FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > First Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian: Българско царство
Bulgarian Empire
Flag
632 – 1422

Imperial Emblem of Bulgaria Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 574 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1476 × 1542 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Imperial Emblem The winged lion of Mark the Evangelist for centuries has been the national emblem and landmark of Venice (detail from a painting by Vittore Carpaccio, 1516) The lion is a common charge in heraldry. ...

Location of Bulgaria
Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. 920 under Simeon I the Great
Capital Pliska(681-893) Preslav(983-972) Skopie(972-992) Ohrid(992-1018) Tarnovo(1185-1393)
Language(s) Bulgarian (along with Old Church Slavonic in the 9th-10th centuries)
Religion Paganism until 864 A.D and Eastern Orthodox 865 on
Government Monarchy
Tsar (Emperor)
 - 681–700 Asparukh
 - 1396–1422 Constantine II
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Established 632
 - Arrival of Asparukh 681
 - Christianisation 864
 - Fall to the Byzantine Empire 1018
 - Reestablishment 1185
 - Disestablished 1422
Area
 - 10th century 750,000 km² (289,577 sq mi)
Population
 - 10th century est. 2,500,000 up to 4,000,000 in 10th century 
     Density Expression error: Unrecognised word "up" /km²  (Expression error: Unrecognised word "up" /sq mi)


The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state founded in AD 681 in the lands near the Danube Delta and disintegrated in AD 1018 after its annexation to the Byzantine Empire. At the height of its power it spread between Budapest and the Black Sea and from the Dnieper river in modern Ukraine to the Adriatic. It was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire, established in 1185. The official name of the country since its very foundation was Bulgaria. [1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Skopje is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Cyrillic: Велико Търново, Great Tarnovo, also Veliko Turnovo) is a city of approximately 65,000 people in North-central Bulgaria, 240km north-east of Sofia. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Asparuh or Isperih (Bulgarian: Аспарух, Asparuh or Исперих, Isperih) was ruler of the Bulgarians in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681. ... Constantine II (in Bulgarian, Konstantin II), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria in Vidin 1397-1422. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Asparuh or Isperih (Bulgarian: Аспарух, Asparuh or Исперих, Isperih) was ruler of the Bulgarians in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the... The Christianization of Bulgaria is the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. ... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ...

Contents

Background

During the time of the late Roman Empire, the lands of present-day Bulgaria had been organised in several provinces - Scythia Minor, Moesia (Upper and Lower), Thrace, Macedonia (First and Second), Dacia (south of the Danube), Dardania, Rhodope and Hemimont, and had a mixed population of Romanised Getae and Hellenised Thracians. Several consecutive waves of Slavic migration throughout the 6th and the early 7th century led to the almost complete slavicisation of the region. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Dardania in Greek mythology is the name of a city founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name. ... In Greek mythology, Queen Rhodope of Thrace was the wife of Haemus. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Slavicisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Slavic becomes Slavic. ...


The Bulgars

Main article: Bulgars

Little is known about the origins of the Bulgars that reached the Balkan peninsula in the 7th century (according to some sources even earlier) because during the ages the original Bulgars melted into the local population of what is nowadays Bulgaria. Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The established theory is that the Bulgars are related to the Huns and originated in Central Asia but their ethnicity is not entirely clear. Clues for this can be found in the advanced calendar and system of government of the early Bulgars. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Nevertheless the so called "Hun theory" is still vehemently supported by some historians who base their thesis on a lot of existing documents and sources. In Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans, a late copy of an ancient document, is written that the first ruler of the Bulgars was Avitohol and the second Irnik. Irnik or Ernakh is the name of Attila's youngest son therefore some historians believe that Avitohol was no other than Attila the Hun. Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ... Avitohol ( ?153-453? ) is the first name in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans. ... Ernakh or Ernac (Priscus: Ήρνάχ Hernach) was the 3rd son of Attila. ... Ernakh or Ernac (Priscus: Ήρνάχ Hernach) was the 3rd son of Attila. ... Ernakh or Ernac (Priscus: Ήρνάχ Hernach) was the 3rd son of Attila. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Avitohol ( ?153-453? ) is the first name in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans. ... Attila (AD 406 - 453), also known as Attila the Hun was Khan of the Hun people from 434 until his death and leader of the Hunnic Empire. ...


