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Encyclopedia > First Balkan War
First Balkan War
Part of the Balkan Wars

The Bulgarians overrun the Turkish positions on knife.
Date October 8, 1912 - May 30, 1913
Location Balkan Peninsula
Result Balkan League victory, Treaty of London
Belligerents
Ottoman flag Ottoman Empire Balkan League:
Bulgaria
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Commanders
Ottoman flag Nazim Pasha,
Ottoman flag Zekki Pasha,
Ottoman flag Essad Pasha,
Ottoman flag Abdullah Pasha,
Ottoman flag Ali Rizah Pasha
Ivan Fichev,
Vasil Kutinchev,
Nikola Ivanov,
Radko Dimitriev,
Georgi Todorov
Flag of Greece Crown Prince Constantine,
Flag of Greece Panagiotis Danglis,
Flag of Greece Pavlos Kountouriotis
Flag of Montenegro King Nicholas I,
Flag of Montenegro Prince Danilo Petrović,
Flag of Montenegro Mitar Martinović,
Flag of Montenegro Janko Vukotić
Flag of Serbia Radomir Putnik,
Flag of Serbia Petar Bojović,
Flag of Serbia Stepa Stepanović,
Flag of Serbia Božidar Janković
Strength
350,000 men initially[citation needed] Bulgaria 600,000 men 370,000 directly in combat, Serbia 220,000 men, Greece 115,000 men, Montenegro 35,000 men
The region and battle places
The region and battle places

During the course of the Balkan Wars the Balkan League (Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Nazim Pasha was the Chief of Staff of the Army of the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Essad Pasha (born Essad Toptani, 1863 – June 13, 1920) was a leader of the opposition forces that overthrew Prince William of Wied in Albania and served as prime minister of that country for one month, shortly after William left. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Ali Rizah Pasha was the commanding officer (probably with the rank of mushir-field marshal in the Army of theOttoman Empire) of the Western Turkish Army during the First Balkan War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Georgi Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad (contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian General who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and First World War (1914-1918). ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was a Greek naval hero and twice President of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Danilo Aleksander Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Anglicised: Daniel Alexander Petrovich-Niegosh) (1871 - 1939) was the Crown Prince of Montenegro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro_(1941-1944). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Petar Bojović (Serbian: Петар Бојовић) (born July 16, 1858 in MiÅ¡evica near Nova VaroÅ¡, died January 20, 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian army field-marshal, and one of four Serbian vojvodas (dukes) in Balkan Wars and World War I. He fought in Serbian-Ottoman Wars from 1876 to 1878 as... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Stepa Stepanović (Степа Степановић; March 2, 1856 - April 29, 1929) was a field-marshal (vojvoda) of the Serbian Army who distinguished himself in Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Božidar Janković (born 1849 - died 1920) was the Commander of the Serbian Third Army during the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Army. ... The battle of Sarantaporo took place on the 9th of October 1912. ... On the 19th of October the Greek army defeat another Ottoman army in the Balkan Wars. ... Epic battle of the First Balkan War of 1912 during which the Serbian forces of Field Marchal Radomir Putnik crushed the Ottoman army of General Zekki north of Uskub, known today as Skopje, the modern capital of Macedonia. ... The Battle of Kirk Kilisse was part of the First Balkan War. ... The Greek army destroys an Ottoman army in a 7 day battle from 24th to 30th October 1912 during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Prilep in the First Balkan War took place on the November 3, 1912. ... The battle of Lule-Burgas was a battle between the Bulgarians and the Ottomans. ... The Battle of Vevi took place on November 2, 1912. ... The Battle of Bitola took place near Bitola from the 16th to the 19th of November 1912. ... The Battle of Elli was a naval battle that took place between the Ottoman Empire and Greece during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Adrianople, Siege of Adrianople, Bulgarian Battle of Odrin or Serbian Battle of Jedrene during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of Adrianople by the Bulgarian 2nd Army under the command of General Vazov (brother of the famous Bulgarian writer... The Battle of Lemnos (January 5-18, 1913) was a naval battle during the First Balkan War. ... This was the last piece of action the Greek army show in the Balkan Wars and it was the last Ottoman ever to enter Macedonia and Epirus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (674x895, 174 KB) published 1913. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (674x895, 174 KB) published 1913. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...

