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Encyclopedia > First Battle of Bull Run
First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas)
Part of the American Civil War

Cub Run in Centreville, Virginia. View with destroyed bridge.
Date July 21, 1861
Location Fairfax County and Prince William County, Virginia
Result Confederate victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston
P.G.T. Beauregard
Strength
35,000 32,500
Casualties
2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1]

The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces and still widely used in the South), was the first major land battle of the American Civil War, fought on July 21, 1861, near Manassas, Virginia. Unseasoned Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell advanced across Bull Run against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gens. Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, and despite the Union's early successes, they were routed and forced to retreat back to Washington, D.C. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Image File history File linksMetadata Bullrun2. ... Centreville is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. ... Prince William County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Battle of Hokes Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 2, 1861 Place Berkeley County, West Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Hokes Run, also known as the Battle of Falling Waters or Hainesville, took place on July 2, 1861 in Berkeley County, West Virginia as part... The Battle of Blackburns Ford took place on July 18, 1861 in Prince William County and Fairfax County, Virginia as part of the Manassas Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Bull Run may refer to: Bull Run (Occoquan River), a stream in Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William counties, Virginia First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), the first major battle of the American Civil War Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas), a later battle that took place at Bull... Historic Southern United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Manassas redirects here. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Bull Run is a free-flowing tributary stream of the Potomac River that originates from a spring in the Bull Run Mountains in Loundon County, Virginia and flows south to the Occoquan River. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Background

Northern Virginia Theater in July 1861.      Confederate      Union
Northern Virginia Theater in July 1861.      Confederate      Union

Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to command the Army of Northeastern Virginia. Once in this capacity, McDowell was harassed by impatient politicians and citizens in Washington, who wished to see a quick battlefield victory over the Confederate Army in northern Virginia. McDowell, however, was concerned about the untried nature of his army. He was reassured by Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott, general-in-chief of the U.S. Army, "You are green, it is true, but they are green also; you are all green alike."[2] Against his better judgment, McDowell commenced campaigning. On July 16, 1861, the general departed Washington with the largest field army yet gathered on the North American continent, about 35,000 men (28,452 effectives).[3] McDowell's plan was to move westward in three columns, make a diversionary attack on the Confederate line at Bull Run with two columns, while the third column moved around the Confederates' right flank to the south, cutting the railroad to Richmond and threatening the rear of the rebel army. He assumed that the Confederates would be forced to abandon Manassas Junction and fall back to the Rappahannock River, the next defensible line in Virginia, which would relieve some of the pressure on the U.S. capital.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1413 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the First Bull Run Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1413 pixel, file size: 427 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the First Bull Run Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Bull Run is a free-flowing tributary stream of the Potomac River that originates from a spring in the Bull Run Mountains in Loundon County, Virginia and flows south to the Occoquan River. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic dic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... The Rappahannock at sunset The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia in the United States, approximately 184 mi (294 km). ...


The Confederate Army of the Potomac (21,883 effectives[5]) under Beauregard was encamped near Manassas Junction, approximately 25 miles (40 km) from the United States capital. McDowell planned to attack this numerically inferior enemy army, while Union Maj. Gen. Robert Patterson's 18,000 men engaged Johnston's force (the Army of the Shenandoah at 8,884 effectives, augmented by Theophilus H. Holmes's brigade of 1,465[5]) in the Shenandoah Valley, preventing them from reinforcing Beauregard. The Confederate Army of the Potomac, whose name was short-lived, was the command under Brigadier General P.G.T. Beauregard, and whose only major combat action was the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Robert Patterson ( January 12, 1792- August 7, 1881) was an Irish immigrant and a noted soldier and businessman from Pennsylvania. ... The Army of the Shenandoah, first promulgated in 1861 and then disbanded, is best known for its creation in 1864 under (later one of the first Generals of the Army) Philip Sheridan. ... Theophilus Hunter Holmes (November 13, 1804 – June 21, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ...

Situation July 18.
Situation July 18.

