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Encyclopedia > Fireworks
Fireworks over Miami, Florida, USA on American Independence Day

A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics) is a display of the effects produced by firework devices on various occasions. Fireworks competitions are also regularly held at a number of places. The biggest fireworks event in the world is held in Madeira, Portugal at the New Years' Eve celebrations, as referred in the Guinness World Records. Fireworks may have the following meanings. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Miami redirects here. ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... This article is about the Mexican city; for other uses, see Monterrey (disambiguation). ... The Universal Forum of Cultures Monterrey 2007 is an international civil-society event that will take place in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, starting September and ending in December. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ...


Fireworks (devices) take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light, smoke, and floating materials (confetti for example). They may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many different cultural and religious celebrations. For other uses, see Confetti (disambiguation). ... A celebration is a joyous observation on the occasion of a special event: - Personal Level birth, etc. ...


Fireworks were originally invented by the Chinese, for entertainment purposes, as a natural extension of the Chinese invention of gunpowder. In China, they were first made by firework masters who were well respected for their knowledge of the many complex techniques used to create truly dazzling firework displays. Such important events and festivities as New Year's and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in the world. China is estimated to have exported over 6 million cases or 120,000 tons of fireworks to the US in 2005.*[citation needed]


Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may provide their own propulsion (skyrocket) or be shot into the air by a mortar (aerial shell). Air propulsion is the act of moving an object through the air. ... A skyrocket is a type of firework that uses a solid rocket motor to rise quickly into the sky. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... KA- BOOM! ...


The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material, often pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes, often variously colored. The skyrocket is a common form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used in war. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, and a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States. Such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Pyrotechnic stars are pellets or simply pieces of pyrotechnic composition which may contain metal powders, salts or other compounds that, when ignited, burn a certain colour or exude a spark effect. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... A Regulus cruise missile was used for one attempt to deliver mail. ... A model rocket launching Model rocketry is a hobby similar to building model airplanes, where rocket-shaped models are flown vertically and recovered by a variety of means (see Recovery below). ...


Improper use of fireworks may be dangerous, both to the person operating them (risks of burns and wounds) and to bystanders; in addition, they may start a fire if landing on flammable material. For this reason, the use of fireworks is generally legally restricted. In the United States, fireworks are classified as either consumer or display fireworks based upon the amount of pyrotechnic composition an item contains. Display fireworks are restricted by law for use by professionals. Consumer items are available to the public and are smaller versions containing limited amounts of material to reduce potential dangers. For other uses, see Burn. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... A professional does something as a profession, or receives payment for some activity. ...

Contents

History

An etching of the 'Royal Fireworks' display on the Thames in 1749.
An etching of the 'Royal Fireworks' display on the Thames in 1749.
The World Showcase Lagoon at Epcot during IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, the nightly fireworks show
The World Showcase Lagoon at Epcot during IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, the nightly fireworks show
A firework in Bratislava, Slovakia, 2005
A firework in Bratislava, Slovakia, 2005
Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle
Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle

The earliest unequivocal documentation of fireworks dates back to 12th century China,[1] where they were first used to frighten away evil spirits with their loud sound ("bian pao") and also to pray for happiness and prosperity. Hand coloured etching showing the Royal Fire-workes and Illuminations in Whitehall and on the River Thames on Monday 15 May 1749. ... Hand coloured etching showing the Royal Fire-workes and Illuminations in Whitehall and on the River Thames on Monday 15 May 1749. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 261 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 261 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Epcot theme park. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube, City of peace Country  Slovakia Region Districts 5  - Bratislava I  - Bratislava II  - Bratislava III  - Bratislava IV  - Bratislava V Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1329 KB) Summary Preparing a firework at Sayn Castle Own Photography (Klaus Graf) 03. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1329 KB) Summary Preparing a firework at Sayn Castle Own Photography (Klaus Graf) 03. ...


Eventually, the art and science of firework making developed into an independent profession of its own. In ancient China, pyrotechnicians (firework-masters) were well-respected for their knowledge and skill to mount dazzling displays of light and sound. Fireworks may have also led to the use of military rockets in China. It was recorded in 1264 that the speed of the rocket-propelled 'ground-rat' firework frightened the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng during a feast held in her honor by her son Emperor Lizong of Song (r. 1224–1264).[2] By the 14th century, rocket propulsion had become common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Ji (1311–1375) and Jiao Yu (fl. c. 1350–1412).[3] Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... Empress Dowager (Chinese: 皇太后; Chinese Pinyin: , Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō, Vietnamese pronunciation: Hoàng Thái Hậu) was the title given to the mother of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean, or Vietnamese emperor. ... Emperor Lizong 理宗 (1205 - 1264) was the 14th emperor of the Song Dynasty of China, and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ... Liu Ji (Chinese: 刘基, courtesy name Bowen (伯温)) (1311-1375) was a Chinese military strategist and statesman in the Ming dynasty. ... Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) era matchlock firearms featuring serpentine levers. ...


Cultural contexts

Since then, any event—a birth, death, wedding, coronation, or New Year's Eve celebration—has become a fitting occasion for noisemakers. Parturition redirects here. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... See Firecracker (album) for information on the Lisa Loeb album. ...


Amédée-François Frézier published a "Treatise on Fireworks" in 1706. In this treatise, Frézier studied the recreational and ceremonial uses of fireworks, rather than their military uses. The book became a standard text for fireworks makers. Amédée-François Frézier (1682-October 26, 1773) was a French military engineer, mathematician, spy, and explorer who is best remembered for bringing back five specimens of Fragaria chiloensis, the Beach Strawberry, from an assignment in South America, thus introducing this New World fruit to the Old. ...


Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 to celebrate the peace Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which had been declared the previous year. “Handel” redirects here. ... The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ...


In the USA

America's earliest settlers brought their enthusiasm for fireworks to the United States. Fireworks and black ash were used to celebrate important events long before the American Revolutionary War. The very first celebration of Independence Day was in 1777, six years before Americans knew whether the new nation would survive the war; fireworks were a part of every festivities. In 1789, George Washington's inauguration was also accompanied by a fireworks display. This early fascination with their noise and color continues today. Binomial name Fraxinus nigra Marsh Fraxinus nigra, the Black Ash, is a species of ash which occurs in the northeastern United States and much of eastern Canada, from Newfoundland west to southern Manitoba, and south to Illinois and northern Virginia. ... This article is about military actions only. ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


In 2004, Disneyland in Anaheim, California, started using aerial fireworks launched with compressed air rather than gunpowder, the first time that such a launch system was used commercially. The display shell explodes in the air using an electronic timer. The advantages of compressed air launch are a reduction in fumes, and much greater accuracy in height and timing.[4] Anaheim redirects here. ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... Air redirects here. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


Competitions

Main article: Fireworks competitions

In many countries, pyrotechnical competitions involving fireworks are held. The World Pyro Olympics in Manila is an annual international competition amongst the most prestigious fireworks companies in the world. The event is the largest and most intense international fireworks competition worldwide. Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ... The World Pyro Olympics is an annual competition amongst the most prestigious fireworks companies in the world. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ...


