christendom; rather than having the effect of discouraging pilgrims, this made the pilgrimage to the Holy Land even that much more holy. Not even the changing of the pilgrimage stories of wondrous amazement to barbaric persecutions deterred Christians. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ...


Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite Fatimids, whose empire was significantly smaller since the arrival of the Seljuks; Alexius I had advised the crusaders to work with the Fatimids against their common Seljuk enemies. The Fatimids, at this time ruled by caliph al-Musta'li (although all actual power was held by the vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah), had lost Jerusalem to the Seljuks in 1076, but recaptured it from the Ortoqids in 1098 while the crusaders were on the march. The Fatimids did not, at first, consider the crusaders a threat, assuming they had been sent by the Byzantines and that they would be content with recapturing Syria, leaving Palestine alone; they did not send an army against the crusaders until they were already at Jerusalem.[6] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Ahmad al-Mustali (d 1101) was the ninth Fatimid Caliph. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 – December 11, 1121) was a vizier of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. ...


Chronological sequence of the Crusade

Council of Clermont

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont. Illumination from the Livre des Passages d'Outre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National)
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont. Illumination from the Livre des Passages d'Outre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National)
Main article: Council of Clermont

In March 1095, Alexius I sent envoys to the Council of Piacenza to ask Pope Urban II for aid against the Turks. The emperor's request met with a favourable response from Urban, who hoped to heal the Great Schism of 40 years prior and re-unite the Church under papal primacy as "chief bishop and prelate over the whole world" (as he referred to himself at Clermont),[8] by helping the Eastern churches in their time of need. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... The new buildings of the library. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... The Council of Piacenza was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, which took place from March 1 to March 5, 1095, at Piacenza. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ...


The Council of Piacenza solidified the pope’s authority in Italy during a period of a papal crisis (over 3,000 clergy and approximately 30,000 laity showed up; as well as ambassadors of the East who implored all of the ‘aid of Christendom against the Unbelievers’). With Pope Urban II’s goal of reasserting his authority in Italy accomplished, he was now able to fully concentrate on addressing and laying a course of action for a Crusade which the Eastern ambassadors from the Byzantine Empire had primarily come for. Urban was also aware that Italy was not the land which would, “awaken to a burst of religious enthusiasm at the summons of a Pope; one, too, with a still contested title." His urges to persuade "many to promise, by taking an oath, to aid the emperor most faithfully as far as they were able against the pagans" came to little.


At the Council of Clermont, assembled in the heart of France on November 27, 1095, Urban gave an impassioned sermon to a large audience of French nobles and clergy. He summoned the audience to wrest control of Jerusalem from the hands of the Muslims. France, he said, was overcrowded and the land of Canaan was overflowing with milk and honey. He spoke of the problems of noble violence and the solution was to turn swords to God's own service: "Let robbers become knights."[8] He spoke of rewards both on earth and in heaven, where remission of sins was offered to any who might die in the undertaking. Urban promised this through the power of God that was invested into him. The crowd was stirred to frenzied enthusiasm and interrupted his speech with cries of Deus lo volt! ("It is God's will!"). Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Urban's sermon is among the most important speeches in European history. There are many versions of the speech on record, but all were written after Jerusalem had been captured, and it is difficult to know what was actually said and what was recreated in the aftermath of the successful crusade. However, it is clear that the response to the speech was much larger than expected. For the rest of 1095 and into 1096, Urban spread the message throughout France, and urged his bishops and legates to preach in their own dioceses elsewhere in France, Germany, and Italy as well. Urban tried to forbid certain people (including women, monks, and the sick) from joining the crusade, but found this to be nearly impossible. In the end the majority of those who took up the call were not knights, but peasants who were not wealthy and had little in the way of fighting skills, but whose millennial and apocalyptic yearnings found release from the daily oppression of their lives, in an outpouring of a new emotional and personal piety that was not easily harnessed by the ecclesiastical and lay aristocracy.[9] Millennialism (or chiliasm), from millennium, which literally means thousand years, is primarily a belief expressed in some Christian denominations, and literature, that there will be a Golden Age or Paradise on Earth where Christ will reign prior to the final judgment and future eternal state, primarily derived from the book...


People's Crusade

The defeat of the People's Crusade
The defeat of the People's Crusade
Main article: People's Crusade

Urban planned the departure of the crusade for August 15, 1096, the Feast of the Assumption, but months before this a number of unexpected armies of peasants and petty nobles set off for Jerusalem on their own. They were led by a charismatic priest named Peter the Hermit of Amiens. The response was beyond expectations: while Urban might have expected a few thousand knights, he ended up with a migration numbering up to 40,000 Crusaders— albeit mostly unskilled fighters, including women and children.[10] Download high resolution version (500x732, 59 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x732, 59 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Peoples Crusade is part of the First Crusade and lasted roughly six months from April 1096 to October. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... According to Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the body of Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated by these denominations as the Blessed Virgin Mary or Theotokos, respectively, was taken into Heaven along with her soul after her death. ... Peter the Hermit shows the crusaders the way to Jerusalem. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ...