After two days of marching slowly in the sweltering heat, the Union army was allowed to rest in Centreville. McDowell reduced the size of his army to approximately 30,000 by dispatching Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon with 5,000 troops to protect the army's rear. In the meantime, McDowell searched for a way to outflank Beauregard, who had drawn up his lines along Bull Run. On July 18, the Union commander sent a division under Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler to pass on the Confederate right (southeast) flank. Tyler was drawn into a skirmish at Blackburn's Ford over Bull Run and made no headway. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 1702 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 1702 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centreville is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... Brigadier General Theodore Runyon (October 29, 1822 – January 27, 1896) was a United States politician, diplomat, and Union Civil War general. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Daniel Tyler (January 7, 1799 – November 30, 1882) was an iron manufacturer, railroad president, and one of the first generals of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Blackburns Ford took place on July 18, 1861 in Prince William County and Fairfax County, Virginia as part of the Manassas Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Becoming more frustrated, McDowell resolved to attack the Confederate left (northwest) flank instead. He planned to attack with Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler's division at the Stone Bridge on the Warrenton Turnpike and send the divisions of Brig. Gens. David Hunter and Samuel P. Heintzelman over Sudley Springs Ford. From here, these divisions could march into the Confederate rear. The division of Brig. Gen. Israel B. Richardson would harass the enemy at Blackburn's Ford, preventing them from thwarting the main attack. Patterson would tie down Johnston in the Shenandoah Valley so that reinforcements could not reach the area. Although McDowell had arrived at a theoretically sound plan, it had a number of flaws: it was one that required synchronized execution of troop movements and attacks, skills that had not been developed in the nascent army; it relied on actions by Patterson that he had already failed to take; finally, McDowell had delayed long enough that Johnston's Valley force was able to board trains at Piedmont Station and rush to Manassas Junction to reinforce Beauregard's men.[6] Daniel Tyler (January 7, 1799 – November 30, 1882) was an iron manufacturer, railroad president, and one of the first generals of the American Civil War. ... Stone Bridge is a bridge that crosses Bull Run in the Manassas National Battlefield Park in Manassas, Virginia. ... United States Highway 29 is a north-south United States highway that runs for 1,036 miles (1,667 km) from the western suburbs of Baltimore to Pensacola, Florida. ... David Hunter David Hunter (July 21, 1802 – February 2, 1886) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Samuel Peter Heintzelman (September 30, 1805 – May 1, 1880) was a U.S. Army General. ... Israel B. Richardson (1815 – 1862) was a United States Army officer during the Mexican-American War and Civil War. ...


On July 19 and July 20, significant reinforcements bolstered the Confederate lines behind Bull Run. Johnston arrived with all of his army, except for the troops of Brig. Gen. Kirby Smith, who were still in transit. Most of the new arrivals were posted in the vicinity of Blackburn's Ford and Beauregard's plan was to attack from there to the north toward Centreville. Johnston, the senior officer, approved the plan. If both of the armies had been able to execute their plans simultaneously, it would have resulted in a mutual counterclockwise movement as they attacked each other's left flank.[7] is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the...


McDowell was getting contradictory information from his intelligence agents, and so he called for the balloon Enterprise, which was being demonstrated by Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe in Washington, to perform aerial reconnaissance. The Enterprise was a hot air balloon used by the Union Army to spot oncoming troops during the American Civil War. ... Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ...


Battle

Situation morning, July 21.
Situation morning, July 21.

On the morning of July 21, McDowell sent the divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman (about 12,000 men) from Centreville at 2:30 a.m., marching southwest on the Warrenton Turnpike and then turning northwest towards Sudley Springs. Tyler's division (about 8,000) marched directly towards the Stone Bridge. The inexperienced units immediately developed logistical problems. Tyler's division blocked the advance of the main flanking column on the turnpike. The latter units found the approach roads to Sudley Springs were inadequate, little more than a cart path in some places, and did not begin fording Bull Run until 9:30 a.m. Tyler's men reached the Stone Bridge around 6 a.m.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 1702 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 443 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 1702 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At 5:15 a.m., Richardson's brigade fired a few artillery rounds across Mitchell's Ford on the Confederate right, some of which hit Beauregard's headquarters in the Wilmer McLean house as he was eating breakfast, alerting him to the fact that his offensive battle plan had been preempted. Nevertheless, he ordered demonstration attacks north toward the Union left at Centreville. Bungled orders and poor communications prevented their execution. Although he intended for Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell to lead the attack, Ewell, at Union Mills Ford, was simply ordered to "hold ... in readiness to advance at a moment's notice." Brig. Gen. D.R. Jones was supposed to attack in support of Ewell, but found himself moving forward alone. Holmes was also supposed to support, but received no orders at all.[9] McLean residence in Appomattox Court House, photographed in 1865 by Timothy OSullivan Wilmer McLean (May 3, 1814 – June 5, 1882) was a wholesale grocer from Virginia. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... David R. Jones (b. ...

Federal cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford.
Federal cavalry at Sudley Spring Ford.