Contents

Background

Tensions among the Balkan states over their rival aspirations to the provinces of Ottoman-occupied Roumelia, namely Eastern Roumelia, Thrace and Macedonia, subsided somewhat following intervention by the Great Powers in the mid-19th century, aimed at securing both fuller protection for the provinces' Christian majority and protection of the status quo. By 1867 Greece, Serbia and Montenegro have all secured their independence, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin a decade later. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Flag of Eastern Rumelia Eastern Rumelia was a province of the Ottoman Empire that achieved a semi-autonomous status under the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, which revised the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottomans a few months earlier. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English rock band. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The name Treaty of Berlin is attached to four treaties: Treaty of Berlin, 1878 Treaty of Berlin, 1899 Treaty of Berlin, 1921 Treaty of Berlin, 1926 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


But the question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the Young Turk Revolution of July 1908 compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution, and the significant developments in the years 1909-1911. Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Serbia's aspirations towards Bosnia-Herzegovina were thwarted by the Austrian annexation of the province in October 1908, and so the Serbs focused their attention onto their historic cradle, Kosovo and the south for expansion. Greek officers, revolting in August 1909, had secured the appointment of a progressive government under Eleftherios Venizelos which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greece's favour and reverse their defeat of 1897 by the Ottomans. Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of her independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and Macedonia for expansion. In March 1910, an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo. In August 1910, Montenegro followed Bulgaria's precedent by becoming a kingdom. Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eleftherios Venizelos (1864-1936), Greek statesman and diplomat. ... Crete or Candia in 1861 // Little is known about the rise of ancient Cretan society, because very few written records remain, and many of them are written in the undeciphered script known as Linear A. This contrasts with the superb palaces, houses, roads, paintings and sculptures that do remain. ... The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1911, Italy launched an invasion of Tripolitania, which was quickly followed by the occupation of the Dodecanese Islands. The Italians' decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire greatly influenced the Balkan states to prepare for war against Turkey. Thus in the spring of 1912, consultations between the various Christian Balkan nations resulted in a network of military alliances which became known as the Balkan League. Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Great Powers, most notably France and Austria-Hungary, reacted to this diplomatic sensation by trying to dissuade the League from going to war, but failed. In late September, both the League and the Ottoman Empire mobilized their armies. Montenegro was the first to declare war, on September 25 (O.S.)/October 8. The other three states, after issuing an impossible ultimatum to the Porte on October 13, declared war on Turkey on October 17. is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Order of battle and plans

The four allies had not laid out any overall plan or made any attempt to coordinate. Instead, the war was to be conducted by each state individually, and thus it can be separated in four geographically defined fronts. Bulgarians faced the bulk of the Turkish forces in Thrace, that protected the routes to Constantinople; Serbians and Montenegrins operated in Kosovo and northern Macedonia and Albania; the Greeks operated in southern Macedonia to take Thessaloniki as well as in Epirus to take Ioanina. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... The name Epirus, from the Greek Ήπειρος meaning continent may refer to: // Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece. ... Ioannina (Greek: Ιωάννινα, often Γιάννενα Giannena, Yiannena or Γιάννινα Giannina, Yiannina ; Albanian: Janinë or Janina; Aromanian: Ianina, Bulgarian: Янина Janina) is a city in and capital of Epirus, Greece, with a population of approximately 100,000 and lies at an elevation of 600 metres above sea level. ...