Lacking military discipline, and in what likely seemed to the participants a strange land (Eastern Europe), they quickly landed in trouble, in Christian territory. The problem faced was one of supply as well as culture: the people needed food, and they expected host cities to give, or at least sell it to them at a reasonable price. Unfortunately for the Crusaders, the locals did not always agree, and this quickly led to fighting. Following the Danube, Peter's supporters looted the surrounding territory and were attacked by the Hungarians, the Bulgarians, and even a Byzantine army near Nish. Ten-thousand, around a quarter of Peter's followers, were killed, but the rest arrived largely intact at Constantinople in August. Cultural and religious differences and a reluctance to supply such a large number of incoming people led to further tensions. Moreover, Peter's followers soon joined with other crusaders from France and Italy. Alexius, not knowing what else to do with such a large assembly of people, quickly ferried all 30,000 crusaders across the Bosphorus.[10] Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


After crossing into Asia Minor, the Crusaders began to quarrel and the armies broke up into two separate parties. The experience of the Turks was overwhelming; most of the People's Crusade —exhibiting their supreme lack of any practical knowledge in battle — were massacred upon entering Seljuk territory.[10] Peter survived, however, and would later join the main Crusader army. Another army of Bohemians and Saxons did not make it past Hungary before splitting up. For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


Persecution of the Jews

Main article: Persecution of Jews in the First Crusade
1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders
1250 French Bible illustration depicts Jews (identifiable by Judenhut) being massacred by Crusaders

The First Crusade ignited a long tradition of organized violence against Jews in European culture. While anti-Semitism had existed in Europe for centuries, the First Crusade marked the first mass organized violence against Jewish communities. In Germany, certain leaders understood this war against the infidels to be applicable not only to the Muslims in the Holy Land, but also against Jews within their own lands. Setting off in the early summer of 1096, a German army of around 10,000 Crusaders led by Gottschalk, Volkmar, and Emicho, proceeded northward through the Rhine valley, in the opposite direction of Jerusalem, and began a series of pogroms which some historians call "the first Holocaust".[11] This understanding of the idea of a Crusade was not universal, however, and Jews found some refuge in sanctuaries, with one example being the Archbishop of Cologne's attempts to protect the Jews of the city from the slaughter carried on by the city's population. Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... Jews being killed by Crusaders, from a 1250 French bible File links The following pages link to this file: History of the Jews in Poland ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Count Emicho (of Flonheim) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the German Crusade in 1096. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


The preaching of the crusade inspired further anti-Semitism. According to some preachers, Jews and Muslims were enemies of Christ, and enemies were to be fought or converted to Christianity. The general public apparently assumed that "fought" meant "fought to the death", or "killed". The Christian conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of a Christian emperor there would supposedly instigate the End Times, during which the Jews were supposed to convert to Christianity. In parts of France and Germany, Jews were thought to be responsible for the crucifixion, and they were more immediately visible than the far-away Muslims. Many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. The crusaders moved north through the Rhine valley into well-known Jewish communities such as Cologne, and then southward. Jewish communities were given the option of converting to Christianity or being slaughtered. Most would not convert and, as news of the mass killings spread, many Jewish communities committed mass suicides in horrific scenes. Thousands of Jews were massacred, despite some attempts by local clergy and secular authorities to shelter them. The massacres were justified by the claim that Urban's speech at Clermont promised reward from God for killing non-Christians of any sort, not just Muslims. Although the papacy abhorred and preached against the purging of Muslim and Jewish inhabitants during this and future crusades, there were numerous attacks on Jews following every crusade movement. // In the three Abrahamic Religions (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity), the End Times are depicted as a time of tribulation that precede the predicted coming of a Messiah figure. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than...


Princes' Crusade

Route of the leaders of the first crusade
Route of the leaders of the first crusade

The Princes' Crusade, also known as the Barons' Crusade, set out later in 1096 in a more orderly manner, led by various nobles with bands of knights from different regions of Europe. The four most significant of these were Raymond IV of Toulouse, who represented the knights of Provence, accompanied by the papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy; Bohemond of Taranto, representing the Normans of southern Italy with his nephew Tancred; The Lorrainers under the brothers Godfrey of Bouillon, Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne; and the Northern French led by Count Robert II of Flanders, Robert of Normandy (older brother of King William II of England), Stephen, Count of Blois, and Hugh of Vermandois the younger brother of King Philip I of France, who bore the papal banner.[12][page # needed] King Philip himself was forbidden from participating in the campaign as he had been excommunicated. The entire crusader army consisted of about 30,000-35,000 crusaders, including 5,000 cavalry.[13] Raymond IV of Toulouse had the largest contingent of about 8,500 infantry and 1,200 cavalry.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1938x1542, 711 KB) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1938x1542, 711 KB) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... A mitred Adhemar carrying the Holy Lance in battle. ... Bohemond looks on as a fellow Frank climbs the ladder, in an engraving by Gustave Doré. Bohemond I (also spelled Bohemund or Boamund; c. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Robert II of Flanders (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... William II (c. ... Stephen II Henry (c. ... Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ... Philip I (23 May 1053 – 29 July 1108) was King of France from 1060 to his death. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


March to Jerusalem

Leaving Europe around the appointed time in August, the various armies took different paths to Constantinople and gathered outside its city walls between November 1096 and May 1097, two months after the annihilation of the People's Crusade by the Turks. Accompanying the knights were many poor men (pauperes) who could afford basic clothing and perhaps an old weapon. Peter the Hermit, who joined the Princes' Crusade at Constantinople, was considered responsible for their well-being, and they were able to organize themselves into small groups, perhaps akin to military companies, often led by an impoverished knight. One of the largest of these groups, comprising of the survivors of the People's Crusade, named itself the "Tafurs."