History of Bulgaria
Old Great Bulgaria
First Bulgarian Empire
Second Bulgarian Empire
Early Ottoman Bulgaria
National Awakening
Kingdom of Bulgaria
People's Republic of Bulgaria
Republic of Bulgaria
The sword of Khan Kubrat[2]

It is assumed that the Bulgars were governed by hereditary khans. The only similar title found so far is kanasubigi and it was used by only four of the Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum, Omurtag, Malamir and Presian, which were respectively a grandfather, son, grandson and a nephew of Malamir, and after them the title disappears. Other similar but non-kingly titles were attested among Bulgarian noble class and these are kavkan (vicekhan), tarkan, and boritarkan. Starting from there (if there was a vicekhan (kavkhan) so there was a khan, too) the scholars assume the title khan for the early Bulgarian leader. Later iscriptions speak of archonts (a Greek title) and knyaze (a Slavic title). There were several (probably more than 100) aristocratic families whose members, called boila (boyars) who bore military titles and formed a governing class. The religion of the Bulgars is also obscure but it is supposed that it was monotheistic, worshipping the Turkic Sky god Tangra. There is only one mentioning of Tangra in the 8 century inscription near the Madara Rider. All other sources simply talk about Bog, the Slavic and Aryan word for God. More confunsingly some Bulgar rulers, renowned for their persecution of Christians were depicted with Christian state symbols. There is a theory that Bulgars were Arians (an early Christian sect). On the top of that, early Bulgar sacred places featured the plan of two concentric squares, typical to Zoroastrian temples. [3] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... After falling almost entirely under Ottoman rule in the end of the 14th century, the Bulgarian state ceased to exist as an independent entity and remained part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly five centuries until 1878. ... Bulgarian nationalism emerged in the early 19th century under the influence of western ideas such as liberalism and nationalism, which trickled into the country after the French revolution, mostly via Greece. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for a self-governing Bulgarian state, which comprised the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Omortag-Khan or Omurtag of Bulgaria succeeded his father Krum to the throne in 814. ... A city in Iranian province of Lorestan near the Bakhtiyari mountains, northeast of Susa. ... Presijan or Presian was the Khan of Bulgaria from 836 to 852 and the grandson of Omortag-Khan of Bulgaria. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... The Madara Rider The Madara Rider is a large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


The migration of Bulgars to the European continent started as early as the 2nd century AD when branches of Bulgars settled on the plains between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Between AD 351 and 389, some of these crossed the Caucasus and settled in Armenia. They were eventually assimilated by the Armenians. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Swept by the Hunnish wave at the beginning of the 4th century AD, other numerous Bulgarian tribes broke loose from their settlements in central Asia to migrate to the fertile lands along the lower valleys of the Donets and the Don rivers and the Azov seashore. Some of these remained for centuries in their new settlements, whereas others moved on with the Huns towards Central Europe, settling in Pannonia. Length 1,050 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Don River Basin countries Russia, Ukraine Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ...


In the 6th and 7th century, the Bulgars formed an independent state, often called Great Bulgaria, between the lower course of the Danube to the west, the Black and the Azov Seas to the south, the Kuban river to the east, and the Donets river to the north. The capital of the state was Phanagoria, on the Azov. In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ...


The pressure from peoples further east (such as the Khazars) led to the dissolution of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the 7th century. One Bulgar tribe migrated to the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers in what is now Tatarstan, Russia (see Volga Bulgaria). They converted to Islam in the beginning in the 10th century and maintained an independent state until the 13th century. Smaller Bulgar tribes seceded in Pannonia and in Italy, northwest of Naples, while other Bulgars sought refuge with the Lombards. Another group of Bulgars remained in the land north of the Black and the Azov Seas. They were, however, soon subdued by the Khazars. These Bulgars converted to Judaism in the 9th century, along with the Khazars, and were eventually assimilated. The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Establishment of the Bulgarian state

There are two different dates for the year of establishment of present-day Bulgaria, based upon two different interpretations of history.


Yet another Bulgar tribe, led by Khan Asparuh, moved westward, occupying today’s southern Bessarabia. After a successful war with Byzantium in AD 680, Asparuh’s khanate conquered Moesia and Dobrudja [4],[5] and was recognised as an independent state under the subsequent treaty signed with the Byzantine Empire in AD 681. The same year is usually regarded as the year of the establishment of present-day Bulgaria. Asparuh or Isperih (Bulgarian: Аспарух, Asparuh or Исперих, Isperih) was ruler of the Bulgarians in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... // Events August 9 - The Bulgars win the war with the Byzantine Empire; the latter signs a peace treaty, which is considered as the birth-date of Bulgaria Wilfrid of York is expelled from Northumbria by Ecgfrith and retires into Sussex Births Deaths January 10 - Pope Agatho Ebroin, Mayor of the...