Bulgaria

Bulgaria, often dubbed "Prussia of the Balkans",[1] was militarily the most powerful of the four states, with a large, well-trained and well-equipped army. For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Bulgaria during the war mobilized a little over 600,000 men, out of which 370,000 took part in the campaign against the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgarian field army counted for 11 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division and 1116 artillery units. Commander-in-Chief was Tsar Ferdinand, while the actual army was commanded by the deputy Commander-in-Chief, General Michail Savov. The Bulgarians also possessed a small navy of six torpedo boats, which were restricted to operations along the country's Black Sea coast. Ferdinand Maximilan Charles Leopold Marie, Ferdinand of Bulgaria (February 26, 1861 - September 10, 1948) was monarch of Bulgaria as well as an author, botanist and philatelist. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Bulgaria's war aims were focused on Thrace and Macedonia, and although the latter would have to be partitioned with Serbia and Greece, the Bulgarians still hoped to seize most of it, including the important city of Salonica. But they deployed their main force in Thrace, forming three armies. 1st Army, under General Vasil Kutinchev with 3 infantry divisions, was deployed to the south of Yambol, with direction of operations along the Tundzha river. 2nd Army, under General Nikola Ivanov, with 2 infantry divisions and 1 infantry brigade, was deployed west of 1st Army and was assigned to capture the strong fortress of Adrianople (Edirne). According to the plan for the war 3rd Army, under General Radko Dimitriev, was deployed east of and behind 1st Army, and was covered by the cavalry division, which hid it from Turkish command. 3rd Army had 3 infantry divisions and was assigned to cross the Stranja mountain and to take the fortress of Lozengrad Kirk Kilisse. 2nd and 7th divisions were assigned independent roles, operating in Western Thrace and eastern Macedonia respectively. Vievo is an example of a village from which the Muslim Turks were driven by the Bulgarian militia. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... The Tundzha (Bulgarian: Тунджа, Turkish: Tunca) is a river in Bulgaria and Turkey and the most significant tributary of Maritsa, emptying into it on Turkish territory near Edirne. ... Kırklareli (originally Kırkkilise (Forty Churches), Greek: Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Ekklisyes, formerly , Saranta Ekklesiai; Bulgarian: Лозенград, Lozengrad) is the capital of Kırklareli Province in the European part of Turkey, known as Thrace. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... Vievo is a Pomak village in the Rhodope Mountains in the Smolyan Province of Bulgaria. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Serbia

Serbia called upon ca. 220,000 men, grouped in 10 infantry divisions and two independent brigades, under the effective command of former War Minister Radomir Putnik. The Serbian High Command, in its pre-war wargames, had concluded that the likeliest site of the decisive battle against the Turkish Vardar Army would be on the Ovče Polje plateau, before Skopje. Hence, the main forces were formed in three armies for the advance towards Skopje, while a division and an independent brigade were to cooperate with the Montenegrins in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar. Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... Sanjak of Novi Pazar in 1878 The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Serbian: Новопазарски санџак Novopazarski sandžak; Turkish: Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that existed until the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 in the territory of present day Serbia and Montenegro. ...


The First Army was commanded by General Petar Bojović, and was the strongest in number and force, forming the center of the drive towards Skopje. The Second Army was commanded by General Stepa Stepanović, and consisted of one Serbian and one Bulgarian (7th Rila) division. It formed the left wing of the Army and advanced towards Stracin. The inclusion of a Bulgarian division was according to a pre-war arrangement between Serbian and Bulgarian army commanders, but that division ceased to obey orders of Gen. Stepanović as soon as the war began, and followed only the orders of the Bulgarian High Command. The Third Army was commanded by General Božidar Janković and, being the right-wing army, had the task to liberate Kosovo and then join the other armies in the expected battle at the Ovče Polje. Petar Bojović (Serbian: Петар Бојовић) (born July 16, 1858 in MiÅ¡evica near Nova VaroÅ¡, died January 20, 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian army field-marshal, and one of four Serbian vojvodas (dukes) in Balkan Wars and World War I. He fought in Serbian-Ottoman Wars from 1876 to 1878 as... Stepa Stepanović (Степа Степановић; March 2, 1856 - April 29, 1929) was a field-marshal (vojvoda) of the Serbian Army who distinguished himself in Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Božidar Janković (born 1849 - died 1920) was the Commander of the Serbian Third Army during the First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Army. ...