Major events

New Year's celebrations

Main articles: New Year's Eve and New Year's Day
The Sydney Harbour Bridge and the Sydney Opera House illuminated under New Year's Eve Fireworks, 2005, Sydney, Australia.
A fireworks display on Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan, New Year's 2008. A rare example of fireworks on a skyscraper.
A fireworks display on Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan, New Year's 2008. A rare example of fireworks on a skyscraper.

Major cities around the world host a spectacular firework display on New Year's Eve. One of the first to be seen worldwide is the Sydney New Year's Eve fireworks produced by Foti Fireworks and the City of Sydney.[5] For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links 010105_fireworks2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links 010105_fireworks2. ... The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the main way to cross Sydney Harbour carrying rail, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. ... The Sydney Opera House is located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiběi Yīlíngyī; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. ... This article is about the city. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ...


Although it is now just a custom to fire off fireworks on New-Year's eve, in the past the idea was to scare 'bad forces' so they would not enter the new year. As a consequence the most popular fireworks are still those that go off with a big bang or with a bright flash. This article is about the paranormal. ...


In Western Europe the sale of fireworks to the general public is usually restricted to a week before New Year's Eve. However this does not stop people buying a large volume of fireworks in the weeks preceding New Years Eve to be picked up during the selling days. The retailing of fireworks in Europe is very different from the US, due to powder weigh limits stored in each building. In many countries around the world, people blow up many tons of fireworks every New Year's Eve. A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Guy Fawkes Night in Great Britain (AKA Bonfire Night)

Main article: Guy Fawkes Night

In 1605 Guy Fawkes and his fellow conspirators attempted to blow up the Parliament of England while the King was inside. Fawkes placed 36 barrels of gunpowder in the cellars of Westminster Hall. On 5 November, Fawkes was arrested and Parliament was saved. That night is now celebrated, both in the United Kingdom and in former British colonies such as South Africa and New Zealand as Guy Fawkes Night or bonfire night by filling the sky with exploding fireworks, and by burning an effigy of Guy Fawkes on a bonfire. Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... For other uses, see Guido Fawkes (disambiguation). ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... This article is about figure. ... For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ...

Remember, remember the fifth of November.
Gunpowder, treason, and plot.
I see no reason why gunpowder treason
Will ever be forgot.
– a children's rhyme about the events, still spoken today

The town of Lewes is famous for its annual Guy Fawkes Night celebrations, and so is Llangybi. Local groups, 'bonfire societies' conduct torch-lit marches around the town, vying with each other for the best fancy-dress outfits and typical celebrity figures that are later burnt. Examples of recent figures include the Pope, Margaret Thatcher, George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 693 KB) [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 693 KB) [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... This is about Lewes in England. ... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


The largest and probably the most impressive annual fireworks display in the UK is however held not in November, but in early September in Edinburgh. Since 1981 the world's largest arts festival has ended each year with a combination of live open air orchestral pieces (performed in the Ross Band Stand, Princes Street Gardens) whilst a panoply of fireworks are launched from the ramparts of Edinburgh Castle immediately behind. The natural amphitheatre which the Princes Street area provides creates a perfect setting for enjoying the music and fireworks. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


Along the same lines, in Canada, during Victoria Day and Canada Day, many fireworks displays are seen throughout. Queen Elizabeth II in Canada for her official birthday, Victoria Day 2005, Edmonton, Alberta Victoria Day (French: Fête de la Reine) is a Canadian statutory holiday celebrated on the last Monday before or on May 24 in honour of both Queen Victorias birthday and the current reigning Canadian... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ...


This event was also re-enacted in V for Vendetta along with the children's rhyme. This article is about the comic. ...


Fireworks are now used extensively throughout the year in the UK for festivals and other events. A number of creative companies, such as The World Famous Fireworkers combine fireworks with firesculptures, music and performance to make theatrical spectacles.


Thrissur Pooram fireworks, India

Thrissur Pooram is one of the most colourful and spectacular temple festival of Kerala, India. It is a magnificent spectacle with fireworks, umbrella showing competition and a splendid elephant procession. Among the varieties of festivals celebrated in Kerala, Thrissur Pooram is the most thunderous, spectacular and dazzling. ... Among the varieties of festivals celebrated in Kerala, Thrissur Pooram is the most thunderous, spectacular and dazzling. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Fireworks in the festival is the one of the greatest fireworks in India, which is held in the wee hours of the day after the Pooram. The Thiruvambadi and Paramekkavu Devaswams present many innovative patterns and varieties of fire works, which make spectators going into raptures. This famous and mighty exhibit of the magnificent display of fireworks add to the popularity of the Pooram festival.


Thrissur Pooram, the mother of all temple festivals in the state, is essentially one of spectacles. The two devaswams- Thiruvampadi and Paramekkavu- explore and exploit every source at their command to make this annual festival a memorable one. It is celebrated with a colourful procession of caparisoned elephants, parasol exchanges; drum concerts, display of pyro-techniques and refreshing scenes of public participation. Paramekkavu Bagavathi Temple is one of the largest Bagavathi temples in Kerala. ...


After thrissur pooram, there is a firework show at Sri. Kottaram Bhagavathy temple, Maradu,Kochi. It is also a big festival. People from all relegions and castes join hands to make these events a grand success


U.S. Independence Day

Fourth of July fireworks
Fourth of July fireworks

Each year before the American Independence Day, the Fourth of July, retailers across the nation experience a surge in fireworks sales. The Fourth of July is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x2732, 1254 KB) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1652x2732, 1254 KB) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1776 (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...


Independence Day is commonly associated with parades, barbecues, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of the U.S. Fireworks have been associated with the Fourth of July since 1777. United States Marines on parade. ... A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City. ... Friends and family gather for a picnic in a public park in Columbus, Ohio, c. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ...


In many states, consumer fireworks are sold for personal use or as an alternative to a public show. Concerns about safety have led some states to ban fireworks or limit the sizes and types allowed, but illicit traffic from less restrictive border states is common. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some of the most famous fireworks displays include Macy's - 4th of July Fireworks in New York (the largest in the country), Houston, and the Boston display on the Charles River esplanade. There are also many other spectacular displays in St. Louis, Washington D.C., and Philadelphia. Detroit, Michigan and Windsor, Ontario host one of the largest fireworks displays in the world over the Detroit River each year in celebration of both American Independence Day and Canada Day during the Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festival. Detroit redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ... After poor management and inclement weather caused great losses in 2003, this festival no longer exists in its usual form on the Windsor side of the border. ...


Victoria Day (Canada)

Main article: Victoria Day

Victoria Day is the official celebration in Canada of the birthdays' of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II. It is a federal holiday celebrated annually on the Monday before May 25th. Colloquially referred to as May Two-Four, along with Canada Day it is one of only two holidays, in most municipalities, where the public can purchase and ignite fireworks in Canada. Queen Elizabeth II in Canada for her official birthday, Victoria Day 2005, Edmonton, Alberta Victoria Day (French: Fête de la Reine) is a Canadian statutory holiday celebrated on the last Monday before or on May 24 in honour of both Queen Victorias birthday and the current reigning Canadian... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ...


Canada Day

Main article: Canada Day

Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canada's national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a Dominion on July 1, 1867. It is a federal holiday celebrated on July 1, annually by all provincial governments and most businesses across the country. The celebration typically includes fireworks. Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ...