Another theory is that Great Bulgaria, although it suffered a major territory loss from the Khazars, managed to defeat them in the early 670s. Khan Asparuh, the successor of Khan Kubrat, conquered Moesia and Dobrudja after the war with the Byzantine Empire in AD 680. This war ended with a peace treaty in 681. Therefore, according to some researchers, the year of establishment of present-day Bulgaria has to be considered 632, and not AD 681. In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ...


Establishing a firm foothold in the Balkans

Bulgar art: The Madara Rider (ca. AD 710), large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen, northeast Bulgaria.

After the decisive victory at Ongala in 680 the armies of the Bulgars and Slavs advanced to the south of the Balkan mountains, defeating again the Byzantines and in the next year they were forced to sign a humiliating peace treaty which acknowledged the establishment of a new state in the borders of the Empire. They were also to pay an annual tribute to Bulgaria. In the same time the war with the Khazars to the east continued and in 700 Asparough perished in battle with them. The Bulgars lost the territories to the east of the Dnester river but managed to hold the lands to the west. The Bulgars and the Slavs signed a treaty according to which the head of the state became the Khan of the Bulgars who had also the obligation to defent the country against the Byzantine, while the Slavic leaders gained considerable autonomy and had to protect the northern borders along the Carpathian mountains against the Avars.[6] Madara Horseman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Madara Horseman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Madara Rider The Madara Rider is a large rock relief carved on the Madara Plateau east of Shumen in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Asparukh Constantine IV Strength at least 80,000 80,000 Casualties Light Almost the whole army The battle of Ongala took place in the summer of 680 in the Ongala area, an unspecified location in South-Western Ukraine or North-Eastern Romania around the Danube... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ...


Asparough's successor, Tervel helped the deposed Byzantine Emperor Justinian II to regain his throne in 705. In return he was given the area Zagore in northern Thrace which was the first expansion of the country to the south of the Balkan mountains. However, three years later Justinian tried to take it back by force but his army was defeated at Anchialus. In 716 Tervel signed a trade agreement with Byzantium. During the siege of Constantinople in 717-718 he sent 50,000 troops to help the besieged city. In the decisive battle the Bulgarians massacred around 30,000 Arabs[7] and Tervel was called The saviour of Europe by his contemporaries. Tervel (Bulgarian: Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the ruler of the Bulgars at the beginning of the 8th century. ... Justinian II, known as Rhinotmetus (the Split-nosed) (669-711) was a Byzantine emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigned from 685 to 695 and again from 704 to 711. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Tervel Justinian II Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Heavy The battle of Anchialus occurred in 708 near the town of Pomorie, Bulgaria. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III, Khan Tervel Strength About 400,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, About 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


Internal instability and struggle for survival

In 753 died Khan Sevar who was the last scion of the Dulo clan. With his death the Khanate fell into a long political crisis during which the young country was on the verge of destruction. For just 15 years ruled 7 Khans who were all murdered. There were two main fractions; some nobles wanted uncompromising war against the Byzantines while others searched for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. That instability was used by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine V (745-775) who launched nine major campaigns aiming at the elimination of Bulgaria. In 763 he defeated the Bulgarian Khan Telets at Anchialus[8][9] but the Byzantines were unable to advance further north. In 775 Khan Telerig, by tricking Constantine to reveal those loyal to him in the Bulgarian Court, executed all the Byzantine spies in the capital Pliska.[10] Under his successor Kardam, the war took a favourable turn after the great victory in the battle of Marcelae[11] in 792. The Byzantines were thoroughly defeated and forced once again to pay tribute to the Khans. As a result of the victory, the crisis was finally overwhelmed and Bulgaria enterred the new century stable, stronfer and consolidated. Sevar (Bulgarian: ) was a ruler of Bulgaria in the 8th century. ... The Dulo Clan or the House of Dulo was the name of the ruling dynasty of the early Bulgars. ... Constantine V Copronymus (The Dung-named) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. ... Telets or better Telec, was the ruler of Bulgaria 762–765. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Telets Constantine V Strength Unknown 9,600 cavalrymen and unknown number of infantry Casualties Heavy Heavy The battle of Anchialus (Bulgarian: ) occurred in 763, near the town of Pomorie on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. ... Telerig was the ruler of Bulgaria 768–777. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Kardam (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 777–after 796/before 803. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Kardam Constantine VI Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Heavy The battle of Marcelae (Bulgarian: битка при Маркели) took place in 792 near the town of Karnobat in south eastern Bulgaria. ...