The Princes arrived in Constantinople with little food and expected provisions and help from Alexius I. Alexius was understandably suspicious after his experiences with the People's Crusade, and also because the knights included his old Norman enemy, Bohemond. At the same time, Alexius harbored hopes of exercising control over the crusaders, who he seems to have regarded as having the potential to function as a Byzantine proxy. Thus, in return for food and supplies, Alexius requested the leaders to swear fealty to him and promise to return to the Byzantine Empire any land recovered from the Turks. Without food or provisions, they eventually had no choice but to take the oath, though not until all sides had agreed to various compromises, and only after warfare had almost broken out in the city. Only Raymond avoided swearing the oath, cleverly pledging himself to Alexius if the emperor would lead the crusade in person. Alexius refused, but the two became allies, sharing a common distrust of Bohemond. Look up proxy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...

Byzantine Empire Before First Crusade
Byzantine Empire Before First Crusade
Byzantine Empire and Crusader States after the First Crusade
Byzantine Empire and Crusader States after the First Crusade

Alexius agreed to send out a Byzantine army under the command of Taticius to accompany the crusaders through Asia Minor. Their first objective was Nicaea, an old Byzantine city, but now the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm under Kilij Arslan I. Meanwhile, Arslan was campaigning against the Danishmends in central Anatolia having left behind his treasury and his family having underestimated the Crusaders.[15] The city was subjected to a lengthy siege, which was somewhat ineffectual as the crusaders could not blockade the lake on which the city was situated, and from which it could be provisioned. When Arslan heard of the siege, he rushed back to Nicaea and attacked the Crusader army on the 23 May but was driven back with heavy losses being suffered on both sides.[16] Seeing that he would not be able to save the city, he advised the garrison to surrender if their situation became untenable. Alexius, fearing the crusaders would sack Nicaea and destroy its wealth, secretly accepted the surrender of the city; the crusaders awoke on the morning of June 19, 1097 to see Byzantine standards flying from the walls. The crusaders were forbidden to loot it, and were not allowed to enter the city except in small escorted bands. This caused a further tension between the Byzantines and the crusaders. The crusaders now began the journey to Jerusalem and Stephen of Blois writing home to his wife Adela, stated he believed it would take five weeks. In fact, the journey would take two years.[17] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Taticius was a Byzantine general during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Dawud Kılıj Arslan ibn Süleyman ibn Kutalmish (in Turkish Kılıç Arslan, قلج أرسلان Qïlïj Arslān d. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Combatants Crusaders, Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rum Commanders Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Manuel Boutoumites Kilij Arslan I Strength Crusaders: ~ 30,000 infantry ~ 4,200-4,500 cavalry [1] Byzantines: 2,000 peltasts [2] ~ 10,000 [3] + Nicaean garrison Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Adela was the daughter of William I of England, and mother of Stephen of England. ...


The crusaders, still accompanied by some Byzantine troops under Taticius, marched on towards Dorylaeum, where Bohemond was pinned down by Kilij Arslan. At the Battle of Dorylaeum on July 1, Godfrey broke through the Turkish lines, and with the help of the troops led by the legate Adhemar - who attacked the Turks from the rear - defeated the Turks and looted their camp.[16] Kilij Arslan withdrew and the crusaders marched almost unopposed through Asia Minor towards Antioch, except for a battle, in September, in which they again defeated the Turks. Along the way, the Crusaders were able to capture a number of cities such as Sozopolis, Iconium and Caesarea although most of these were lost to the Turks by 1101.[18] Taticius was a Byzantine general during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus. ... Dorylaeum was an ancient city in Anatolia. ... The Battle of Dorylaeum took place during the First Crusade on July 1, 1097, between the crusaders and the Seljuk Turks, near Dorylaeum in Anatolia. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Sozopolis in Pisidia, called Apollonia during Seleucid times, was an ancient town in the region of Pisidia, now in the Asian part of Turkey. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Kayseri (Greek: Καισάρεια), in the antiquity Mazaka and later Caesarea, is an industrialized city in Turkey. ...


The march through Asia was unpleasant. It was the middle of summer and the crusaders had very little food and water; many men died, as did many horses. Christians, in Asia as in Europe, sometimes gave them gifts of food and money, but more often the crusaders looted and pillaged whenever the opportunity presented itself. Individual leaders continued to dispute the overall leadership, although none of them were powerful enough to take command; still, Adhemar was always recognized as the spiritual leader. After passing through the Cilician Gates, Baldwin of Boulogne set off on his own towards the Armenian lands around the Euphrates. In Edessa early in 1098, he was adopted as heir by King Thoros, an Armenian Greek Orthodox ruler who was disliked by his Armenian subjects for his religion. Thoros was soon assassinated and Baldwin became the new ruler, thus creating the County of Edessa, the first of the crusader states.[19] The Cilician Gates of wic (Turkish Külek Boazi or Gulek Bogazi) form the main passage through the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Şanlı Urfa. ... Thoros (or Theodoros, died March 9, 1098) was the ruler of Edessa at the time of the First Crusade. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ...