Greece

Greece was considered the weakest of the three main allies, since it had suffered a humiliating defeat against the Ottomans in 1897, and was not expected to contribute decisively against the Turkish army. It was able to field only ca. 120,000 men, 80,000 of which took part in the war. However Greece had a strong navy, which was vital to the League, as only it could prevent Turkish reinforcements from being rapidly transferred by ship from Asia to Europe. The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ...


The army, recently reorganized by a French military mission, was grouped upon mobilization in two Armies. The "Army of Thessaly", under Crown Prince Constantine, with Lt Gen Panagiotis Danglis as his chief of staff, fielded 7 infantry divisions, a cavalry brigade and 4 independent Evzones battalions, equaling roughly 100,000 men. It was expected to overcome the fortified Turkish border positions and advance towards western and central Macedonia, aiming to take Salonica. Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Greek Evzone soldiers marching in formation Evzones changing the guard at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Greek Evzones changing guards at the tomb of the unknown soldier Evzones in Athens gaurding the grave of the Unknown Soldier. ...


Further 10,000 to 13,000 men in eight battalions, were assigned to the "Army of Epirus" under Lt Gen Konstantinos Sapountzakis, which was intended to advance into Epirus. As it had no hope of capturing its heavily fortified capital, Ioannina, its initial mission was simply to occupy the Turkish forces there until sufficient reinforcements could be sent from the Army of Thessaly after its successful conclusion of operations. The Greek Navy, in the meantime, was expected to seize the islands of the Aegean Sea that were still under Ottoman rule and secure naval supremacy. The "Fleet of the Aegean", under Rear Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis, was assigned this task, and deployed three ageing battleships, the brand-new cruiser Averof and seven destroyers. Small task forces of destroyers and torpedo boats were assigned to scour the Aegean and Ionian seas of small Ottoman vessels. Greece joined with Serbia. Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... This article is about the Greek city. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was a Greek naval hero and twice President of Greece. ... Georgios Averof (Greek: Θ/Κ Γεώργιος Αβέρωφ) is a Greek warship which served as the flagship of the Royal Hellenic Navy during most of the first half of the 20th Century. ... The Ionian Sea. ...


Montenegro

After completing mobilization in the first week of October, Montenegro fielded 35,000 men organized in four divisions, each of three brigades. Their nominal commander-in-chief was King Nicholas, with effective command in the hands of his chief of staff, General Lazarović. The main war aim was the capture of the important city of Skadar, while secondary operations were to be carried out in Novi Pazar. Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ...


Ottoman Empire

Ottoman war aims were to protect what European possessions they could from the forces allied against them. The Ottomans' military capabilities were hampered by instability caused by the Young Turk Revolution and the counter revolutionary coup several months later (see Countercoup (1909) and 31 March Incident). Ottoman forces in Thrace and Macedonia were poorly paid and equipped due to the turmoil and furthermore had been subject to attacks from partisans funded by all three of the young Balkan states. Although the soldiers of the Ottoman Empire were vastly outnumbered, their strengths were indeed remarkably outmatched in other ways as well. Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... The Countercoup (March 1909) is the famous coup against the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire, which was established by Young Turk Revolution of 1908, aimed to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultans bid for a... 31 March Incident (31 Mart Vakası) was a rebellion of the reactionaries in 1909 in İstanbul toward the Countercoup (1909), who attempted to put an end to the nascent Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire and to the newly-established influence of the Committee of Union and Progress, in...