Thunder Over Louisville

Held annually in Louisville, Kentucky; this event is the kick-off for the two week long Kentucky Derby Festival. It is the largest annual fireworks display in North America. The event lasts throughout the day, including an extensive airshow. The fireworks show itself lasts for around half an hour, along with a synchronized soundtrack through PA and radio. Several hundred thousand people attend each year, lining the banks of the Ohio River in Louisville, and across the river in Jeffersonville, Indiana and Clarksville, Indiana. Some also watch from the river on boats, docked in positions auctioned off for charity.[1] Eight 400-foot (120 m) barges launch the fireworks, provided by Zambelli Fireworks Internationale, from both sides of the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge (Second Street Bridge), and more fireworks are launched from the bridge itself. In the event's first year, 1990, only 4,000 shells were used; by 1996 4,000 shells were fired within the event's first minute, and in 2007 the crowd for the event was estimated at 800,000 people. The 2nd Street Bridge during Thunder Over Louisville, from the Indiana side Thunder Over Louisville is an annual aircraft show and fireworks display in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Louisville redirects here. ... The Hannah Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... North American redirects here. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Jeffersonville is a city located in Clark County, Indiana, along the Ohio River. ... Clarksville is a town in Clark County, Indiana, along the Ohio River. ... The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge as seen from Louisville Waterfront Park The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge is a four-lane cantilever bridge crossing the Ohio River between Louisville, Kentucky and Jeffersonville, Indiana, carrying US 31. ...


Diwali ('Festival of Lights') in India

Fireworks in an Indian house on Diwali day
Fireworks in an Indian house on Diwali day

Diwali is the most popular festival of India, which broadly celebrates the triumph of good over evil primarily symbolized in the epic of Ramayana in which the Hindu God Rama defeats his demonic adversary Ravana. Customary traditions include offering prayers to the Gods in the morning and exchanging sweets with friends and neighbors. During the night the houses are adorned with small lit oil lamps and colorful lights and then the entire family participates in the display of fireworks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 911 KB) Summary A pic of Diwali fireworks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 911 KB) Summary A pic of Diwali fireworks. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ...


Unlike Western nations, retail of fireworks is largely unrestricted in India. People have access to a variety of fireworks and most of them in urban areas set them off on the public roads running in front of their houses. In smaller towns, the large temples of the town typically have public fireworks displays. Deepavali brings the spirit of goodwill and brotherhood and is celebrated across all religions in India. Some popular fireworks include the famous 'phoolthari' or 'sparkler' which is commonly used in lighting most other fireworks. The 'Anaar' or 'Flowerpedal' displays as a large mountain of fire when lit. The 'Zameen Chakra' is a spinning circle of fire with sparks emitting from it. The 'rocket' is popular but dangerous, as it can change its course and fly into buildings. Bombs like 'Chilli Bombs' and 'Laxmi bombs' are becoming popular, but are sometimes disturbing due to their high intensity.


Maltese Petards

A firework during a traditional Maltese feast.
A firework during a traditional Maltese feast.

In Malta, local patron saints' holidays are usually celebrated with spectacular fireworks and bombs called petards or murtali in Maltese. Petardry is a popular hobby and a traditional skill in Malta, and Maltese fireworks are usually homemade. Manufacture is often high-risk, but the final results are extravagant. In the opinion of many fireworks artists, Malta is one of the best places in the world for the manufacture of fireworks. The 'Malta International Fireworks Festival', held annually at the end of April in the Valletta Grand Harbour, is a fireworks competition open to all pyrotechnic manufacturers of the world. In 2003 the event began as just a festival to showcase Maltese talent, but in 2006 the committee decided to retool it into a competition open to manufacturers worldwide. The first of these international fireworks competitions was contended by two foreign groups and three Maltese groups. The title was won by the St. Mary Fireworks Factory, of Mqabba, which won five of the seven honours, including the shield for the best display overall, with the remaining two honours being won by another Maltese competitor, St Michael's Fireworks of Lija. The great extent of Maltese talent, however, is most evident during summer and spring, during which many cities and villages celebrate the feasts of their patron saints and local artists produce their best fireworks. The Maltese take pride in their renown as one of the foremost in the pyrotechnic industry. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (614x776, 117 KB)[edit] Summary Mark, [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (614x776, 117 KB)[edit] Summary Mark, [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The petard by Francis Grose, 1812 A 19th-century British army petard A petard was a medieval small bomb used to blow up gates and walls when breaching fortifications. ... Mqabba (or L-Imqabba) is a small village in the south of Malta, with a population of 3,021 inhabitants (Nov 2005). ... Entering Lija Belveder Tower Lija (or Ħal Lija) is a small village located approximately in the centre of Malta with 2,779 inhabitants residing in it (Nov 2005). ...


PGI Annual Convention

The Pyrotechnics Guild International, Inc. or PGI, founded in 1969, is an independent worldwide nonprofit organization of amateur and professional fireworks enthusiasts. It is notable for its large number of members, around 3,500 in total. The PGI exists solely to further the safe usage and enjoyment of both professional grade and consumer grade fireworks while both advancing the art and craft of pyrotechnics and preserving its historical aspects. Each August the PGI conducts its annual week-long convention, where some the world's biggest and best fireworks displays occur. Vendors, competitors, and club members come from around the USA and from various parts of the globe to enjoy the show and to help out at this all-volunteer event. Aside from the nightly firework shows, the competition is a highlight of the convention. This is a completely unique event where individual classes of hand-built fireworks are competitively judged, ranging from simple fireworks rockets to extremely large and complex aerial shells. Some of the biggest, best, most intricate fireworks displays in the United States take place during the convention week. The Pyrotechnics Guild International or PGI founded in 1969 is an independent worldwide nonprofit organization of amateur and professional fireworks enthusiasts. ...


Amateur and professional members can come to the convention to purchase fireworks, paper goods, novelty items, non-explosive chemical components and much more at the PGI trade show. Before the nightly fireworks displays and competitions, club members have a chance to enjoy open shooting of any and all legal consumer or professional grade fireworks, as well as testing and display of hand-built fireworks. The 'superstring', consisting of firecrackers numbering somewhere in the millions, as well as the 'megastring' are displayed as well. The week ends with the Grand Public Display on Friday night, which gives the chosen display company a chance to strut their stuff in front of some of the world's biggest fireworks aficionados. The stakes are high and much planning is put into the show. In 1994 a shell of 36 inches (910 mm) in diameter was fired during the convention, more than twice as large as the largest shell usually seen in the USA, and shells as large as 24 inches (610 mm) are frequently fired.


Halloween

In Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland), during the Halloween season, there are many spectacular fireworks displays. The largest are in Derry and Dublin. The sale of fireworks is restricted in the Republic of Ireland, though many illegal fireworks are sold throughout October or smuggled over the Northern Ireland border. There is a €10,000 fine for possessing them, or a five year prison sentence. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the holiday. ...


Both fireworks and firecrackers are a popular tradition during Halloween in Vancouver, although apparently this is not the custom elsewhere in Canada. The only known fireworks used during All Hallows' Eve in the United States is the annual "Happy Hallowishes" show at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom "Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party" event, which began in 2005. This article is about the holiday. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... HalloWishes (known by its full title of Happy HalloWishes: A Grim Grinning Ghosts Spooktacular in the Sky) is a fireworks show that takes place in lieu of Wishes at Mickeys Not-So-Scary Halloween Party, a separate-admission (hard ticket) event held in September and October at Walt Disney... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... The Magic Kingdom is a theme park within the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, near Orlando. ... Mickeys Not-So-Scary Halloween Party is a separate-admission (a/k/a hard-ticket) Halloween-themed event held annually during the months of September and October at the Magic Kingdom theme park of the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, outside Orlando. ...