Siege of Antioch

A mitred Adhémar de Monteil carrying the Holy Lance in one of the battles of the First Crusade
A mitred Adhémar de Monteil carrying the Holy Lance in one of the battles of the First Crusade
Main article: Siege of Antioch

The crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which lay about half way between Constantinople and Jerusalem. On 20 October 1097 the crusader army set Antioch to a siege which lasted almost eight months,[20] during which time they also had to defeat two large relief armies under Duqaq of Damascus and Ridwan of Aleppo. Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not have enough troops to fully surround it, and thus it was able to stay partially supplied. As the siege dragged on it was clear that Bohemond wanted the city for himself. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (606x728, 201 KB) Adhémar de Monteil (Adhémar du Puy) chargeant les Sarrazins en brandissant la Sainte Lance dAntioche. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (606x728, 201 KB) Adhémar de Monteil (Adhémar du Puy) chargeant les Sarrazins en brandissant la Sainte Lance dAntioche. ... A mitred Adhémar de Monteil carrying the Holy Lance in one of the battles of the First Crusade Adhemar (also known as Adémar, Aimar, or Aelarz) de Monteil (d. ... According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ... Combatants Crusaders Seljuk Turks Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Bohemund of Taranto Yaghi-Siyan Kerbogha Strength 25,000[1] 75,000[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses please see Siege of Antioch (disambiguation) The Siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (probably died in 1104) was the Seljuk ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104. ... Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan or Rudwan; died December 10, 1113) was a Seljuk ruler of Aleppo from 1095 to 1113. ...


In May 1098, Kerbogha of Mosul approached Antioch to relieve the siege. Bohemond bribed an Armenian guard named Firuz to surrender his tower, and in June the crusaders entered the city and killed most of the inhabitants.[21] However, only a few days later the Muslims arrived, laying siege to the former besiegers. At this point a minor monk by the name of Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance in the city, and although some were skeptical, this was seen as a sign that they would be victorious.[22] Kerbogha was Atabeg of Mosul during the First Crusade and was renowned as a soldier. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Peter Bartholomew was a poor monk and mystic from France who accompanied the knights of the First Crusade. ... According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ...

Bohemond of Taranto alone mounts the rampart of Antioch, in an engraving by Gustave Doré.
Bohemond of Taranto alone mounts the rampart of Antioch, in an engraving by Gustave Doré.

On June 28 the crusaders defeated Kerbogha in a pitched battle outside the city, as Kerbogha was unable to organize the different factions in his army. While the crusaders were marching towards the Muslims, the Fatimid section of the army deserted the Turkish contingent, as they feared Kerbogha would become too powerful if he were to defeat the Crusaders. According to legend, an army of Christian saints came to the aid of the crusaders during the battle and crippled Kerbogha's army.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x1210, 323 KB) Gustave Doré (1832-1883), Bohemond alone mounts the rampart of Antioch File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): First Crusade ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (911x1210, 323 KB) Gustave Doré (1832-1883), Bohemond alone mounts the rampart of Antioch File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): First Crusade ... Bohemond looks on as a fellow Frank climbs the ladder, in an engraving by Gustave Doré. Bohemond I (also spelled Bohemund or Boamund; c. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saints redirects here. ...


Bohemond argued that Alexius had deserted the crusade and thus invalidated all of their oaths to him. Bohemond asserted his claim to Antioch, but not everyone agreed, notably Raymond of Toulouse, and the crusade was delayed for the rest of the year while the nobles argued amongst themselves. It is a common historiographical assumption that the Franks of northern France, the Provençals of southern France, and the Normans of southern Italy considered themselves separate "nations" and that each wanted to increase its status. This may have had something to do with the disputes, but personal ambition was just as likely to blame.[citation needed] Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...


Meanwhile, a plague (perhaps typhus) broke out, killing many, including the legate Adhemar. There were now even fewer horses than before, and Muslim peasants refused to give them food. In December, the Arab town of Ma'arrat al-Numan was captured after a siege, which saw the first occurrence of cannibalism among crusaders.[23] The minor knights and soldiers became restless and threatened to continue to Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. Finally, at the beginning of 1099, the march was renewed, leaving Bohemond behind as the first Prince of Antioch. For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ma`arat al-Numan (معرة النعمان in Arabic) is today a small western Syrian market town, located at the highway between Aleppo and Hama and near the Dead Cities of Bara and Serjilla. ... Cannibal redirects here. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...