Territorial expansion

See also: Krum of Bulgaria and battle of Pliska
Khan Krum feasts after the victory at Varbitsa Pass
Khan Krum feasts after the victory at Varbitsa Pass
Khan Omurtag orders the killing of Christians
Khan Omurtag orders the killing of Christians

Under the great Khan Krum (803-814), also known as Crummus and Keanus Magnus, Bulgaria expanded northwest and southwards, occupying the lands between middle Danube and Moldova, the whole territory of present-day Romania, Sofia in 809 and Adrianople (modern Odrin) in 813, and threatening Constantinople itself. Between 804 and 806 the Bulgarian armies thouroughly eliminated the Avar Khanate and a border with the Frankish Empire was established along the middle Danube. In 811 a large Byzantine army was decisively defeated in the battle of the Varbitsa Pass.[12] The Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I was slain along with most of his troops. Krum immediatelly took the initiative and moved the war towards Thrace, defeating the Byzantines once more at Versinikia[13] in 813. After a treacherous Byzantine attempt to kill the Khan during negotiations, Krum pillaged the whole of Thrace, seized Odrin and resettled its 10,000 inhabitants in "Bulgaria across the Danube"[14]. He made enhanced preparation to capture Constantinople: 5,000 iron-plated waggons were built to carry the siege equipment[15], the Byzantines even pled the Frannkish Emperor Louis the Pious for help.[16] Due the sudden death of the great Khan, however, the campaign was never launched. Khan Krum implemented law reform intending to reduce the poverty and to strengthen the social ties in his vastly enlarged state. Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicephorus I† Krum Strength aroud 80,000 Unknown Casualties almost the whole army, including the emperor Unknown The Battle of Pliska (Battle of Vărbica pass) took place on July 26, 811, between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, resulting in one of the worst defeats... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 1296 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1689 × 1296 pixel, file size: 465 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 426 pixelsFull resolution (1690 × 900 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 426 pixelsFull resolution (1690 × 900 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Krum (Bulgarian: ) (died April 13, 814) was ruler of Bulgaria, from after 796/ before 803 to 814. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicephorus I† Krum Strength aroud 80,000 Unknown Casualties almost the whole army, including the emperor Unknown The Battle of Pliska (Battle of Vărbica pass) took place on July 26, 811, between the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria, resulting in one of the worst defeats... Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Battle of Versinikia was fought in 813 between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarians. ... In the Middle Ages the Bulgarian Empire controlled vast areas to the north of the river Danube from its establishment in 681 to its fall in 1396. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ...


During the reign of Khan Omurtag (814-831), the northwestern boundaries with the Frankish Empire were firmly settled along the middle Danube by the 827 and magnificent palace, pagan temples, ruler’s residence, fortress, citadel, water-main and bath were built in Bulgarian capital Pliska, mainly of stone and brick.


During the short reign of Malamir (831-836) the important city of Plovdiv was incorporated into the country. Under Khan Presian (836-852), the Bulgarians took most of Macedonia and the borders of the country reached the Adriatic and Aegean Seas. The Byzantine historians do not mention any resistance against the Bulgarian expansion in Macedonia which bring the conclusion that it was largely peaceful.[17] Malamir (Bulgarian: ) was the ruler of Bulgaria 831–836. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Presian I was the ruler of Bulgaria 836–852. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Merger of Bulgars and Slavs

It is assumed that The Bulgars were greatly outnumbered by the Slav population among whom they had settled. Between the 7th and the 10th centuries, the Bulgars were gradually absorbed by the Slavs, adopting a Bulgaro-South Slav language and converting to Christianity (of the Byzantine rite) under Boris I in 864. At that time the process of absorption of the remnants of the old Romanised Thracian population from south of the Danube had already been significant in the formation of this new ethnic group. Modern Bulgarians are normally considered to be of Southern Slavic origin, even though the Slavs were only one of the peoples that took part in the formation of their ethnicity. Some recent studies suggest that the Bulgars were much more numerous than originally thought.This theory is getting more support amongst new Bulgarian historians.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Southern Slavic can refer to: Southern Slavic languages Southern Slavic peoples Category: ...