Operations

Montenegro started the First Balkan War by declaring war against the Ottomans on September 25 (O.S.)/October 8, 1912. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Bulgarian theater of operations

The first great battles were at the Adrianople - Kirk Kilisse defensive line, where the Bulgarian 1st and 3rd Armies (together 110,000 men) defeated the Ottoman East Army (130,000 men) near Gechkenli, Seliolu and Petra. The fortress of Adrianople was besieged and Kirk Kilisse was taken without resistance under the pressure of the Bulgarian Third Army. Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Kırklareli (originally Kırkkilise (Forty Churches), Greek: Σαράντα Εκκλησιές, Saranta Ekklisyes, formerly , Saranta Ekklesiai; Bulgarian: Лозенград, Lozengrad) is the capital of Kırklareli Province in the European part of Turkey, known as Thrace. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... The Battle of Adrianople, Siege of Adrianople, Bulgarian Battle of Odrin or Serbian Battle of Jedrene during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of Adrianople by the Bulgarian 2nd Army under the command of General Vazov (brother of the famous Bulgarian writer... On the 24th October 1912 the Bulgarian army defeats an Ottoman army in Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars. ...


The Bulgarian high command then decided to wait a few days, allowing the Turks to occupy defensive positions on the Luleburgaz-Karaagach-Bunarhisar line. Despite this, the initial Bulgarian attack by First and Third Army defeated the Turkish forces, numbering some 130,000, and reached the Sea of Marmara. But the Turks, with the aid of fresh reinforcements from the Asian provinces, established their third and strongest defensive position at the Chataldja Line, across the peninsula where Constantinople is located. Lüleburgaz (Latin: Arcadiopolis) is a town in European Turkey. ... Karaagach is a settlement in the European part of Turkey. ... Bunarhisar is a settlement in the European part of Turkey. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... Chataldja was a defencive position 30-40 km. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


On November 4/17, the Bulgarians launched their attack on the Chataldja Line, but were repulsed. An armistice was agreed on November 20/December 3 between the Ottomans and Bulgaria, also representing Serbia and Montenegro and peace negotiations began in London. Greece also participated in the conference, but refused to agree to a truce, in order to continue its operations in the Epirus sector. But negotiations were interrupted, on January 23/February 9, when a Young Turk coup d'etat in Constantinople under Enver Pasha overthrew the government of Kiamil Pasha. Upon expiration of the armistice, on February 16, hostilities recommenced. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ...


New Turkish forces landed at Bulair and Şarköy but after heavy fighting they were crushed and overthrown by the newly formed 4th Bulgarian army under the command of General Stilian Kovachev. The offensive at Chataldja failed too. Bulair is a village in the european part of Turkey. ... Åžarköy is a seaside district of TekirdaÄŸ Province situated on the north coast of the Marmara Sea in Thrace in Turkey. ... Chataldja was a defencive position 30-40 km. ...


On 11 March the final Bulgarian assault on Adrianople began. Under the command of General Vladimir Vazov the Bulgarians, reinforced with two Serb divisions, conquered the "untakable" city. At the same time, the Serbians and Montenegrins succeeded in taking Shkodra and the Greeks took Ioannina after overcoming the Turkish fortified positions at Bizani. On 17/30 May a peace treaty was signed between Turkey and the Balkan Alliance. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Adrianople, Siege of Adrianople, Bulgarian Battle of Odrin or Serbian Battle of Jedrene during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of Adrianople by the Bulgarian 2nd Army under the command of General Vazov (brother of the famous Bulgarian writer... Vladimir Minchev Vazov is a Bulgarian officer, lieutenant-general. ... This article is about the Greek city. ... This was the last piece of action the Greek army show in the Balkan Wars and it was the last Ottoman ever to enter Macedonia and Epirus. ...