Siege of Jerusalem

Godfrey of Bouillon as Protector of Jerusalem. His official title was Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri, "Protector of the Holy Sepulchre".
Godfrey of Bouillon as Protector of Jerusalem. His official title was Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri, "Protector of the Holy Sepulchre".
See also: Letter of the Karaite elders of Ascalon

Proceeding down the coast of the Mediterranean, the crusaders encountered little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them and give them supplies rather than fight. On June 7 the crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured from the Seljuks by the Fatimids of Egypt only the year before. Many Crusaders wept on seeing the city they had journeyed so long to reach. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x735, 66 KB) Summary Godfrey of Bullioun Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x735, 66 KB) Summary Godfrey of Bullioun Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


As with Antioch, the crusaders put the city to a lengthy siege, in which the crusaders themselves suffered many casualties, due to the lack of food and water around Jerusalem. By the time the Crusader army reached Jerusalem, only 12,000 men including 1,500 cavalry remained.[14] Faced with a seemingly impossible task, their morale was raised when a priest, by the name of Peter Desiderius, claimed to have had a divine vision instructing them to fast and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall in nine days, following the Biblical example of Joshua at the siege of Jericho. On July 8, 1099 the crusaders performed the procession as instructed by Desiderius. The Genoese troops, led by commander Guglielmo Embriaco, had previously dismantled the ships in which the Genoese came to the Holy Land; Embriaco, using the ship's wood, made some siege towers and seven days later on July 15, the crusaders were able to end the siege by breaking down sections of the walls and entering the city. Some Crusaders also entered through the former pilgrim's entrance. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... William or Guglielmo Embriaco, was a Genoese merchant who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Over the course of that afternoon, evening and next morning, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem.[24] Muslims, Jews, and even eastern Christians were all massacred. Although many Muslims sought shelter in Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Jews in their synagogue by the Western wall, the crusaders spared few lives. According to the anonymous Gesta Francorum, in what some believe to be an exaggerated account of the massacre which subsequently took place there, "...the slaughter was so great that our men waded in blood up to their ankles..."[25] Other accounts of blood flowing up to the bridles of horses are reminiscent of a passage from the Book of Revelation (14:20). Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself and offered protection to some of the Muslims there, but he was unable to prevent their deaths at the hands of his fellow crusaders. According to Fulcher of Chartres: "Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women nor children were spared".[26] For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ... The Western Wall by night. ... The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ...


However, the Gesta Francorum states some people managed to escape the siege unharmed. Its anonymous author wrote, "When the pagans had been overcome, our men seized great numbers, both men and women, either killing them or keeping them captive, as they wished."[27] Later it is written, "[Our leaders] also ordered all the Saracen dead to be cast outside because of the great stench, since the whole city was filled with their corpses; and so the living Saracens dragged the dead before the exits of the gates and arranged them in heaps, as if they were houses. No one ever saw or heard of such slaughter of pagan people, for funeral pyres were formed from them like pyramids, and no one knows their number except God alone."[28] The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ...


Raymond of Toulouse was offered the kingship of Jerusalem but refused. When Godfrey of Bouillon was offered the rule afterwards, he accepted but refused to be crowned King, saying that he wouldn't wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn "a crown of thorns",[29] and instead taking the titles of a Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("Protector of the Holy Sepulchre") or simply "Prince". In the last action of the crusade, he led an army which defeated an invading Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon. Godfrey died in July 1100, and was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa, who took the title King of Jerusalem. This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimids Commanders Godfrey of Bouillon al-Afdal Shahanshah Strength Possibly 10 000 Possibly 50 000 Casualties Unknown Possibly 10-12 000 For the siege and capture of Ascalon in 1153, see Battle of Ascalon (1153) The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ...


Crusade of 1101 and the establishment of the kingdom

A map of western Anatolia, showing the routes taken by Christian armies during the Crusade of 1101.
A map of western Anatolia, showing the routes taken by Christian armies during the Crusade of 1101.
Main article: Crusade of 1101

Having captured Jerusalem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the crusading vow was now fulfilled. However, there were many who had gone home before reaching Jerusalem, and many who had never left Europe at all. When the success of the crusade became known, these people were mocked and scorned by their families and threatened with excommunication by the clergy. Many crusaders who had remained with the crusade all the way to Jerusalem also went home; according to Fulcher of Chartres there were only a few hundred knights left in the newfound kingdom in 1100. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


In 1101, another crusade set out, including Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, both of whom had returned home before reaching Jerusalem. This crusade was almost annihilated in Asia Minor by the Seljuks, but the survivors helped reinforce the kingdom when they arrived in Jerusalem. In the following years, assistance was also provided by Italian merchants who established themselves in the Syrian ports, and from the religious and military orders of the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitaller which were created during Baldwin I's reign. The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...


Analysis of the First Crusade

Aftermath

The success of the First Crusade was unprecedented. Newly achieved stability in the west left a warrior aristocracy in search of new conquests and patrimony, and the new prosperity of major towns also meant that money was available to equip expeditions. The Italian maritime city states, in particular Venice and Genoa, were interested in extending trade. The Papacy saw the Crusades as a way to assert Catholic influence as a unifying force, with war as a religious mission.I luv u kimmy!! This was a new attitude to religion: it brought religious discipline, previously applicable only to monks, to soldiery—the new concept of a religious warrior and the chivalric ethos.


The First Crusade succeeded in establishing the "Crusader States" of Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Tripoli in Palestine and Syria (as well as allies along the Crusaders' route, such as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia). The Crusader states, c. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ...