Singapore Fireworks Celebrations

Singapore Fireworks Festival 2006, 8 Aug 2006
Main article: Singapore Fireworks Celebrations

The Singapore Fireworks Celebrations (previously the Singapore Fireworks Festival) is an annual event held in Singapore as part of its National Day celebrations. The festival features local and foreign teams which launch displays on different nights. While currently non-competitive in nature, the organiser has plans to introduce a competitive element in the future. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Singapore Fireworks Festival 2006, 8 Aug 2006 The Singapore Fireworks Celebrations is an annual event held in Singapore as part of its National Day celebrations. ... Singapore Fireworks Festival 2006, 8 Aug 2006 The Singapore Fireworks Celebrations is an annual event held in Singapore as part of its National Day celebrations. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ...


The annual festival has grown in magnitude, from 4,000 rounds used in 2004, 6,000 in 2005, to over 9,100 in 2006.


Japanese Fireworks Festivals (花火大会)

During the summer in Japan fireworks festivals are held nearly everyday someplace in the country, in total numbering more than 200 during the month of August. The festivals consist of large fireworks shows, the largest of which use between 100,000 and 120,000 rounds (Tondabayashi, Osaka), and can attract more than 800,000 spectators. Street vendors set up stalls to sell various drinks and staple Japanese food (such as Yakisoba, Okonomiyaki, Takoyaki, shaved ice), and traditionally held festival games, such as Kingyo-sukui, or Goldfish-catching. Tondabayashi (富田林市; -shi) is a city located in Osaka, Japan. ... Yakisoba ), literally fried noodles, is a dish often sold at festivals in Japan. ... A Boat of Takoyaki Square takoyaki pan with 16 molds Takoyaki ) (literally fried or baked octopus) is a popular Japanese dumpling made of batter, diced octopus, tempura scraps (tenkasu), pickled ginger, konnyaku, and green onion, topped with okonomiyaki sauce, green laver (aonori), mayonnaise, and katsuobushi (fish shavings), originated in Osaka. ...


Both men and women don Yukata, summer Kimono (women only), or Jinbei (men only) and attend these events, collecting in large social circles of family or friends to sit picnic-like, eating and drinking, while watching the show. Young woman in yukata in Kyoto, Japan CGI image of yukata-clad woman Yukata (Japanese: 浴衣) is a Japanese summer garment. ... A traditional wedding kimono The kimono literally something worn) is the national costume of Japan. ... Jinbê Jinbê (甚兵衛, 甚平, sometimes written jinbei) is a kind of traditional Japanese sleeping material. ...


Uses other than public displays

Main article: consumer fireworks

Consumer fireworks are fireworks the general public can buy. They typically involve using a punk to light them with and have less explosive power than professional fireworks, but can still produce a decent show. Some examples of consumer fireworks are firecrackers, rockets, and smoke balls. Consumer fireworks are fireworks sold to the general public for use. ... Firework punks A punk is a stick used for lighting firework fuses. ...


Fireworks can also be used in an agricultural capacity as bird scarers. A typical propane gas gun bird scarer. ...


Fireworks classifications in the United States

The United States government has classified fireworks and similar devices according to their potential hazards.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 143 KB) Summary Sand Diego Fireworks Download from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 143 KB) Summary Sand Diego Fireworks Download from http://www. ... Fourth of July redirects here. ... San Diego redirects here. ...

Previous US Department of Transportation (DOT) explosives classifications

Explosives, including fireworks, were previously divided into four classifications for transportation purposes by the DOT. The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ...

  • Class A explosives included high explosives such as dynamite, TNT, blasting caps, packages of flash powder, bulk packages of black powder and blasting agents such as ANFO and other slurry types of explosives.
  • Class B explosives included low explosives such packages of flash powder and "special" fireworks" which were the larger and more powerful fireworks used at most public displays.
  • Class C explosives included other low explosives such as igniters, fuses and "common fireworks", which were the smaller and less powerful fireworks available for sale to and use by the general public.

At the time most purchases and use of all of these explosives, with specific exceptions for high explosives purchased and used in state, black powder used for sporting purposes and common fireworks, required either a Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms {previous name for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)} license or permit to purchase and use, and/or a state or local license or permit to purchase and use. This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Class B blasting caps A blasting cap is a small explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful explosive such as dynamite. ... Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel which burns quickly and if confined will produce a loud report. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... ANFO stands for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (most often diesel fuel, sometimes kerosene or even molasses). ... A low explosive is a combustible substance that decomposes rapidly (deflagration), but doesnt explode under normal conditions. ... Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel which burns quickly and if confined will produce a loud report. ... A low explosive is a combustible substance that decomposes rapidly (deflagration), but doesnt explode under normal conditions. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ...


New explosives classes

The U.S. government now uses the United Nations explosives shipping classification system. This new system is based on hazard in shipping only, vs. the old USA system of both shipping and use hazards. The BATF and most states performed a direct substitution of Shipping Class 1.3 for Class B, and Shipping Class 1.4 for Class C. This allows some hazardous items that would have previously been classified as Class B and regulated to be classified as Shipping Class 1.4 due to some packaging method that confines any explosion to the package. Being Shipping Class 1.4, they can now be sold to the general public and are unregulated by the BATF. UN redirects here. ... The U.S. government now uses the United Nations explosives shipping classification system. ... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATFE or ATFE) is a law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice. ...


A code number and suffix (such as 1.3G) is not enough to fully describe a material and how it is regulated, especially in Shipping Class 1.4G. It also must have a UN Number that exactly describes the material. For example, common consumer fireworks are UN0336, or Shipping Class 1.4G UN0336.


Here are some common fireworks classes:

  • Class 1.1G (Mass Explosion Possible:Pyrotechnics) UN0094 Flashpowder
  • Class 1.1G (Mass Explosion Possible:Pyrotechnics) UN0333 Fireworks (Salutes in bulk or in manufacture)
  • Class 1.2G (Projection but not mass explosion:Pyrotechnics) UN0334 Fireworks (Rarely used)
  • Class 1.3G (Fire, Minor Blast:Pyrotechnics) UN0335 Fireworks (Most Display Fireworks) Current federal law states that (without appropriate ATF license/permit) the possession or sale of any display/professional fireworks is a felony punishable by up to 5 years in prison. Although some large firecraker items may be called "M-80's", "M-1000's", "Cherry bombs" or "Silver Salutes" by the manufacturer, they must contain less than 50-milligrams of flash or other explosive powder in order to be legally sold to consumers in the United States.
    • any ground salute device with over 50 milligrams of explosive composition
    • torpedoes (except for railroad signaling use)
    • multi-tube devices containing over 500 grams of pyrotechnic composition and without 1/2" space between each tube
    • any multiple tube fountains with over 500 grams of pyrotechnic composition and without 1/2" space between each tube
    • any reloadable aerial shells over 1.75" diameter
    • display shells
    • any single-shot or reloadable aerial shell/mine/comet/tube with over 60 grams of pyrotechnic composition
    • any Roman candle or rocket with over 20 grams of pyrotechnic composition
    • any aerial salute with over 130 milligrams of explosive composition
  • Class 1.4G (Minor Explosion Hazard Confined To Package:Pyrotechnics) UN0336 Fireworks (Consumer or Common Fireworks) Most popular consumer fireworks sold in the US.
    • reloadable aerial shells 1.75" or less sold in a box with not more than 12 shells and one launching tube
    • single-shot aerial tubes
    • bottle rockets
    • skyrockets and missiles
    • ground spinners, pinwheels and helicopters
    • flares & fountains
    • Roman candles
    • smoke and novelty items
    • multi-shot aerial devices, or "cakes"
    • firecracker packs (see this link for various brand/label images)
    • sparklers
    • Catherine wheel
    • black snakes and strobes
    • mines
  • Class 1.4S (Minor Explosion Hazard Confined To Package: Packed As To Not Hinder Nearby Firefighters) UN0336 Fireworks (Consumer or Common Fireworks)
  • Class 1.4G (Minor Explosion Hazard Confined To Package:Pyrotechnics) UN0431 ARTICLES, PYROTECHNIC for technical purposes (Proximate Pyrotechnics)
  • Class 1.4S (Minor Explosion Hazard Confined To Package: Packed As To Not Hinder Nearby Firefighters) UN0432 ARTICLES, PYROTECHNIC for technical purposes (Proximate Pyrotechnics)

Fireworks tubes are made by rolling thick paper tightly around a former, such as a dowel. They can be made by hand, most firework factories use machinery to manufacture tubes. Whenever tubes are used in fireworks, at least one end is always plugged with clay to keep both chemicals and burning gases from escaping through that end. The tooling is always made of non-sparking materials such as aluminium or brass. Experts at handling explosives, called pyrotechnicians, add chemicals for special effects. M-80s are a class of large firecrackers, sometimes called salutes. ... Cherry bomb fireworks are exploding fireworks, usually round, approximately one inch (2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In pyrotechnics a salute is a device primarily designed to make a loud report (bang), rather than have a visual effect. ... For other uses, see Bottle Rocket (disambiguation). ... A skyrocket is a type of firework that uses a solid rocket motor to rise quickly into the sky. ... A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cake firework, also known as a candle barrage is a firework comprising a series of roman candles connected together. ... For other uses, see Firecracker (disambiguation). ... For the Sparkers software label, see Creative Sparks. ... The Catherine wheel (also Catharine wheel, pinwheel) is a type of firework consisting of a powder-filled spiral tube, mounted with a pin through its centre. ...


British fireworks classification

Main article: British firework classification

Britain has its own system of classifying fireworks. British law classifies fireworks into four categories, listed in BS 7114: Category 1 (indoor) fireworks are for use in extremely restricted areas. ...

  • Category 1 - indoor fireworks, for use in small areas.
  • Category 2 - garden fireworks; must be safely viewable from 5 metres and must not scatter debris beyond 3 metres.
  • Category 3 - display fireworks; must be safely viewable from 25 metres and must not scatter debris beyond 50 metres.
  • Category 4 - professional fireworks; these require a license to use.

Pyrotechnic compounds

Copper compounds glow green or blue-green in a flame.
Copper compounds glow green or blue-green in a flame.
Main article: Pyrotechnic star

Colors in fireworks are usually generated by pyrotechnic stars–usually just called stars–which produce intense light when ignited. Stars contain five basic types of ingredients. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 242 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Flame test ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 242 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Flame test ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Pyrotechnic stars are pellets or simply pieces of pyrotechnic composition which may contain metal powders, salts or other compounds that, when ignited, burn a certain colour or exude a spark effect. ...

  • A fuel which allows the star to burn
  • An oxidizer—a compound which produces (usually) oxygen to support the combustion of the fuel
  • Color-producing chemicals
  • A binder which holds the pellet together.
  • A Chlorine Donor which provides chlorine to strengthen the color of the flame. Some times the oxidizer can serve this purpose.

Some of the more common color-producing compounds are tabulated here. The color of a compound in a firework will be the same as its color in a flame test (shown at right). Not all compounds that produce a colored flame are appropriate for coloring fireworks, however. Ideal colorants will produce a pure, intense color when present in moderate concentration. The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ...

Color Metal Example compounds
Red Strontium (intense red)

Lithium (medium red)

SrCO3 (strontium carbonate)

Li2CO3 (lithium carbonate) Flash point Not applicable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) is a the carbonate salt of strontium that has the appearance of a white or grey powder. ... Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is a carbonate salt of lithium. ...

Orange Calcium CaCl2 (calcium chloride)
Yellow Sodium NaNO3 (sodium nitrate)
Green Barium BaCl+ (barium chloride ions)
Blue Copper halides CuCl2 (copper chloride), at low temperature
Purple Potassium or Strontium + Copper KNO3 (Potassium Nitrate) or SrCl+ + CuCl+ (Strontium Chloride + Copper Chloride)
Gold Charcoal, iron, or lampblack
White Titanium, aluminium, or magnesium powders

The brightest stars, often called Mag Stars, are fueled by aluminium. Magnesium is rarely used in the fireworks Industry due to its lack of ability to form a protective oxide layer. Often an alloy of both metals called magnalium is used. R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Made of Porn and sex things Inhalation respiratory irritation Skin May cause irritation. ... Barium chloride is the chemical compound with the formula BaCl2. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... Copper forms two stable chlorides: Copper(I) chloride (cuprous chloride), CuCl, mineral name nantokite. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Soot, also called lampblack or carbon black, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the lack of sufficient oxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


Types of effects

Peony

A spherical break of colored stars. The peony is the most commonly seen shell type.


Chrysanthemum

A spherical break of colored stars, similar to a peony, but with stars that leave a visible trail of sparks.


Dahlia

Essentially the same as a peony shell, but with fewer and larger stars. These stars travel a longer-than-usual distance from the shell break before burning out. For instance, if a 3" peony shell is made with a star size designed for a 6" shell, it is then considered a dahlia. Some dahlia shells are cylindrical rather than spherical to allow for larger stars.


Willow

Similar to a chrysanthemum, but with long-burning silver or gold stars that produce a soft, dome-shaped weeping willow-like effect.


Palm

A collection of palm-shell fireworks illuminating the beach of Tybee Island, Georgia
A collection of palm-shell fireworks illuminating the beach of Tybee Island, Georgia

A shell containing a relative few large comet stars arranged in such a way as to burst with large arms or tendrils, producing a palm tree-like effect. Proper palm shells feature a thick rising tail that displays as the shell ascends, thereby simulating the tree trunk to further enhance the "palm tree" effect. One might also see a burst of color inside the palm burst (given by a small insert shell) to simulate coconuts. Image File history File linksMetadata Tybee_island_georgia_july_4_fireworks. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tybee_island_georgia_july_4_fireworks. ... Tybee Island is an island and a present-day city in Chatham County, Georgia near the city of Savannah. ... In pyrotechnics a comet is a block attached to the outside of a shell or launched freely, which burns and emits sparks as the shell is rising, leaving a trail in the sky. ...