Bulgaria under Boris I

See also: Boris I

The reign of Boris I (852-889) began with numerous setbacks. For ten years the country fought against the Byzantine and Eastern Frankish Empires, Great Moravia, the Croats and the Serbs forming several unsuccessful alliances and changing sides. In August 863 there was a period of 40 days of earthquakes and there was a lean year which caused famine throughout the country. To cap it all there was an incursion of locusts. Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил)(d. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Christianization

See also: Christianization of Bulgaria

In 864 the Byzantines under Michael III invaded Bulgaria while the Bulgarian army fought to the north. Upon the new of the invasion, Boris I started negotiations for peace.[18] The Byzantines returned some lands in Macedonia and their only demand was Bulgaria to accept Christianity from Constantinople. Khan Boris agreed to that term and was baptised in September 865 assumeing the name of his godfather Michael.[19] The pagan title "Khan" was abolished and the title "Knyaz" assumed on its place. The reason for the conversion, however, was not the Byzantine invasion. The Bulgarian ruler was indeed a man of vision he knew that his state was not respected in Christian Europe; its treaties could have been canceled and the country invaded at any time. Also he wanted to further consolidate the emerging Bulgarian nation which was still divided on a religious basis. The Christianization of Bulgaria is the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. ... This coin struck during the regency of Theodora shows how Michael was less prominent than his mother, who is represented as ruler alone on the obverse, and even than his sister Thecla, who is depicted together with the young Michael on the reverse of this coin. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Khan Boris I converts to Christianity

Тhe Byzantines' purpose was to achieve what they could not after two centuries of warfare with peace: to slowly absorb Bulgaria with the Christian religion and turn it into their satelite state because naturally the highest posts in the newly founded Bulgarian Church were to be held by Byzantines who preached in Greek language. Boris I was well aware of that fact and in 866 he sent a delegation in Rome with 115 questions to Pope Nicolas I[20] [21]. The Bulgarian ruler desired to take advantage of the rivalry between the Churches of Rome and Constantinople and his main goal was to struggle for an independent Bulgarian Church in order to avoid and influence from both the Byzantines and the Catholics. However, Nicolas I and his successor Pope Adrian II refused to recognize an autonomous Bulgarian Church which cooled the relations between the two side but these diplomatic speculations of Boris I made the Byzantines much more conciliatory. In 870 on the Fourth Council of Constantinople the Bulgarian Church was recognized as an Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church under the supreme direction of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... Adrian II (also known as Hadrian II), (792–872), pope from 867 to 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age. ... The Fourth Council of Constantinople as an ecumenical council is a name given to one of two meetings in Constantinople: the first in 869-870; the second in 879-880. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


Creation of the Slavic writing

Although the Bulgarian Knyaz managed to gain an independent Church the higher clergy was still Byzantine which was a direct threat for the survival of the Bulgarian people. Between 855 and 863 the Byzantine monks of Slavic origin[22] Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius created the Glagolic alphabet, the first Slavic alphabet by the order of the Byzantine Emperor who aimed to convert Great Moravia to the Orthodox Christianity. However these attempts failed and in 886 their disciples Clement of Ohrid, Naum of Preslav and Angelarius who were banished from Great Moravia reached Bulgaria and were warmly welcomed by Boris I. The Bulgarian Knyaz sought ways to expel the Byzantine clergy and adopted the new Slavic alphabet and Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian) language as official in the country and expelled the Byzantine clergy. Clement was sent to Ohrid[23] in southwestern Bulgaria where he taught 3,500 pupils until 893 and in the early 10th century he created the Cyrillic alphabet. Naum stayed to the east in Pliska and Preslav. Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... This article is about the medieval Bulgarian saint. ... Saint Naum Saint Naum of Preslav (Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... Old Bulgarian may refer to: The first literary period in the development of the Bulgarian language. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The "Golden Age"

See also: Simeon I of Bulgaria and battle of Anchialus
Simeon sends envoys to the Fatimid Chaliph to form an alliance against the Byzantines. The two sides were close to an agreement but on their way back the Bulgarian delegats were captured by the Byzantines who managed to distract the Arabs from that alliance.
Simeon sends envoys to the Fatimid Chaliph to form an alliance against the Byzantines. The two sides were close to an agreement but on their way back the Bulgarian delegats were captured by the Byzantines who managed to distract the Arabs from that alliance.

By the late 9th and the beginning of the 10th century, Bulgaria extended to Epirus and Thessaly in the south, Bosnia in the west and controlled the whole of present-day Romania and eastern Hungary to the north. A Serbian state came into existence as a dependency of the Bulgarian Empire and was later fully subordinated under the general and possibly Count of Sofia Marmais. Under Tsar Simeon I (Simeon the Great), who was educated in Constantinople, Bulgaria became again a serious threat to the Byzantine Empire and reached its greatest territorial extension[24]. Simeon hoped to take Constantinople and make himself Emperor of both Bulgarians and Greeks, and fought a series of wars with the Byzantines through his long reign (893-927). The war boundary towards the end of his rule reached the Peloponnese in the south. Simeon proclaimed himself "Tsar of the Bulgarians and the Greeks," a title which was recognised by the Pope, but not of course by the Byzantine Emperor nor the The Ecumenical Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... This article refers to the Battle of Anchialus fought in 917. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... This article is about a geographic region of Bosnia. ... Marmais (Bulgarian: Мармаис), d. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...