Back at home in western Europe, those who had survived to reach Jerusalem were treated as heroes. Robert of Flanders was nicknamed "Hierosolymitanus" thanks to his exploits. The life of Godfrey of Bouillon became legendary even within a few years of his death. In some cases, the political situation at home was greatly affected by crusader absences: while Robert Curthose was away, England had passed to his brother Henry I of England, and their conflict resulted in the Battle of Tinchebrai in 1106. Robert II of Flanders (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Henry I (c. ... The battle of Tinchebray (or Tinchebrai) was fought September 28, 1106, in the town of Tinchebray, Normandy, between an invading force led by Henry I of England, and his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. ...


Meanwhile the establishment of the crusader states in the east helped ease Seljuk pressure on the Byzantine Empire, which had regained some of its Anatolian territory with crusader help, and experienced a period of relative peace and prosperity in the 12th century. The effect on the Muslim dynasties of the east was gradual but important. In the wake of the death of Malik Shah I in 1092 the political instability and the division of Great Seljuk, that had pressed the Byzantine call for aid to the Pope, meant that it had prevented a coherent defense against the aggressive and expansionist Latin states. Cooperation between them remained difficult for many decades, but from Egypt to Syria to Baghdad there were calls for the expulsion of the crusaders, culminating in the recapture of Jerusalem under Saladin later in the century when the Ayyubids had united the surrounding areas. Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


Pope Urban II’s reasons for calling for a Crusade to the Holy Land were to regain Papacy supreme spiritual authority in Latin Christendom while expanding his realpolitik power. He failed to bridge the growing schism between the East and West and inadvertently, with the sacking of Constantinople during the later crusades, actually solidified the schism. The Crusades also militarily assisted the weakening Byzantine Empire by repulsing the growing Seljuk menace from the Holy Lands and setting up small individual kingdoms.


Pilgrims

Although it is called the First Crusade, no one saw himself as a "crusader". The term crusade is an early 13th century term that first appears in Latin over 100 years after the first crusade. Nor did the crusaders see themselves as the first, since they did not know there would be later crusades. They saw themselves simply as pilgrims (peregrinatores) on a journey (iter), and were referred to as such in contemporary accounts.


Taking an oath to the church to complete the journey, and punishment by excommunication if one failed to do so, were the solidifying factors of making the crusade an official pilgrimage. Crusaders were to swear that their journey would only be complete once they set foot inside the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Pilgrimages were open to all those who wished to take part; undesirable candidates, women, the elderly and the infirm, were discouraged from joining but there was no way to stop them.


Popularity of the Crusade

The first Crusade attracted the largest number of peasants and what started as a minor call for military aid turned into a mass migration of peoples. The call to go on crusade was very popular. Two medieval roles, holy warrior and pilgrim, were merged into one. Like a holy warrior in a holy war, one would carry a weapon and fight for the Church with all its spiritual benefits, including the privilege of an indulgence or martyrdom if one died in battle. Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


Just like a pilgrim on a pilgrimage, a crusader would have the right to hospitality and personal protection of self and property by the Church. The benefits of the indulgence were therefore twofold, both for fighting as a warrior of the Church and for traveling as a pilgrim. Thus, an indulgence would be granted regardless of whether one lived or died. But the crusade was not an indulgence in the medieval sense, medieval indulgences were bought and sold. The crusade was not an easy absolution of sins but a form of penitence because it was undertaken voluntarily and was a type of self-inflicted punishment. This crucial difference separates the medieval indulgence and the original crusade idea.


In addition there were feudal obligations because many crusaders went because they were required to do so by their lord. The poorer classes looked to local nobility for guidance and a powerful aristocrat could motivate others to join the cause as well. The connection to a wealthy leader allowed the average peasant to contribute and have some sort of protection on the journey, unlike those who undertook the vow alone. There were also family obligations, with many people joining the crusade in order to support relatives who had also taken the crusading vow. Some nobility, including several kings and heirs, were prohibited to join because of their position. All of these factors motivated different people for different reasons and contributed to the popularity of the crusade. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Spiritual versus earthly rewards

The call to crusade came at a time when years of good harvests had increased the Western European population allowing larger armies of Christendom to initiate the reconquista and this Crusade. Nonetheless, the attraction of trying to start a new life in the far more successful East caused many people to leave their lands. The expanding population meant that Europe was not a place of great opportunity anymore and the possibility of gaining something, whether spiritual, political or economic, was tempting to countless participants.


Older scholarship on this issue asserts that the bulk of the participants were likely younger sons of nobles who were dispossessed of land and influenced by the practise of primogeniture, and poorer knights who were looking for a new life in the wealthy east. Many had fought in order to drive out the Muslim armies in Southern Spain, or had relatives who had done so. The rumours of treasures that were discovered there may have been an attractive feature, for if there was such treasure in Spain there must have been even more in Jerusalem. Most didn't find this type of treasure, mostly insignificant relics were uncovered. While this is true in some respect it cannot be the only motivation for so many. Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ...


However, current research suggests that although Urban promised crusaders spiritual as well as material benefit, the primary aim of most crusaders was spiritual rather than material gain. Moreover, recent research by Jonathan Riley-Smith instead shows that the crusade was an immensely expensive undertaking, affordable only to those knights who were already fairly wealthy, such as Hugh of Vermandois and Robert Curthose, who were relatives of the French and English royal families, and Raymond of Toulouse, who ruled much of southern France. Even then, these wealthy knights had to sell much of their land to relatives or the church before they could afford to participate. Their relatives, too, often had to impoverish themselves in order to raise money for the crusade. As Riley-Smith says, "there really is no evidence to support the proposition that the crusade was an opportunity for spare sons to make themselves scarce in order to relieve their families of burdens".[30] Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18, 1101), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev, and the younger brother of King Philip I of France. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ...