Ring

A shell with stars specially arranged so as to create a ring. Variations include smiley faces, hearts, and clovers.


Diadem

A type of Peony or Chrysanthemum with a center cluster of non-moving stars, normally of a contrasting color or effect. The name comes from the Latin word for "jewel".


Kamuro

A typical kamuro effect
A typical kamuro effect

A dense burst of glittering silver or gold stars which leave a heavy glitter trail. The name refers to a common Japanese hairstyle. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 282 KB) Artillery shells from consumer fireworks produce spectacular effects from a unique perspective - underneath them. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 282 KB) Artillery shells from consumer fireworks produce spectacular effects from a unique perspective - underneath them. ...


Crossette

A shell containing several large stars that travel a short distance before breaking apart into smaller stars with a loud crackling sound, creating a crisscrossing grid-like effect. Once limited to silver or gold effects, colored crossettes such as red, green, or white are now very common.


Spider

A shell containing a fast burning tailed or charcoal star that is burst very hard so that the stars travel in a straight and flat trajectory before burning out. This appears in the sky as a series of radial lines much like the legs of a spider.

A typical spider effect
A typical spider effect

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Horsetail

Named for the shape of its break, this shell features heavy long-burning tailed stars that only travel a short distance from the shell burst before free-falling to the ground. Also known as a waterfall shell. Sometimes there is a glittering through the "waterfall."


Time Rain

An effect created by large, slow-burning stars within a shell that leave a trail of large glittering sparks behind and make a very loud sizzling noise. The "time" refers to the fact that these stars burn away gradually, as opposed to the standard brocade "rain" effect where a large amount of glitter material is released at once.


Multi-Break shells

A large shell containing several smaller shells of various sizes and types. The initial burst scatters the shells across the sky before they explode. Also called a bouquet shell. When a shell contains smaller shells of the same size and type, the effect is usually referred to as "Thousands". Very large bouquet shells (up to 48 inches) are frequently used in Japan.


Fish

Large inserts that propel themselves rapidly away from the shell burst, often looking like fish swimming away.


Salute

Main article: Salute (pyrotechnics)

A shell containing a large quantity of flash powder rather than stars, producing a quick flash followed by a very loud report. Titanium may be added to the flash powder mix to produce a cloud of bright sparks around the flash. Salutes are commonly used in large quantities during finales to create intense noise and brightness. They are often cylindrical in shape to allow for a larger payload of flash powder, but ball shapes are common and cheaper as well. Salutes are also called Maroons. In pyrotechnics a salute is a device primarily designed to make a loud report (bang), rather than have a visual effect. ... Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel which burns quickly and if confined will produce a loud report. ...


Lampare

A shell containing a burst charge of flash powder that sits above a container of liquid fuel, usually diesel fuel or kerosene, to produce a fireball in the sky. Flash powder is a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel which burns quickly and if confined will produce a loud report. ...


Mine

A mine (aka. pot-au-′feu) is a ground firework that expels stars and/or other garnitures into the sky. Shot from a mortar like a shell, a mine consists of a canister with the lift charge on the bottom with the effects placed on top. Mines can project small reports, serpents, small shells, as well as just stars. Although mines up to 12 inches in diameter appear on occasion, they are usually between 3 and 5 inches in diameter.


Roman Candle

Main article: Roman Candle

A Roman candle is a long tube containing several large stars which fire intermittently at a regular interval. These are commonly arranged in fan shapes or crisscrossing shapes, at a closer proximity to the audience. Some larger Roman candles contain small shells (bombettes) rather than stars. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Cake

Main article: Cake (firework)

A cake is a cluster of small tubes linked by fuse, that fire small aerial effects at a rapid pace. Tube diameters can range in size from ¼ inch to 4 inches, and can sometimes have over 1,000 shots. These are often used in large quantities as part of a show's finale. The variety of effects within individual cakes is often such that they defy descriptive titles and are instead given cryptic names such as "Bermuda Triangle", "Pyro Glyphics", "Waco Wakeup", and "Poisonous Spider", to name a few. Others are simply quantities of 2.5"-4" shells fused together in single-shot tubes. A cake firework, also known as a candle barrage is a firework comprising a series of roman candles connected together. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ... NASA image of the western Atlantic, showing the popular borders of the Bermuda Triangle. ...


Laws and politics

Safety of consumer fireworks in USA

Availability and use of consumer fireworks are hotly debated topics. Critics and safety advocates point to the numerous injuries and accidental fires that are attributed to fireworks as justification for banning or at least severely restricting access to fireworks. Complaints about excessive noise created by fireworks and the large amounts of debris and fallout left over after shooting are also used to support this position. There are numerous incidents of consumer fireworks being used in a manner that is supposedly disrespectful of the communities and neighborhoods where the users live.


Meanwhile, those who support more liberal firework laws look at the same statistics as the critics and conclude that, when used properly, consumer fireworks are a safer form of recreation than riding bicycles or playing soccer.[6]


The Consumer Product Safety Commission has guidelines concerning the standard of consumer fireworks sold in the US. Together with US Customs, they are very proactive in enforcing these rules, intercepting imported fireworks that don't comply and issuing recalls on unacceptable consumer fireworks that are found to have "slipped through". Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is the federal agency that regulates explosives, including Display Fireworks in the US. The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (U. S. CPSC) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government created in 1972 through the Consumer Product Safety Act to protect “against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products”. As of 2006 its acting chairman is Nancy Nord, a... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ...


Many states in the United States have laws which further restrict access to and use of consumer fireworks, and some of these states vigorously enforce them. Each year, there are many raids on individuals suspected of illegally possessing fireworks.


In 1998, a non-profit organisation called American Fireworks Safety Laboratory (AFSL) was established to develop a voluntary fireworks standard for the US to which members would adhere.[7]


The U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) as well as the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) have general jurisdiction over what types of fireworks may be legally sold in the United States. The federal law is only the minimum standard however, and each state is free to enact laws that are more stringent if they so choose. Citing concerns over fireworks safety, some states, such as California, have enacted legislation restricting fireworks usage to devices that do not leave the ground, such as fountains, while states such as New York , Massachusetts, and Delaware ban all consumer fireworks completely. Arizona allows only sparklers. On the other hand, states such as South Carolina and Tennessee allow most or all legal consumer fireworks to be sold and used throughout the year. New Mexico in some cases, will not allow fireworks from individual residents if the fireworks are said to detonate over 5 feet (1.5 m) in height. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ... The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (U. S. CPSC) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government created in 1972 through the Consumer Product Safety Act to protect “against unreasonable risks of injuries associated with consumer products”. As of 2006 its acting chairman is Nancy Nord, a... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


Pennsylvania is somewhere in between. The law only allows fireworks that don't leave the ground to be sold and used by residents. Yet residents from out of state and Pennsylvania residents with a permit can buy any consumer fireworks from an outlet. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Differences in legislation among states have led many fireworks dealers to set up shop along state borders in order to attract customers from neighboring states where fireworks are restricted. Some Native American tribes on reservation lands show similar behavior, often selling fireworks that are not legal for sale outside of the reservation. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


The type of fireworks sold in the United States vary widely, from fireworks which are legal under federal law, all the way to illegal explosive devices/professional fireworks that are sold on the black market. Both the illicit manufacture and diversion of illegal explosives to the consumer market have become a growing problem in recent years.