Between 894 and 896 he defeated the Byzantines and their allies the Magyars in the so called "Trade War" because the pretext of the war was the shifting of the Bulgarian market from Constantinople to Solun[25]. In the decisive battle of Bulgarophygon the Byzantine army was routed[26] and the war ended with favourable for Bulgaria peace which was, however, ofter violated by Simeon[27]. In 904 he captured Solun which was previously looted by the Arabs and returned it to the Byzantines only after Bulgaria received all Slavic-populated areas in Macedonia and 20 fortress in Albania including the important town Drach[28]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal, the largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Unknown Simeon I of Bulgaria Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Almost the whole army Unknown The battle of Bulgarophygon occurred in the summer of 896 near the town of Babaeski in modern Turkey. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Durrës (Photo by Marc Morell) Durrës (Albanian: Durrës or Durrësi) is the most ancient city of Albania and one of the most economically important as the biggest port city. ...


After the unrest in the Byzantine Empire that followed the death of Emperor Alexander in 913 Simeon invaded Byzantine Thrace but was persuaded to stop in return for official recognition of his Imperial title and marriage of his daughter to the infant Emperor Constantine VII[29] [30]. After a plot in the Byzantine court Empress Zoe rejected the marriage and his title and both sides prepared for a decisive battle. By 917 Simeon broke every attempts of his enemy to form an alliance with the Magyars, the Pechenegs and the Serbs and Byzantines were forced to fight alone. On 20 August the two armies clashed at Anchialus in one of the greatest battles in the Middle Ages[31]. The Byzantines suffered an unprecedented defeat leaving 70,000 killed on the battlefield. The pursuing Bulgarian forces defeated the reminder of the enemy armies at Katasyrtai[32]. However, Constantinople was saved by a Serb attack from the west; the Serbs were thoroughly defeated but that gave precious time for the Byzantine admiral and later Emperor Romanos Lakepanos to prepare the defence of the city. In the following decade the Bulgarians gained control of the whole Balkan peninsula with the exeption of Constantinople and Pelopones. A Byzantine Mosaic portrait of Emperor Alexander (870 - 913) which was completed in the Emperors short reign. ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII PorphyrogennÄ“tos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the Battle of Anchialus fought in 917. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Combatants Bulgaria Byzantine Empire Commanders Simeon I of Bulgaria Leo Phokas Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Heavy The battle of Katasyrtai occurred in the fall of 917, shortly after the striking Bulgarian triumph at Anchialus near the village of the same names close to the Byzantine capital Constantinople, now Istambul. ... Contemporary coin of Romanus I. Romanos I Lekapenos or Romanus I Lecapenus (Greek: Ρωμανός Α΄ Λακαπήνος, Rōmanos I LakapÄ“nos) (c. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ...


Decline

The Bulgarian Empire under Samuil.
The Bulgarian Empire under Samuil. [33]

After Simeon's death, however, Bulgarian power slowly declined. In a peace treaty in 927 the Byzantines officially recognized the Imperial title of his son Peter I and the Bulgarian Patriarchate. The peace with Byzantium did not bring prosperity to Bulgaria. In the beginning of his rule the new Emperor had internal problems and unrest with his brothers and in 930s was forced to recognize the independence of Rascia[34]. The main blow came from the north: between 934 and 965 the country suffered five Magyar invasions[35]. In 944 Bulgaria was attacked by the Pechenegs who looted the north eastern regions of the Empire. Under Peter I and Boris II the country was divided by the egalitarian religious heresy of the Bogomils[36]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Raška (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Peter I of Bulgaria ruled for three years (969-972). ... Bogomilism is the Gnostic dualistic sect, the synthesis of Armenian Paulicianism and the local Slavonic Church reform movement in Bulgaria between 950 and 1396 and in the Byzantine Empire between 1018 and 1186. ...


In 968 the country was attacked by Kievan Rus, whose leader, Svyatoslav I, took Preslav[37] and established his capital at Preslavets[38]. Three years later, Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes interfered into the struggle and defeated Svyatoslav at Dorostolon. After that, Boris II was deceived and solemnly dethroned at Constantinople[39] and eastern Bulgaria was proclaimed a Byzantine protectorate. Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Sviatoslavs meeting with Emperor John by Klavdiy Lebedev, an attempt to visualise Leo the Deacons description of Sviatoslav Sviatoslav I of Kiev (East Slavic: Святослав Игоревич) (c. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Trade city located at the mouth of the Danube. ... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Henryk Siemiradzki. ...