The Serb-Montenegrin theater of operations

The Greek theater of operations

The Greek Army of Thessaly under Crown Prince Constantine advanced towards Salonica from the south, successfully overcoming Ottoman opposition at Sarantaporo. After a renewed victory at Giannitsa, the city and its garrison surrendered to the Greeks on October 27 (O.S.)/November 9. At the same time, the Bulgarians had dispatched their 7th 'Rila' division from the north in the direction of the city, but arrived there a day after its surrender. Until November 10, the Greek-occupied zone had been expanded to the line from Lake Doirani to the river Strymon. In Western Macedonia however, the Greeks had suffered a setback in the Battle of Vevi on 2/15 November, and the stiff resistance offered by Ottoman forces centered at Monastir meant that the city was eventually captured by the Serbs. Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... The battle of Sarantaporo took place on the 9th of October 1912. ... On the 19th of October the Greek army defeat another Ottoman army in the Balkan Wars. ... Lake Doirani is a lake on the border between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... The battle took place on 2nd of November 1912. ... Monastir could be a city in the Republic of Macedonia now called Bitola Monastir, Italy - a village near Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, famous for fruit production. ...


At Epirus, the Greek army had successfully conquered Preveza, but was not strong enough to conquer the German-designed defensive positions of Bizani that protected the apporaches to Ioannina. After the campaign in Macedonia was complete, however, a large part of the army under the Crown Prince was redeployed to Epirus, and in the Battle of Bizani the Ottoman positions were overcome and Ioannina taken on 22 February/6 March 1913. The name Epirus, from the Greek Ήπειρος meaning continent may refer to: // Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece. ... Preveza is a town in north-western Greece. ... Bizani (Μπιζάνι) is a municipality in the Ioannina Prefecture, Greece. ... This article is about the Greek city. ... This was the last piece of action the Greek army show in the Balkan Wars and it was the last Ottoman ever to enter Macedonia and Epirus. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


At sea, the Greek fleet took action since the first day of the war. From 6 October until 20 December 1912, Greek naval and army detachments liberated almost all islands of the Eastern and North Aegean sea, and established a forward base at Moudros bay in Lemnos, controlling the exits of the Dardanelles. Lieutenant Nikolaos Votsis scored a major success for Greek morale on 8 November, when he sailed his torpedo boat into the harbor of Thessaloniki under the cover of night, and sank the old Ottoman ironclad Feth-i-Bulend. is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lemnos (mod. ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ...


The Ottoman fleet remained inside the Dardanelles for the early part of the war; on its two sorties out of the Straits on 3/16 December 1912 and 5/18 January 1913, it was defeated in the naval battles of Elli and Lemnos, largely through the tactical initiative of Rear Adm Kountouriotis. The only Ottoman success were the actions of the light cruiser Hamidiye. In the days before the battle of Lemnos, Hamidiye was sent to raid Greek merchant shipping, thus creating a diversion that would hopefully be large enough to draw the Greek flagship Averof in pursuit, and leave the remainder of the Greek fleet weakened. The Ottoman plan ultimately failed, but the Hamidiye scored a few successes, sinking some ships and bombarding Greek harbors. December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Elli was a naval battle that took place between the Ottoman Empire and Greece during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Lemnos (January 5-18, 1913) was a naval battle during the First Balkan War. ...


Conclusion of the war and aftermath

The Treaty of London ended the First Balkan War on 17 May 1913, but disputes over territory, especially in Macedonia, remained unresolved. As a result, the Second Balkan War immediately followed. The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War...