Safety of display fireworks in USA

Federal, state, and local authorities govern the use of display fireworks in the United States. At the federal level, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) sets forth a set of laws which give the minimum standards of display fireworks use and safety in the USA. Both state and local jurisdictions can further add restrictions on the use and safety requirements of display fireworks. Typically, these jurisdictions will require a licensed operator to discharge the show. Although requirements vary from state to state, licensed operators and their crew are typically required to have hours of extensive training in the safe use of display fireworks. The National Fire Protection Association (established 1896) is an independent, voluntary-membership, nonprofit (tax-exempt) organization. ...


These laws govern the way a licensed operator must set up and fire his display. These laws can include, but are not limited to, distance from the audience, maximum size shell, firing location requirements, electrical firing system requirements, and the minimum safety gear to be worn by the fireworks crew. The above mentioned laws are explained in the NFPA 1123 fireworks code.


Safety of commercial and display fireworks in Canada

Fireworks safety is considered to be extremely important in Canada. The use, storage and sale of commercial-grade fireworks in Canada is licensed by Natural Resources Canada's Explosive Regulatory Division (ERD). Unlike their consumer counterpart, commercial-grade fireworks function differently, and come in a wide range of sizes from 50 mm (2 inches) up to 300 mm (12 inches) or more in diameter. Commercial grade fireworks require handling permits issued by the Explosive Regulatory Division. Since commercial-grade fireworks are shells which are loaded into separate mortars by hand, there is danger in every stage of the setup.[8] Setup of these fireworks involves the placement and securing of mortars on wooden or wire racks; loading of the shells; and if electronically firing, wiring and testing. The mortars are generally made of FRE (Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy) or HDPE (High-Density Polyethelene), some older mortars are made of Sheet Steel, but have been banned by most countries due to the problem of shrapnel produced during a misfire. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) is a department of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... Polyethylene or polyethene is one of the simplest and most inexpensive polymers. ...


Setup of mortars in Canada for an oblong firing site require that a mortar be configured at an angle of 10 to 15 degrees down-range with a safety distance of at least 200 meters down-range and 100 meters surrounding the mortars, plus distance adjustments for wind speed and direction. In June of 2006, the ERD approved circular firing sites for use with vertically fired mortars with a safety distance of at least 175 meter radius, plus distance adjustments for wind speed and direction. [9]


Loading of shells is a delicate process, and must be done with caution, and a loader must ensure not only the mortar is clean, but also make sure that no part of their body is directly over the mortar in case of a premature fire. Wiring the shells is a painstaking process; whether the shells are being fired manually or electronically, any "chain fusing" or wiring of electrical ignitors, care must be taken to prevent the fuse (an electrical match, often incorrectly called a squib) from igniting. If the setup is wired electrically, the electrical matches are usually plugged into a "firing rail" or "breakout box" which runs back to the main firing board; from there, the Firing Board is simply hooked up to a car battery, and can proceed with firing the show when ready. A squib is a small explosive device which has a wide range of uses, such as generating mechanical forces as well as in pyrotechnic use. ...


Since commercial-grade fireworks are so much larger and more powerful, setup and firing crews are always under great pressure to ensure they safely set up, fire, and clean up after a show.


Safety of Consumer Fireworks In Britain

Safety of Consumer Fireworks in England, Scotland and Wales is always a widely discussed topic around Bonfire Night, November 5th. The most common injuries are burns from hand-held fireworks such as sparklers. There are also injuries due to people being hit by projectiles fired from fireworks, although these can usually be explained by people setting up fireworks incorrectly. Other issues include the dangers of falling rocket sticks, especially from larger rockets containing metal motors. "Shock" adverts have been used for many years in an attempt to restrict injuries from fireworks, especially targeted at young people. The vast majority of fireworks are "Category 3," all of which state that spectator must be at least 25 metres away when the firework is fired. This is a safety concern as few people have access to that amount of private space.


Safety of commercial and display fireworks in Britain

In the UK, responsibility for the safety of firework displays is shared between the Health and Safety Executive, fire brigades and local authorities. Currently, there is no national system of licencing for fireworks operators, but in order to purchase display fireworks, operators must have licenced explosives storage and public liability insurance. All reputable companies are members of either the Explosives Industry Group (EIG) of the Confederation of British Industry or the British Pyrotechnics Association (BPA). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE), reporting to the Health and Safety Commission, is the British government body responsible for the regulation of risks to health and safety in the UK. It was created as a result of the Health and Safety at Work, etc, Act 1974, and has since... CBI logo The Confederation of British Industry is a not for profit organisation incorporated by Royal charter[1] which promotes the interests of its members, some 200,000 British businesses, a figure which includes some 80% of FTSE 100 companies and around 50% of FTSE 350 companies. ...


Pollution

Fireworks produce smoke and dust that may contain residues of heavy metals, sulfur-coal compounds and some low concentration toxic chemicals. These by-products of fireworks combustion will vary depending on the mix of ingredients of a particular firework. (The color green, for instance, may be produced by adding the various compounds and salts of Barium, some of which are toxic, and some of which are not.) Some fisherman have noticed and reported to environmental authorities that firework residues can hurt fish and other waterlife because some may contain toxic compounds such as antimony sulfide. This is a subject of much debate due to the fact that large-scale pollution from other sources makes it difficult to measure the amount of pollution that comes specifically from fireworks. The possible toxicity of any fallout may also be affected by the amount of gunpowder used, type of oxidizer, colors produced and launch method. For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as...


Pollutants from fireworks raise concerns because of potential health risks associated with hazardous by-products. For most people the effects of exposure to low levels of toxins from many sources over long periods are unknown. For persons with asthma or multiple chemical sensitivity the smoke from fireworks may aggravate existing health problems. Environmental pollution is also a concern because heavy metals and other chemicals from fireworks may contaminate water supplies and because fireworks combustion gases might contribute to such things as acid rain which can cause vegetation and even property damage. However, gunpowder smoke and the solid residues are basic, and as such the net effect of fireworks on acid rain is debatable. The carbon used in fireworks is produced from wood and does not lead to more carbon dioxide in the air. What is not disputed is that most consumer fireworks leave behind a considerable amount of solid debris, including both readily biodegradable components as well as nondegradable plastic items. Concerns over pollution, consumer safety, and debris have restricted the sale and use of consumer fireworks in many countries. Professional displays, on the other hand, remain popular around the world.


Others argue that alleged concern over pollution from fireworks constitutes a red herring, since the amount of contamination from fireworks is minuscule in comparison to emissions from sources such as the burning of fossil fuels. In the US some states and local governments restrict the use of fireworks in accordance with the Clean Air Act which allows laws relating to the prevention and control of outdoor air pollution to be enacted. Few governmental entities, by contrast, effectively limit pollution from burning fossil fuels such as diesel fuel or coal. Coal fueled electricity generation alone is a much greater source of heavy metal contamination in the environment than fireworks. Smog over Shanghai. ...


Misconceptions on fireworks chemistry

Many journalists and websites misrepresent the chemical content of fireworks. This may be due to outdated information, a lack of research, or due to the potential for the rapid proliferation of factual inaccuracies on the Internet. Many of the chemicals used in the manufacture of fireworks are non-toxic, while many more have some degree of toxicity, can cause skin sensitivity, or exist in dust form and are thereby inhalation hazards. Still others are poisons if directly ingested or inhaled.