Struggle for independence

See also: Samuil of Bulgaria and battle of Kleidion

After the Byzantine betrayal the lands to the west of the Iskar river remained free and the resistance against the Byzantines was headed by the Comitopuli brothers. By 976 the forth brother Samuil concentrated the whole power in his hands after the deaths of his eldest brothers. When the rightful heir to the throne, Roman, escaped from captivity in Constantinople, he was recognized for Emperor by Samuil in Vidin[40] and the later remained the chief commander of the Bulgarian army. Brilliant general and good politician, he managed to turn the fortunes to the Bulgarians. The new Byzantine Emperor Basil II was decisively defeated in the battle of the Gates of Trajan in 986 and barely escaped[41][42]. Five years later he eliminated the Serbian state[43]. In 997 after the death of Roman who was the last from the Krum dynasty Samuil was proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria[44]. However, after 1001 the war turned in favour of the Byzantines who captured the old capitals Pliska and Preslav in the same year and from 1004 launched annual campaigns against Bulgaria. They were eased by a war between Bulgaria and the newly established Kingdom of Hungary 1003. In 1014 Emperor Basil II defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil in the Battle of Belasitsa and massacred thousands, acquiring the title "Bulgar-slayer" (Voulgaroktonos). He ordered 14,000 Bulgarian prisoners blinded and sent back to their country. At the sight of his returning armies Samuil suffered a heart attack and died. By 1018 the country had been mostly subjugated by the Byzantines. Samuil (also Samuel)[1] (Bulgarian: ; IPA: ) was the Emperor (Tsar) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Basil II Nicephorus Xiphias Theophylactus Botaniates † Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria Strength Unknown 20 000 Casualties Unknown At least 14 000 The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium and Klyuch, (the) key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ... The Iskar (Bulgarian: Искър; Latin Oescus) is the longest river in Bulgaria, a right tributary of the Danube. ... ... Samuil (also Samuel)[1] (Bulgarian: ; IPA: ) was the Emperor (Tsar) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014. ... Roman (Bulgarian: Роман) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 977 and 997 (in Byzantine captivity from 991). ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Combatants Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Commanders Samuil of Bulgaria Basil II Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Light c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Bulgaria Commanders Basil II Nicephorus Xiphias Theophylactus Botaniates † Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria Strength Unknown 20 000 Casualties Unknown At least 14 000 The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium and Klyuch, (the) key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ...


Cultural development

Ceramic icon of St. Theodor, Preslav, ca. AD 900, National Archaelogical Museum, Sofia.
Ceramic icon of St. Theodor, Preslav, ca. AD 900, National Archaelogical Museum, Sofia.

Missionaries from Constantinople, Cyril and Methodius, devised the Glagolitic alphabet, which was adopted in the Bulgarian Empire around 886. The alphabet and the Old Bulgarian language gave rise to a rich literary and cultural activity centered around the Preslav and Ohrid Schools, established by order of Boris I in 886. In the beginning of 10th century AD, a new alphabet — the Cyrillic alphabet - was developed on the basis of Greek and Glagolitic cursive at the Preslav Literary School. According to an alternative theory, the alphabet was devised at the Ohrid Literary School by Saint Clement of Ohrid, a Bulgarian scholar and disciple of Cyril and Methodius. A pious monk and hermit St. Ivan of Rila (Ivan Rilski, 876-946), became the patron saint of Bulgaria. After 893 Preslav became truly in many aspects the truly new Bulgarian capital. St. ... St. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... This article is about the medieval Bulgarian saint. ... Saint John of Rila or Saint Ivan Rilski (Bulgarian: свети Иван Рилски, sveti Ivan Rilski) (876 – circa 946) was the first Bulgarian hermit and the founder of the Rila Monastery. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ...