All that stood in the path of the 20,000 Union soldiers converging on the Confederate left flank were Col. Nathan "Shanks" Evans and his reduced brigade of 1,100 men.[10] Evans had moved some of his men to intercept the direct threat from Tyler at the bridge, but he began to suspect that the weak attacks from the Union brigade of Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck were merely feints. He was informed of the main Union flanking movement through Sudley Springs by Captain Edward Porter Alexander, Beauregard's signal officer, observing from 8 miles southwest on Signal Hill. In the first use of wig-wag semaphore signaling in combat, Alexander sent the message "Look out for your left, your position is turned."[11] Shanks hastily led 900 of his men from their position fronting the Stone Bridge to a new location on the slopes of Matthews Hill, a low rise to the northwest of his previous position.[10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (829 × 727 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Federal Cavalry at Sudley Springs after the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 684 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (829 × 727 pixel, file size: 218 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Federal Cavalry at Sudley Springs after the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Please see Colonel for other countries which use this rank Insignia of a United States Colonel Colonel is a rank of the United States armed forces. ... Nathan George Shanks Evans (February 3, 1824 - November 23, 1868) was a Lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry who became a Brigadier General for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Robert Cumming Schenck (1809-1890) Robert Cumming Schenck (October 4, 1809–March 23, 1890) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... U.S. Army Signal Corps station on Elk Mountain, Maryland, overlooking the Antietam battlefield. ...


Evans soon received reinforcement from two other brigades under Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee and Col. Francis S. Bartow, bringing the force on the flank to 2,800 men.[10] They successfully slowed Hunter's lead brigade (Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside) in its attempts to ford Bull Run and advance across Young's Branch, at the northern end of Henry House Hill. One of Tyler's brigade commanders, Col. William T. Sherman, crossed at an unguarded ford and struck the right flank of the Confederate defenders. This surprise attack, coupled with pressure from Burnside and Maj. George Sykes, collapsed the Confederate line shortly after 11:30 a.m., sending them in a disorderly retreat to Henry House Hill.[12] Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. ... Francis Stebbins Bartow Francis Stebbins Bartow ( September 6, 1816, Chatham Country, Savannah, Georgia; d. ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... During the first Battle of Bull Run General Thomas J Jackson and his Confederate soldiers had taken up positions on Henry House Hill. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Insignia of a Major in the United States Military Major is a rank used in the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, and is the equivalent of a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ...


As they retreated from their Matthews Hill position, the remainder of Evans's, Bee's, and Bartow's commands received some cover from Capt. John D. Imboden and his battery of four 6-pounder guns, who held off the Union advance while the Confederates attempted to regroup on Henry House Hill. They were met by Gens. Johnston and Beauregard, who had just arrived from Johnston's headquarters at the M. Lewis Farm, "Portici".[13] Fortunately for the Confederates, McDowell did not press his advantage and attempt to seize the strategic ground immediately, choosing to bombard the hill with the batteries of Capts. James B. Ricketts (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) and Charles Griffin (Battery D, 5th U.S.) from Dogan's Ridge.[14] Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and... John D. Imboden John Daniel Imboden (February 16, 1823 – August 15, 1895) was a lawyer, teacher, Virginia legislator, coal mine operator, and a Confederate cavalry general and partisan fighter in the American Civil War. ... James Brewerton Ricketts (June 21, 1817 – September 22, 1887) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as a general in the Eastern Theater during the American Civil War. ... Charles Griffin (December 18, 1825–September 15, 1867) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Col. Thomas J. Jackson's Virginia brigade came up in support of the disorganized Confederates around noon, accompanied by Col. Wade Hampton and his Hampton's Legion, and Col. J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry. Jackson posted his five regiments on the reverse slope of the hill, where they were shielded from direct fire, and was able to assemble 13 guns for the defensive line, which he posted on the crest of the hill; as the guns fired, their recoil moved them down the reverse slope, where they could be safely reloaded.[15] Meanwhile, McDowell ordered the batteries of Ricketts and Griffin to move from Dogan's Ridge to the hill for close infantry support. Their 11 guns engaged in a fierce artillery duel across 300 yards against Jackson's 13. Unlike many engagements in the Civil War, here the Confederate artillery had an advantage. The Union pieces were now within range of the Confederate smoothbores and the predominantly rifled pieces on the Union side were not effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired over the head of their targets.[16] For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Hamptons Legion was a American Civil War military unit of the Confederate States of America, organized and partially financed by wealthy South Carolina plantation owner Wade Hampton III. Initially composed of infantry, cavalry, and artillery battalions, elements of Hamptons Legion participated in virtually every major campaign in the... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...

Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle.
Ruins of Judith Henry's house, "Spring Hill", after the battle.

One of the casualties of the artillery fire was Judith Carter Henry, an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Ricketts began receiving rifle fire, he concluded that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day.[17] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 749 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 737 pixel, file size: 225 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of the ruins of Judith Henrys house after the First Battle of Bull Run. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 749 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (921 × 737 pixel, file size: 225 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of the ruins of Judith Henrys house after the First Battle of Bull Run. ...