Battles of the First Balkan War
Name Attacking Commander Defending Commander Date Winner
Battle of Sarantaporo Greeks Crown Prince Constantine Ottomans Oct 22 1912 Greeks
Battle of Giannitsa Greeks Crown Prince Constantine Ottomans Hasan Tahsin Pasha Nov 1 1912 Greeks
Battle of Kumanovo Serbians Gen Radomir Putnik (promoted to Vojvoda after the battle) Ottomans Gen Zekki-Pasha Oct 23 1912 Serbians
Battle of Kirk Kelesse Bulgarians Ottomans Oct 24 1912 Bulgarians
Battle of Pente Pigadia Greeks Lt Gen Konstantinos Sapountzakis Ottomans Esat Pasha Nov 6-12 1912 Greeks
Battle of Prilep Serbians Ottomans Nov 3 1912 Serbians
Battle of Lule-Burgas Bulgarians Ottomans Oct 28-31 1912 Bulgarians
Battle of Vevi Greeks Ottomans Nov 15 1912 Ottomans
Battle of Bitola Serbians Gen. Petar Bojović Ottomans Zekki-Pasha (Gen.) Nov 16-19 1912 Serbians
Naval Battle of Elli Greeks Rear Adm Pavlos Kountouriotis Ottomans Adm Ramiz Bey Dec 16 1912 Greeks
Battle of Bulair Ottomans Feti Bey Bulgarians Gen Georgi Todorov Jan 26 1913 Bulgarians
Siege of Adrianople Bulgarians & Serbians Gen. Vladimir Vazov, Gen. Stepa Stepanovic Ottomans Gen Ghazi Shulkri Pasha Mar 11-13 1913 Bulgarians
Naval Battle of Lemnos Greeks Rear Adm Pavlos Kountouriotis Ottomans Jan 18 1913 Greeks
Battle of Bizani Greeks Crown Prince Constantine Ottomans Esat Pasha Mar 5-6 1913 Greeks

The battle of Sarantaporo took place on the 9th of October 1912. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... On the 19th of October the Greek army defeat another Ottoman army in the Balkan Wars. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... Epic battle of the First Balkan War of 1912 during which the Serbian forces of Field Marchal Radomir Putnik crushed the Ottoman army of General Zekki north of Uskub, known today as Skopje, the modern capital of Macedonia. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... On the 24th October 1912 the Bulgarian army defeats an Ottoman army in Eastern Thrace during the Balkan Wars. ... The Greek army destroys an Ottoman army in a 7 day battle from 24th to 30th October 1912 during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Prilep in the First Balkan War took place on the November 3, 1912. ... The battle of Lule-Burgas was a battle between the Bulgarians and the Ottomans. ... The Battle of Vevi took place on November 2, 1912. ... The Battle of Bitola took place near Bitola from the 16th to the 19th of November 1912. ... Petar Bojović (Serbian: Петар Бојовић) (born July 16, 1858 in Miševica near Nova Varoš, died January 20, 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian army field-marshal, and one of four Serbian vojvodas (dukes) in Balkan Wars and World War I. He fought in Serbian-Ottoman Wars from 1876 to 1878 as... The Battle of Elli was a naval battle that took place between the Ottoman Empire and Greece during the Balkan Wars. ... Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was a Greek naval hero and twice President of Greece. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Georgi Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on 10 August 1858 in Bolgrad (contemporary Ukraine); died on 16 November 1934 in Sofia) was a Bulgarian General who fought in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Serbo-Bulgarian War (1885), Balkan Wars (1912-1913) and First World War (1914-1918). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Adrianople or Siege of Adrianople during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of the Turkish city by Bulgarian forces on March 26, 1913. ... Vladimir Minchev Vazov is a Bulgarian officer, lieutenant-general. ... Stepa Stepanovic was a field-marshal (vojvoda) of the Serbian and Yugoslavian Armies who participated in Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Battle of Lemnos (January 5-18, 1913) was a naval battle during the First Balkan War. ... Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was a Greek naval hero and twice President of Greece. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This was the last piece of action the Greek army show in the Balkan Wars and it was the last Ottoman ever to enter Macedonia and Epirus. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Emile Joseph Dillon, "The Inside Story of the Peace Conference", Ch. XV

See also

Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War...

  Results from FactBites:
 
balkan wars - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (571 words)
The wars were an important precursor to World War I, to the extent that Austria-Hungary took alarm at the great increase in Serbia's territory and regional status.
The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century.
Serbians had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although she lost a small area to Turkey in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885).
First Balkan War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1652 words)
Montenegro was the first to declare war, on October 8.
Bulgaria's war aims were focused on Thrace and Macedonia, and although the latter would have to be partitioned with Serbia and Greece, the Bulgarians still hoped to seize most of it, including the important city of Salonica.
The main war aim of the Montenegrins was the capture of the important city of Shkodra, while secondary operations were to be carried out in Novi Pazar.
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