During his reign Simeon gathered many scholars in his court who translated enormous number of books from Greek and wrote many new works. Among the most prominent figures were Constantine of Preslav, John Exarch and Chernorizets Hrabar who is believed by some historians to have been Simeon himself. The was intensive construction of churches and monasteries throughout the Empire including the Great Basilica in Pliska which was one of the biggest structures of the time with its length of 99 m and the splendid Golden Church in Preslav. The Bulgarian capital was also famous for its ceramics which adorned the public and religious buildings. Beautiful icons and church altars were made of special ceramic tiles. There were numerous goldsmith and silversmith workshops who produced fine jewellery. Constantine of Preslav (Konstantin Preslavski) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... John Exarch (John the Exarch, also transcribed Joan Exarch, Joan Ekzarh) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... Chernorizetz Hrabar (Chernorizetz the Brave) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar and writer working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ П. Хр. Петров, Към въпроса за образуването на първата българска държава, Славянска филология, V, София, 1963, стр. 89—112
  2. ^ Andras Rona-Tas. Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. Central European University Press, 1999. Page 217.
  3. ^ Brentjes B. On the Prototype of the Proto-Bulgarian Temples at Pliska, Preslav and Madara
  4. ^ Theophanes, ibid., р. 358
  5. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 359
  6. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 359
  7. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 397
  8. ^ Nicephorus, ibid., p. 69
  9. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 433
  10. ^ Theophanes, ibid., р. 447-448
  11. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 467
  12. ^ Theophanes, ibid. , р. 492
  13. ^ Scriptor incertus, ibid., p. 337-339
  14. ^ Scriptor incer., ibid., p. 346-347
  15. ^ Scriptor incert., ibid., p. 347-348
  16. ^ Annales Laurissenses minores, s. an. 814
  17. ^ Const. Porphyr., De admin. imp., ed. Bon., p. 154—155
  18. ^ Georgius Monachus Continuatus, p. 824
  19. ^ Georgius Monachus Continuatus, loa cit., Logomete
  20. ^ Johannes VIII Papa. Epistolae, p. 159
  21. ^ Anastasius Bibliothecarius, pp. 1373—4
  22. ^ Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press
  23. ^ Vita S. démentis
  24. ^ Енциклопедия България, Академично издателство "Марин Дринов", 1988
  25. ^ Delev, Bǎlgarskata dǎržava pri car Simeon.
  26. ^ Златарски, История на Първото българско царство, с. 316.
  27. ^ Златарски, История на Първото българско царство, с. 321.
  28. ^ Бакалов, История на България, "Симеон І Велики"
  29. ^ Runciman, A history of the First Bulgarian Empire, p. 157
  30. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, pp. 144–148
  31. ^ Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  32. ^ De Boor, Сarl Gothard (1888). Vita Euthymii. Berlin: Reimer, p. 214
  33. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  34. ^ Constantine Porphyrogennetus. Op. cit., pp. 158—9
  35. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 462—3,480
  36. ^ Nicolaus Papa. Response, p. 1015
  37. ^ Cedrenus: II, p. 383
  38. ^ Chronique dite de Nestor, pp. 53—4
  39. ^ Leo Diaconus, pp. 158-9
  40. ^ Prokić, p. 28
  41. ^ Skylitzes, pp. 436-438
  42. ^ Гильфердинг, А (1868). Письма об истории сербов и болгар (in Russian), p. 209.
  43. ^ Шишић, p. 331
  44. ^ Розен, p. 43

References

  • История на българската държава през средните векове. Том I., История на Първото българско царство. Част I. Епоха на хуно-българското надмощие (679—852), София 1918
  • История на българската държава през средните векове. Том I. История на Първото българско царство. Част II. От славянизацията на държавата до падането на Първото царство (852—1018), София 1927
  • Бакалов, Георги; Милен Куманов (2003). Електронна издание – История на България (in Bulgarian). София: Труд, Сирма. ISBN 9844830679. 
  • Цанев, Стефан (2006). Български хроники (in Bulgarian). София, Пловдив: Труд, Жанет 45. ISBN 954-528-610-5. 
  • Делев, Петър; Валери Кацунов, Пламен Митев, Евгения Калинова, Искра Баева, Боян Добрев (2006). История и цивилизация за 11. клас (in Bulgarian). Труд, Сирма. 
  • (2005) Българите и България (in Bulgarian). Министерство на външните работи на България, Труд, Сирма. 
  • Fine, Jr., John V.A. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0472081493. 

“Ann Arbor” redirects here. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
b. The First Bulgarian Empire. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (323 words)
Sevar, during whose reign the peace with the empire was maintained.
Until the very end of his reign he maintained peace with the empire, until further domestic disorders gave the signal for Byzantine attacks (from 755 on).
He was defeated at Anchialus by the Byzantines (763) and put to death by the Bulgarians.
First Bulgarian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1730 words)
The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire.
According to an alternative theory, the alphabet was devised at the Ohrid Literary School by Saint Climent of Ohrid, a Bulgarian scholar and disciple of Cyril and Methodius.
Under Peter I and Boris II the country was divided by the egalitarian religious heresy of the Bogomils, and distracted by wars with the Hungarians to the north and the breakaway state of Serbia to the west.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m