"The Enemy are driving us," Bee exclaimed to Jackson. Jackson, a former U.S. Army officer and professor at the Virginia Military Institute, is said to have replied, "Sir, we will give them the bayonet."[18] Bee exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me."[19] There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was mortally wounded almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle. Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a damned stone wall!"[20] The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ...

Attacks on Henry House Hill, noon–2 p.m.
Attacks on Henry House Hill, noon–2 p.m.

Artillery commander Griffin decided to move two of his guns to the southern end of his line, hoping to provide enfilade fire against the Confederates. At approximately 3 p.m., these guns were overrun by the 33rd Virginia, whose men were outfitted in blue uniforms, causing Griffin's commander, Maj. William F. Barry, to mistake them for Union troops and to order Griffin not to fire on them. Close range volleys from the 33rd Virginia and Stuart's cavalry attack against the flank of the 11th New York Infantry (Ellsworth's Fire Zouaves), which was supporting the battery, killed many of the gunners and scattered the infantry. Capitalizing on this success, Jackson ordered two regiments to charge Ricketts's guns and they were captured as well. As additional Federal infantry engaged, the guns changed hands several times.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire in enfilade on a British ship of line French frigate Aréthuse and English frigate Amélia exchanging defilade fire on the shores of Guinea, the 7th of February 1813 Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units... William Farquhar Barry William Farquhar Barry (August 18, 1818 – July 18, 1879) was a career officer in the United States Army, serving as an artillery commander during the Mexican-American War and Civil War. ... Elmer Ephriam Ellsworth (E.E. Ellsworth) (1837-1861) was known as the first conspicuous casualty of the Civil War. ... A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer trousers instead of the usual red. ...


The capture of the Union guns turned the tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one, no more than two were ever engaged simultaneously. Jackson continued to press his attacks, telling soldiers of the 4th Virginia Infantry, "Reserve your fire until they come within 50 yards! Then fire and give them the bayonet! And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the Rebel yell. At about 4 p.m., the last Union troops were pushed off Henry House Hill by a charge of two regiments from Col. Philip St. George Cocke's brigade.[22] For other uses, see Rebel yell (disambiguation). ...

Union retreat, after 4 p.m.
Union retreat, after 4 p.m.

To the west, Chinn Ridge had been occupied by Col. Oliver O. Howard's brigade from Heintzelman's division. Also at 4 p.m., two Confederate brigades that had just arrived from the Shenandoah Valley—Col. Jubal A. Early's and Brig. Gen. Kirby Smith's (commanded by Col. Arnold Elzey after Smith was wounded)—crushed Howard's brigade. Beauregard ordered his entire line forward. McDowell's force crumbled and began to retreat.[23] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the...


The retreat was relatively orderly up to the Bull Run crossings, but it was poorly managed by the Union officers. A Union wagon overturned by artillery fire on a bridge spanning Cub Run Creek and incited panic in McDowell's force. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell ordered Col. Dixon S. Miles's division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible to rally the army short of Washington. In the disorder that followed, hundreds of Union troops were taken prisoner. The wealthy elite of nearby Washington, including congressmen and their families, expecting an easy Union victory, had come to picnic and watch the battle. When the Union army was driven back in a running disorder, the roads back to Washington were blocked by panicked civilians attempting to flee in their carriages.[24] Dixon Stansbury Miles (May 4, 1804 – September 16, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ...


Beauregard and Johnston did not fully press their advantage, despite urging from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who had arrived on the battlefield to see the Union soldiers retreating, since their combined army had been left highly disorganized as well. An attempt by Johnston to intercept the Union troops from his right flank, using the brigades of Brig. Gens. Milledge L. Bonham and James Longstreet, was a failure. The two commanders squabbled with each other and when Bonham's men received some artillery fire from the Union rear guard, and found that Richardson's brigade blocked the road to Centreville, he called off the pursuit.[25] The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Milledge Luke Bonham (December 25, 1813 – August 27, 1890) was a 19th century American politician and Congressman who served as the Governor of South Carolina from 1862 until 1864. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ...


Aftermath

Today will be known as BLACK MONDAY. We are utterly and disgracefully routed, beaten, whipped by secessionists.
Union diarist George Templeton Strong[26]

Union casualties were 460 killed, 1,124 wounded, and 1,312 missing or captured; Confederate casualties were 387 killed, 1,582 wounded, and 13 missing.[27] Among the latter was Col. Francis S. Bartow, who was the first Confederate brigade commander to be killed in the Civil War. General Bee was mortally wounded and died the following day. Famous primarily for the 2,250 page diary he left behind upon his death, George Templeton Strong was born in New York in 1820 to moderate privilege, and lived to write intimately of the turbulent years leading up to and through the American Civil War, as well as the corrupt... Francis Stebbins Bartow Francis Stebbins Bartow ( September 6, 1816, Chatham Country, Savannah, Georgia; d. ...


