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Encyclopedia > Firmicutes
iFirmicutes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Classes

Bacilli
Clostridia
Mollicutes Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Bacillales Lactobacillales The term bacilli (singular bacillus) is used to refer to any rod-shaped bacteria. ... Orders The Clostridia are a class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. ... Orders Mycoplasmatales Entoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales The Mollicutes are an unusual group of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall; a cell wall is found in most other groups. ...

The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, the Mollicutes or mycoplasmas, lack cell walls altogether and so do not respond to Gram staining, but still lack the second membrane found in other Gram-negative forms. Others, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas, and Zymophilus have a porous pseudo-outer-membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Originally the Firmicutes were taken to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but more recently they tend to be restricted to a core group of related forms, called the low G+C group in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-shaped forms. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell located outside of the plasma membrane (also known, in some cases, as the cell membrane) that provides additional support and protection. ... Orders Mycoplasmatales Entoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales The Mollicutes are an unusual group of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall; a cell wall is found in most other groups. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell located outside of the plasma membrane (also known, in some cases, as the cell membrane) that provides additional support and protection. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... In genetics, the guanine-cytosine content (GC content) is the ratio of guanine and cytosine to the total number of nucleotides of a given genome. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ...


Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria, produce energy through photosynthesis. An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Genera Heliobacterium Heliobacillus Heliophilum Heliorestis The heliobacteria are a small family of bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


The group is typically divided into the Clostridia, which are anaerobic, the Bacilli, which are obligate or facultative aerobes, and the Mollicutes. On molecular trees the first two groups show up as paraphyletic or polyphyletic, as do their main genera, Clostridium and Bacillus. It is likely these groups will undergo revision. Look up Anaerobic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ...


Firmicutes play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage.


Researcher Jeffery Gordon and his colleagues found that obese humans and mice had a lower percentage of a family of bacteria called Bacteroidetes and more Firmicutes. But they are not sure if Firmicutes cause obesesity or if people who are obese grow more of that type of bacteria. Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ... Classes & orders Class Bacteroidetes    Bacteroidales Class Flavobacteria    Flavobacteriales Class Sphingobacteria    Sphingobacteriales The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, in sediments, sea water and in the guts of animals and termites. ...


While there are currently more than 274 genera within the Firmicutes phylum, Notable genera of Firmicutes include:


Bacilli, order Bacillales Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ...

Bacilli, order Lactobacillales Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... Species Listeria monocytogenes Listeria ivanovii Listeria innocua Listeria welshimeri Listeria seegligeri Listeria grayi Listeria innocua Listeria is a bacterial genus containing six species. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of gram-positive bacteria. ... Families Aerococcaceae Carnobacteriaceae Enterococcaceae Lactobacillaceae Leuconostocaceae Streptococcaceae The Lactobacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise the lactic acid bacteria. ...

Clostridia Species E. faecalis Enterococcus is a genus of bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. casei L. plantarum L. reuterietc. ... Species Lactococcus garvieae Lactococcus lactis Lactococcus piscium Lactococcus plantarum Lactococcus raffinolactis Lactococcus is the genus of bacteria formerly known as Streptococcus Group N and related species. ... Leuconostoc is a kind of bacteria, often found in butter. ... Pediococcus is a genus of bacteria. ... Streptococcus, a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Orders The Clostridia are a class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera. ...

  • Acetobacterium
  • Clostridium
  • Eubacterium
  • Heliobacterium
  • Heliospirillum
  • Sporomusa

Mollicutes Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Orders Mycoplasmatales Entoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales The Mollicutes are an unusual group of bacteria distinguished by the absence of a cell wall; a cell wall is found in most other groups. ...

Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible, this article may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a parasitic bacterium. ...

References

  • Seth Borenstein "Scientists link weight to gut bacteria" Yahoo News December 20, 2006
  • [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/13/magazine/13obesity.html?pagewanted=3&ei=5070&en=0c39c5880e4d7067&ex=1166850000
 ROBIN MARANTZ HENIG "Fat Factors" New York Times Magazine August 13, 2006] 

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Firmicutes (1678 words)
Approximately 2475 species in 255 genera, 40% of these species are aggregated in just 6 genera; Lactobacillus - 100 sp., Mycoplasma - 110 sp., Bacillus - 114 sp, Clostridium 146 sp and Streptomyces 509.
The Firmicutes are all gram-positive bacteria unlike the Proteobacteria which are gram-negative.
The Firmicutes are further divided according to their GC ratios.
Firmicutes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (238 words)
The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive stains.
Originally the Firmicutes were taken to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but more recently they tend to be restricted to a core group of related forms, called the low G+C group in contrast to the Actinobacteria.
Many Firmicutes produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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