As an example of spiritual over earthly motivation, Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin settled previous quarrels with the church by bequeathing their land to local clergy. The charters denoting these transactions were written by clergymen, not the knights themselves, and seem to idealize the knights as pious men seeking only to fulfill a vow of pilgrimage. Bronze statue in the Hofkirche of Innsbruck. ...


Further, poorer knights (minores, as opposed to the greater knights, the principes) could go on crusade only if they expected to survive off almsgiving, or if they could enter the service of a wealthier knight, as was the case with Tancred, who agreed to serve his uncle Bohemond. Later crusades would be organized by wealthy kings and emperors, or would be supported by special crusade taxes. Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ...


In arts and literature

The success of the crusade inspired the literary imagination of poets in France, who, in the 12th century, began to compose various chansons de geste celebrating the exploits of Godfrey of Bouillon and the other crusaders. Some of these, such as the most famous, the Chanson d'Antioche, are semi-historical, while others are completely fanciful, describing battles with a dragon or connecting Godfrey's ancestors to the legend of the Swan Knight. Together, the chansons are known as the crusade cycle. The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The Chanson dAntioche is a chanson de geste in 9000 lines of poetry in stanzas called laisses, composed about 1180 for a courtly French audience. ... The story of the Knight of the Swan, or Swan Knight, is a medieval myth about a mysterious rescuer who comes in a swan-drawn boat to defend a damsel, his only condition being that he must never be asked his name. ... The Crusade cycle is an Old French cycle of chansons de geste concerning the First Crusade and its aftermath. ...


The First Crusade was also an inspiration to artists in later centuries. In 1580, Torquato Tasso wrote Jerusalem Delivered, a largely fictionalized epic poem about the capture of Jerusalem. George Frideric Handel composed music based on Tasso's poem in his opera, Rinaldo.The 19th century poet Tommaso Grossi also wrote an epic poem, which was the basis of Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) (1580) is a baroque epic poem by Torquato Tasso which tells the (largely fictionalized) story of the First Crusade in which Christians knights, lead by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to raise the siege of Jerusalem. ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... Rinaldo is an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, now a part of the standard operatic repertoire. ... Tommaso Grossi (January 20, 1791 - December 10, 1853), Lombard poet and novelist, was born at Bellano, on the Lake of Como. ... Verdi redirects here. ... I Lombardi alla prima crociata (The Lombards on the First Crusade) is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based epic poem by Tommaso Grossi. ...


Gustave Doré made a number of engravings based on episodes from the First Crusade. Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ...


Stephen J Rivelle has written a largely fictional account of the First Crusade, in his book A Booke of Days.


According to Ming and Qing dynasty stone monuments, a Jewish community has existed in China since the Han Dynasty, but a majority of scholars cite the early Song Dynasty (roughly a century before the First Crusade).[31] A legend common among the modern-day descendants of the Kaifeng Jews states they reached China after fleeing Bodrum from the invading crusaders. A section of the legend reads, “The Jews became merchants and traders in the region, but new troubles came in the 1090s. Life became difficult and dangerous. The first bad news was heralded by a word they had never heard before: 'Crusade,' the so-called Holy War...Jews were warned; "Convert to Christianity or die!"[32] For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... A kehilla or kehillah (קהלה, Hebrew: community) is a Jewish community. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... The Kaifeng Jews comprise the best documented Jewish community in China. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ...


References

  1. ^ D. Nicolle, The First Crusade 1096-99: Conquest of the Holy Land, 21
  2. ^ a b D. Nicolle, The First Crusade 1096-99: Conquest of the Holy Land, 32
  3. ^ a b c Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 39.
  4. ^ Asbridge, Thomas. The First Crusade: A New History, the Roots of Conflict Between Christiniaty and Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, pp. 15-20.
  5. ^ Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 45.
  6. ^ a b Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 40.
  7. ^ Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 9.
  8. ^ a b Fulcher of Chartres, "Speech of Urban", Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium
  9. ^ Asbridge. The First Crusade, pp. 31-39.
  10. ^ a b c Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1995, p. 33 ISBN 0-6794-1650-1.
  11. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, 1986, p. 50.
  12. ^ Tyerman, Christopher. God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2006, ISBN 0-6740-2387-0.
  13. ^ D. Nicolle, The First Crusade 1096-99: Conquest of the Holy Land, 21 & 32
  14. ^ a b A. Konstam, Historical Atlas of the Crusades, 133
  15. ^ Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 121.
  16. ^ a b Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 131.
  17. ^ Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 123.
  18. ^ Steven Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 135.
    Geoffrey Parker, Compact History of the World, 48-9
  19. ^ Runciman, The First Crusade, p. 149.
  20. ^ Asbridge. The First Crusade, pp. 163-187
  21. ^ Runciman. History of the Crusades, p. 231.
  22. ^ Asbridge. The First Crusade, pp. 163-187.
  23. ^ Runciman. History of the Crusades, p. 261.
  24. ^ Ibid., pp. 286-287.
  25. ^ Fulcher of Chartres, "The Fall of Jerusalem", Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium
  26. ^ Fulcher of Chartres, "The Siege of the City of Jerusalem", Gesta Francorum Jerusalem Expugnantium
  27. ^ Medieval Sourcebook: Gesta Francorum
  28. ^ Medieval Sourcebook: Gesta Francorum
  29. ^ William of Tyre, Book 9, Chapter 9.
  30. ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, p. 47
  31. ^ Weisz, Tiberiu. The Kaifeng Stone Inscriptions: The Legacy of the Jewish Community in Ancient China. New York: iUniverse, 2006 (ISBN 0-595-37340-2)
  32. ^ Xu, Xin, Beverly Friend, and Cheng Ting. Legends of the Chinese Jews of Kaifeng. Hoboken, N.J.: KTAV Pub, 1995 (ISBN 0881255289)