Union forces and civilians alike feared that Confederate forces would advance on Washington, D.C., with very little standing in their way. On July 24, Prof. Lowe ascended in Enterprise to observe the Confederates moving in and about Manassas Junction and Fairfax and ascertained that there was no evidence of massing Rebel forces, but he was forced to land in enemy territory. It was overnight before he was rescued and could report to headquarters. He reported that his observations "restored confidence" to the Union commanders. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Enterprise was a hot air balloon used by the Union Army to spot oncoming troops during the American Civil War. ...


Beauregard was considered the hero of the battle and was promoted that day by President Davis to full general in the Confederate Army.[28] Stonewall Jackson, arguably the most important tactical contributor to the victory, received no special recognition, but went on to achieve glory with his 1862 Valley Campaign. Irvin McDowell bore the brunt of the blame for the Union defeat and was soon replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who was named general-in-chief of all the Union armies. McDowell was also present to bear significant blame for the defeat of Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia by Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia thirteen months later, at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Patterson was also removed from command. Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run...


The name of the battle has caused controversy since 1861. The Union Army frequently named battles after significant rivers and creeks that played a role in the fighting; the Confederates frequently used the names of nearby towns and farms. The U.S. National Park Service uses the Confederate-inspired name (Manassas) for its national battlefield park, but the Union name (Bull Run) also has widespread currency in popular literature. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States government agency that deals with U.S. National Parks and U.S. National Monuments. ... Manassas National Battlefield Park, located north of Manassas, Virginia, preserves the site of two major American Civil War battles: the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, and the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862 (also known as First Manassas and Second Manassas, respectively). ...


Battlefield confusion relating to battle flags, especially the similarity of the Confederacy's "Stars and Bars" and the Union's "Stars and Stripes", led to the adoption of the Confederate Battle Flag, which eventually became the most popular symbol of the Confederacy and the South in general.[29]
The Confederate States of America used several flags during its existence from 1861 to 1865. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