Sources

Primary sources

Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aachen. ... Anna Comnena or better Komnene (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna KomnÄ“nÄ“) (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ... The Alexiad (original Greek title : Αλεξιάς) is a medieval biographical text written around the year 1148 by the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, daughter of Emperor Alexius I. Within the Alexiad, she describes the political and military history of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of her father (1081-1118), making it... An angel blows a trumpet into Guiberts ear, declaring moral truths. ... Dei gesta per Francos (Deeds of God through the Franks) is a narrative of the First Crusade by Guibert of Nogent written between 1107 and 1108. ... Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... The so-called Gesta Francorum (The Deeds of the Franks, in full De Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum) is a Latin chronicle of the First Crusade (1096-1099) by an anonymous author. ... Raymond of Aguilers (Raimundus de Aguilers or de Agiles) was a chronicler of the First Crusade (1096-1099). ... Hamza ibn Asad abu Yala ibn al-Qalanisi (c. ...

Primary sources online

Image File history File links Wiki_firstCrusade. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies and is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB). ... Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... Ekkehard of Aura (died 1126) was the Abbot of Aura (a monastery founded by Otto, Bishop of Bamberg, on the Franconian Saale river, near Bad Kissingen, Bavaria) from 1108. ... Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle or Albert of Aachen (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the First Crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aachen. ... Solomon ben Samson was a scholar of Worms in the eleventh century. ... Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (died 1106) was a Damascene jurist and philologist who was the first to preach jihad against the crusaders in the aftermath of the First Crusade. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

Secondary sources

  • Asbridge, Thomas. The First Crusade: A New History. Oxford: 2004. ISBN 0-19-517823-8.
  • Bartlett, Robert. The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Exchange, 950–1350. Princeton: 1994. ISBN 0-691-03780-9.
  • Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Jewish Publication Society, 1997. ISBN 0-8276-0575-7.
  • Hillenbrand, Carole. The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-92914-8.
  • Holt, P.M. The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1989. ISBN 0-582-49302-1.
  • Madden, Thomas New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. ISBN 0-7425-3822-2.
  • Mayer, Hans Eberhard. The Crusades. John Gillingham, translator. Oxford: 1988. ISBN 0-19-873097-7.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania: 1991. ISBN 0-8122-1363-7.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan, editor. The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford: 2002. ISBN 0-19-280312-3.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095–1131. Cambridge: 1998. ISBN 0-521-64603-0.
  • Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge: 1987 ISBN 0-521-34770-X
  • Runciman, Steven. The First Crusade. Camridge: 1980. ISBN 0-521-23255-4.
  • Setton, Kenneth, editor. A History of the Crusades. Madison: 1969–1989 (available online).
  • Magdalino, Paul, "The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade" (available online)

Thomas Asbridge is a University of London medieval history scholar. ... Capture of Jerusalem, 1099 The First Crusade: A New History is a book by Thomas Asbridge, a University of London medieval history scholar. ... Carole Hillenbrand is professor of Islamic History at the University of Edinburgh. ... Thomas F. Madden (born c. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ...

Bibliographies

The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
First [email protected] (4539 words)
Unhappily, clinging to the conviction that all the lands which the crusaders would traverse were the "lost provinces" of his empire, he induced the crusaders to do him homage, so that, whatever they conquered, they would conquer in his name, and whatever they held, they would hold by his grant and as his vassals.
In the meeting of the crusaders on the 22nd of July, some few voices were raised in support of the view that a "spiritual vicar" should first be chosen in the place of the late patriarch of Jerusalem (who had just died in Cyprus), before the election of any lay ruler was taken in hand.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
The Crusades - Conservapedia (2002 words)
On the other hand, the crusades in southern Spain, southern Italy, and Sicily were militarily successful, eventually leading to the demise of Islamic power in the regions – powers which had established themselves since the first Islamic Jihad-conquests of the eighth and ninth centuries.
The Third Crusade (1189-92) is famous for the battles between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin, highlighted by the deep respect the two enemies had for each other, and the sense of chivalric honor of King Richard.
The Fourth Crusade, begun by Innocent III in 1202, intended to retake the Holy Land but was soon subverted by Venetians who used the forces to sack the Christian city of Zara.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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