See also

The following units and commanders fought in the First Battle of Manassas on the Confederate side. ... The following units and commanders fought in the First Battle of Bull Run on the Union side. ... Image File history File links US_flag_34_stars. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  Union border states that permitted slavery  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two documents issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... The fugitive slave laws were statutes passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a public territory. ... The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... John Brown, ca. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... Harriet Tubman (c. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Navy Department Seal The Confederate States Navy (CSN) was the naval branch of the Confederate States armed forces established by an act of the Confederate Congress on February 21, 1861 responsible for Confederate naval operations during the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Union Forces Campaign Streamer Confederate Forces Campaign Streamer American Civil War Campaigns are categorized in various ways. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the American Civil War in February-March 1862 in which the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports... Stonewall Jackson The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, during the American Civil War. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Stones River Conflict American Civil War Date December 31, 1862 – January 3, 1863 Place Murfreesboro, Tennessee Result Both sides claimed victory, but the Confederate Army withdrew The Battle of Stones River or Second Battle of Murfreesboro (in the South, simply the Battle of Murfreesboro), was fought from... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Battle of Hoovers Gap Conflict American Civil War Date June 24– 26, 1862 Place Bedford County, Tennessee and Rutherford County, Tennessee Result Union victory The Battle of Hoovers Gap was the principal battle fought in the Tullahoma Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ... The Bristoe Campaign was a series of battles fought in Virginia during October and November, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet and Ambrose Burnside, principal commanders of the Knoxville Campaign The Knoxville Campaign[1] was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863. ... The Red River Campaign or Red River Expedition consisted of a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864. ... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred The Bermuda Hundred Campaign was a series of battles fought outside Richmond, Virginia, during May, 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March... Western Theater campaigns of 1864–65 The Franklin-Nashville Campaign, also known as Hoods Tennessee Campaign, was a series of battles in the Western Theater, fought in the fall of 1864 in Alabama, Tennessee, and northwestern Georgia during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... The Battles of the American Civil War can be organized in a variety of, including chronologically, alphabetically by state, by winner, by casualty statistics, etc. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Robert Anderson P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 85 soldiers 500 soldiers Casualties 1 dead 5 injured 4 injured The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12 – April 13, 1861), was a relatively minor military engagement at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor... Combatants United States of America State of Missouri Confederate States of America Commanders Nathaniel Lyon Samuel D. Sturgis Franz Sigel Sterling Price Ben McCulloch Strength Army of the West Missouri State Guard and McCulloch’s Brigade Casualties 1,235 1,095 The Battle of Wilsons Creek, also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Samuel R. Curtis Earl Van Dorn Strength Army of the Southwest,≈10,500 men Army of the West, ≈16,000 men Casualties 1,349 (mostly killed and wounded) 4,600 (mostly captured) The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Officer David G. Farragut and Maj. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing For other uses, see Bull Run... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg Strength Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi Casualties 4,211 3,196 The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Braxton Bragg Strength 43,400 37,712 Casualties 13,249 (1,730 killed, 7,802 wounded, 3,717 captured/missing) 10,266 (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded, 1,027 captured/missing) The Battle of Stones River... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman James B. McPherson† John B. Hood Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 3,641 8,499 The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War... Combatants United States of America (U.S. Navy) Confederate States of America (Confederate States Navy) Commanders David Farragut (navy) Gordon Granger (army) Franklin Buchanan (navy) Dabney H. Maury (army) Strength 14 wooden ships (including 2 gunboats) 4 ironclad monitors 5,500 Land Force Troops Three gunboats, One ironclad, 2,000... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John McAllister Schofield John Bell Hood Strength IV and XXIII Corps (Army of the Ohio and Army of the Cumberland) Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,326 6,261 Franklin-Nashville Campaign Allatoona – Decatur – Johnsonville – Columbia – Spring Hill – 2nd Franklin – 3rd... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George H. Thomas John Bell Hood Strength IV Corps, XXIII Corps, detachment of Army of the Tennessee, provisional detachment, and Cavalry Corps Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,900 approximately 13,000 The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle... Battle of Five Forks Conflict American Civil War Date April 1, 1865 Place Dinwiddie County Result Union victory The Battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865, was the final Union offensive in the American Civil War. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (pronounced IPA: ) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), was a Louisiana-born general for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Jubal Early (disambiguation). ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821–October 29, 1877) was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Josiah Gorgas Josiah Gorgas (July 1, 1818 – May 15, 1883) was one of the few Northern-born Confederate generals in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29[2], 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and an old friend of Lt. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... John Singleton Mosby John Singleton Mosby (December 6, 1833 – May 30, 1916), also known as the Gray Ghost, was a Confederate partisan Ranger (guerrilla fighter) in the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... William Clark Quantrill of Quantrills Raiders William Clarke Quantrill (July 31, 1837 – June 6, 1865), was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War. ... Raphael Semmes (September 27, 1809 – August 30, 1877) was an officer in the United States Navy from 1826 to 1860 and the Confederate States Navy from 1860 to 1865. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Richard Taylor Richard Taylor (January 27, 1826 – April 12, 1879) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Joseph Wheeler Joseph Wheeler (September 10, 1836 – January 25, 1906) was an American military commander and politician. ... Judah Philip Benjamin (August 6, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was an American politician and lawyer. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Stephen Russell Mallory (c. ... James Seddon James Alexander SeddonBorn 9/1/1988 James seddon is a pupil at sutton high and isnt a very good one. ... This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Anderson after the War Robert Anderson (June 14, 1805 – October 26, 1871) was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, known for his command of Fort Sumter at the start of the war. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... Samuel Francis du Pont by Daniel Huntington 1867-68, oil on canvas National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC Samuel Francis du Pont (September 27, 1803 – June 23, 1865) was an officer in the United States Navy who achieved the rank of rear admiral. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the senior officer of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... Image:Brandon Roseli. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Henry Jackson Hunt during the Civil War Henry Jackson Hunt (September 14, 1819 – February 11, 1889) was Chief of Artillery in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 – November 6, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and civil engineer involved in coastal construction, including several lighthouses. ... Montgomery C. Meigs Montgomery Cunningham Meigs (IPA: ) (May 3, 1816 – January 2, 1892) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, construction engineer for a number of facilities in Washington, D.C., and Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States admiral who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Charles Francis Adams (August 18, 1807, Boston - November 21, 1886, Boston), the son of John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... John Ericsson (1803-1889) This article is about John Ericsson, the Swedish and American inventor. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harpers Weekly, 1884 Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819 – July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency of the United States. ... William Henry Seward, Sr. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868), was one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Benjamin Franklin Bluff Wade (October 27, 1800 – March 2, 1878) was a U.S. lawyer and United States Senator. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... Amendment XIII in the National Archives The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished, and continues to prohibit slavery and, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), prohibits involuntary servitude. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... During the American Civil War, Confederate States of America raiders (the most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built in Britain and did significant damage to Union naval forces. ... In United States history, carpetbaggers were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of Southern whites and a group of freed slaves in this 1868 picture from Harpers Weekly On March 3, 1865, Congress established the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmens Bureau, was a federal agency that... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... The state of Alabama was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War after seceding from the United States of America on January 11, 1861. ... The Arizona Territory was disputed during the American Civil War, with both the slave-holding Confederate States of America and the United States Federal government claiming ownership and territorial rights. ... The state of Arkansas was a part of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, and provided a source of troops, supplies, and military and political leaders for the fledgling country. ... Californias involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications, and sending east some soldiers who became famous. ... The Colorado Territory was formally created in 1861 shortly before the attack on Fort Sumter sparked the American Civil War. ... President Lincoln insisted that construction of the U.S. Capitol continue during the Civil War. ... The Battle of Olustee was the only major Civil War battle fought in Florida. ... On January 18, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union, keeping the name State of Georgia and joined the newly-formed Confederacy in February. ... Illinois infantry regimental flag (77th IL is shown) The state of Illinois during the American Civil War was a major source of troops for the Union army (particularly for those armies serving in the Western Theater), as well as military supplies, food, and clothing. ... The state of Iowa played a role during the American Civil War in providing food, supplies, and troops for the Union army, although its contribution was overshadowed by larger and more populated eastern states. ... At the commencement of the Civil War, the Kansas government had no well-organized militia, no arms, accoutrements or supplies, nothing with which to meet the demands, except the united will of officials and citizens. ... Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. ... The state of Louisiana during the American Civil War was a part of the Confederate States of America. ... See also: American Civil War and Origins of the American Civil War Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the North and South. ... William Lloyd Garrison In the years leading up to the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center of abolitionist activity within the United States. ... Mississippi was the second state to secede from the Union on January 9, 1861. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Missouri in the Civil War was a border state that sent men, generals, and supplies to both opposing sides, had its star on both flags, had state... George B. McClellan The state of New Jersey in the United States provided a source of troops, equipment and leaders for the Union during the American Civil War. ... As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico... The Southern United States state of North Carolina provided an important source of soldiers, supplies, and war materiel to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... 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Virginia began a convention about secession on February 13, 1861 after six states seceded to form the Confederate States of America on February 4. ... Flag of Vermont During the American Civil War, the State of Vermont continued the military tradition started by the Green Mountain Boys of Revolutionary War fame, contributing a significant portion of their eligible men to the war effort. ... West Virginia was formed and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia). ... With the outbreak of the American Civil War, the northwestern state of Wisconsin raised 91,200 soldiers for the Union Army, organized into 53 infantry regiments, 4 cavalry regiments, a company of Berdan’s sharpshooters, 13 light artillery batteries and 1 unit of heavy artillery. ... Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ... For other uses, see Bushwhackers (disambiguation). ... U.S. Army Cavalry Sergeant, 1866 Cavalry was a branch of army service in a process of transition during the American Civil War. ... M1857 Napoleon at Stones River battlefield cemetery. ... Military leadership in the American Civil War was influenced by professional military education and the hard-earned pragmatism of command experience. ... Naval battles of the American Civil War were a common occurrence just as they are with many wars. ... The Official Records of the American Civil War or often more simply the Official Records or ORs, constitute a unique, authentic, and comprehensive collection of first-hand accounts, orders, reports, and correspondence drawn from War and Navy Department records of both Confederate and Union governments during the American Civil War. ... U.S. Army Signal Corps station on Elk Mountain, Maryland, overlooking the Antietam battlefield. ... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ... The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... A political general was a general without significant military experience who was given a high position in command due to political connections or to appease certain political blocks. ... Frémont (left), 1856 Republican parade banner The Radical Republicans were the remaining faction of American politicians within the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction following an 1864 exodus of pro-Lincoln Republicans into the creation of the National Union Party. ... James Murray Mason John Slidell The Trent Affair, also known as the Mason and Slidell Affair, was an international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... This is a timeline of significant events leading to the American Civil War. ... This is a list of topics relating to the American Civil War. ... There have been numerous alternative names for the American Civil War that reflect the historical, political, and cultural sensitivities of different groups and regions. ... Combatants Anti-Union rioters United States of America Commanders Unknown John E. Wool Casualties 100 civilians The New York Draft Riots (July 13 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week[1]) were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of... Two photographers having lunch in the Bull Run area before the second battle, 1862. ... Confederate railroads During the American Civil War, the Confederacy depended heavily on railroads to get supplies to their lines. ... A number of cases were tried before the Supreme Court of the United States during the period of the American Civil War. ... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...

References

  • Alexander, Edward P., and Gallagher, Gary W. (editor), Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recollections of General Edward Porter Alexander, University of North Carolina Press, 1989, ISBN 0-8078-4722-4.
  • Ballard, Ted, First Battle of Bull Run: Staff Ride Guide, U.S. Army Center for Military History.
  • Beatie, Russel H., Army of the Potomac: Birth of Command, November 1860 – September 1861, Da Capo Press, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81141-3.
  • Brown, J. Willard, The Signal Corps, U.S.A. in the War of the Rebellion, U.S. Veteran Signal Corps Association, 1896, (reprinted by Arno Press, 1974), ISBN 0-405-06036-X.
  • Davis, William C., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, First Blood: Fort Sumter to Bull Run, Time-Life Books, 1983, ISBN 0-8094-4704-5.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command (3 volumes), Scribners, 1946, ISBN 0-684-85979-3.
  • Livermore, Thomas L., Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America 1861-65, reprinted with errata, Morningside House, 1986, ISBN 0-527-57600-X.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • Rafuse, Ethan S., "First Battle of Bull Run", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Robertson, James I., Jr., Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend, MacMillan Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-02-864685-1.
  • Salmon, John S., The Official Virginia Civil War Battlefield Guide, Stackpole Books, 2001, ISBN 0-8117-2868-4.
  • National Park Service battle description
  • Professor Thaddeus Lowe's Official Report (Part I)

Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army and Confederate States Army, an author, and a railroad executive. ... Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American journalist and historian. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Eicher, p. 99.
  2. ^ Davis, p. 110.
  3. ^ Eicher, p. 87; Livermore, p. 77.
  4. ^ Davis, pp. 110-11.
  5. ^ a b Livermore, p. 77.
  6. ^ Eicher, pp. 91-100.
  7. ^ Eicher, p. 92.
  8. ^ Beatie, pp. 285-88; Esposito, text for Map 21; Rafuse, p. 312.
  9. ^ Eicher, p. 94; Esposito, Map 22.
  10. ^ a b c Rafuse, p. 312.
  11. ^ Brown, pp. 43-45; Alexander, pp. 50-51. Alexander recalls that the signal was "You are flanked."
  12. ^ Rafuse, pp. 312-13; Esposito, Map 22; Eicher, pp. 94-95.
  13. ^ Eicher, p. 95.
  14. ^ Rafuse, p. 313; Eicher, p. 96.
  15. ^ Salmon, p. 19.
  16. ^ Rafuse, p. 314.
  17. ^ Davis, pp. 142-43.
  18. ^ Robertson, p. 264.
  19. ^ Freeman, vol. 1, p. 82; Robertson, p. 264. McPherson, p. 342, reports the quotation after "stone wall" as being "Rally around the Virginians!"
  20. ^ See, for instance, McPherson, p. 342. There are additional controversies about what Bee said and whether he said anything at all. See Freeman, vol. 1, pp. 733-34.
  21. ^ Eicher, pp. 96-98; Esposito, Map 23; Rafuse, pp. 314-15; McPherson, pp. 342-44.
  22. ^ Rafuse, p. 315; Eicher, p. 98.
  23. ^ Rafuse, pp. 315-16.
  24. ^ McPherson, p. 344; Eicher, p. 98; Esposito, Map 24.
  25. ^ Freeman, vol. 1, p. 76; Esposito, Map 24; Davis, p. 149.
  26. ^ Eicher, p. 100.
  27. ^ Eicher, p. 99.
  28. ^ Freeman, vol. 1, p. 79.
  29. ^ McPherson, p. 342.

Further reading

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bull Run.
  • Davis, William C., Battle at Bull Run, Louisiana State Press, 1977, ISBN 0-8071-0867-7.
  • Detzer, David, Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861, Harcourt Inc., 2004, ISBN 0-15-100889-2.
  • Goldfield, David, et al, The American Journey: A history of the United States, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999, ISBN 0-13-088243-7.
  • Hankinson, Alan, First Bull Run 1861: The South's First Victory, Osprey Campaign Series #10, Osprey Publishing, 1991, ISBN 1-85532-133-5.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

External links

  • First Battle of Bull Run is at coordinates 38°48′53″N 77°31′22″W / 38.8147, -77.5227Coordinates: 38°48′53″N 77°31′22″W / 38.8147, -77.5227

  Results from FactBites:
 
First Battle of Bull Run (1457 words)
Bull Run, FIRST BATTLE OF The gathering of Confederate troops at MANASSAS JUNCTION required prompt and vigorous movements for the defense of Washington, D. Beauregard was there with the main Confederate army, and Gen. J.
The first he heard of the disaster at Bull Run was through a morning paper from Philadelphia, on July 22.
The intelligence was given first to Europe through The Times of London—the accredited exponent of the political and social opinions of the ruling class in England—by the pen of Dr. Russell, its war-correspondent in the United States.
First Battle of Bull Run - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1290 words)
The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas, took place on July 21, 1861, and was the first major land battle of the American Civil War.
Prior to the battle, Irvin McDowell was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia.
Battlefield confusion relating to battle flags, especially the similarity of the Confederacy's "Stars and Bars" and the Union's "Stars and Stripes", led to the adoption of the Confederate Battle Flag, which eventually became the most popular symbol of the Confederacy and the South in general.
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