Some reports on fireworks incorrectly contend that fireworks contain chemicals such as radioactive barium, in effect creating radioactive fallout. Radioactive substances such as the isotopes of barium have no application in fireworks and are simply not used. Elemental lead, rubidium, and cadmium also are not used in fireworks, and their compounds see little if any use. Other reports contend that fireworks contain arsenic, dioxins, or other extremely poisonous chemicals, when in fact such chemicals are not used in modern-day fireworks. Such reports are simply false and are easily debunked with the use of common chemistry or pyrotechny texts, but this does little to stop the spread of these common inaccuracies.[10] For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ...


Laws governing consumer fireworks

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

United States

In the United States, the laws governing consumer fireworks vary widely from state to state, or from county to county. It is common for consumers to cross state and county lines in order to purchase types of fireworks which are outlawed in their home-jurisdictions. Fireworks laws in urban areas typically limit sales or use by dates or seasons. Municipalities may have stricter laws than their counties or states do.


The American Pyrotechnic Association maintains a directory of state laws pertaining to fireworks.


Five states (Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode Island) ban the sale of all consumer fireworks including novelties and sparklers by the general public. This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


One state (Arizona) permits residents to purchase and use only novelties. Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...


Four states (Illinois, Iowa, Maine, and Vermont) permit residents to purchase and use only wire or wood stick sparklers and other novelties. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Nineteen states (California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Idaho, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia) allow residents to purchase and use non-aerial and non-explosive fireworks like novelties, fountains and sparklers. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... ...


For example: California has very specific requirements for the types of consumer fireworks that can be sold to and used by residents. Even then each city can and often does place restrictions on sale and use. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Consumer fireworks are fireworks sold to the general public for use. ...


Another example: In Minnesota only consumer fireworks that do not explode or fly through the air are now permitted to be sold to and used by residents. In Nebraska the sale and use of all consumer fireworks are prohibited in Omaha, while in Lincoln there is a two day selling period and in other parts of the state all of the permitted types can be sold and used by residents. Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Consumer fireworks are fireworks sold to the general public for use. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Consumer fireworks are fireworks sold to the general public for use. ... Omaha is the name of some places in the United States: *Omaha, Nebraska (the most familiar one) Omaha, Georgia Omaha, Illinois Omaha, Texas It is also the name of a Native American tribe, after which the city in Nebraska is named; see Omaha (tribe). ... Nickname: Location in Nebraska Coordinates: , Country   State     County United States   Nebraska     Lancaster Founded[1]   Renamed   Incorporated 1856   July 29, 1867   April 1, 1869 Government  - Mayor Chris Beutler Area  - City 195. ...

Because some states restrict the in-state use of fireworks by purchasers, large fireworks stores, like this one near Richmond, Indiana, are sometimes located on state borders.
Because some states restrict the in-state use of fireworks by purchasers, large fireworks stores, like this one near Richmond, Indiana, are sometimes located on state borders.

Twenty states — Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington and Wyoming — permit the sale of all or most types of consumer fireworks to residents. Many of these states have selling seasons around the 4th of July and/or Christmas and New Year's Eve. Some of these states also allow local laws or regulations to further restrict the types permitted or the selling seasons. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Richmond (IPA: ) is a city in east central Indiana, which borders Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Consumer fireworks are fireworks sold to the general public for use. ...


For example: Missouri permits all types of consumer fireworks to be sold to residents with two selling seasons; June 20July 10 and December 20January 2. South Carolina permits all types of consumer fireworks except small rockets less than ½” in diameter and 3” long to be sold and used by residents year round. This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Two states (Hawaii and Nevada) allow each county to establish their own regulations. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ...


For example, Clark County, Nevada, where Las Vegas is located, allows residents to purchase and use only non-explosive and non-aerial consumer fireworks during the 4th of July, while other counties permit all types of consumer fireworks. Clark County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nevada. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...


Many states have stores with all types of consumer fireworks that sell to non-residents with the provision they are to remove the purchased fireworks from that state. This is why there are so many stores selling fireworks in states like Pennsylvania, Ohio, Florida, Missouri, New Hampshire, Nevada and Wisconsin with all types of consumer fireworks, even though residents are limited or prohibited from buying or using those very same consumer fireworks unless they have the appropriate licenses and/or permits. This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Many Native American Tribes have consumer fireworks stores on reservation lands that are exempt from state and local authority. However, they are not exempt from federal law.


Other countries

In the United Kingdom fireworks cannot be sold to people under the age of 18 and are not permitted to be set off between 11pm and 7am with exceptions only for New Year, Bonfire Night (5 November), the Chinese New Year and Diwali.[11] The legal NEC (Net Explosive Content) of a UK Firework available to the public is 2 Kilos- 4 times the legal amount in the USA. Jumping Jacks, Strings of Firecrackers, Shell Firing tubes, Bangers and Mini-Rockets were all banned during the 1990s. In 2004 single shot Air Bombs and Bottle Rockets were banned, and rocket sizes were limited. From March 2008 any firework with over 5% flashpowder per tube will be classified 1.3G, and as such will not be available to the public. The aim of these measures was to eliminate "pocket money" fireworks, and to limit the disruptive effects of loud bangs. For other uses, see New Year (disambiguation). ... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other traditions of celebrating lunar new year, see Lunar New Year. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ...


Fireworks in New Zealand are available from the 2nd-5th November, and may be purchased only by those 18 years of age and older (up from 14 years pre-2007). Despite the restriction on when fireworks may be sold, there is no restriction regarding when fireworks may be used. The types of fireworks available to the public are multi-shot "cakes", Roman candles, single shot shooters, ground and wall spinners, fountains, cones, sparklers, and various novelties, such as smoke bombs and Pharaoh's serpents. Skyrockets, and other fireworks where the firework itself flies, are specifically banned, as well as bangers and firecrackers. It is worth noting also that sparklers may not be bought by themselves, available only in larger packets containing other fireworks. This is because of the popularity of sparkler bombs. However, several retailers get around this rule by including a single cheap non-sparkler firework (i.e a fountain) in cheap sparkler assortment packages. These rules are for the 2007 Guy Fawkes season. [1]

Fireworks in New Zealand
Fireworks in New Zealand

[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (824x473, 73 KB) this a photo of a small selection of the specific types of fireworks available in New Zealand. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (824x473, 73 KB) this a photo of a small selection of the specific types of fireworks available in New Zealand. ...


In Bergen, Norway, fireworks can only be purchased by people 18 or older. Class 1.3G professional display fireworks are for sale, and only be fired between 6PM and 2AM on the celebration day.[citation needed] County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...


In Tasmania, Australia, Type 1 fireworks are permitted to be sold to the public. For anything that has a large explosion or gets airborne, users need to register for a Type 2 Licence. The Australian Capital Territory allows fireworks to be sold to residents 18 years or older during the week leading up to the Queen's Birthday long weekend for personal purposes. A similar allowance is made in the Northern Territory in the days leading up to Northern Territory Day (July 1). The types of fireworks allowed for sale is restricted to quieter fireworks, which can only be used during the long weekend and only at the address provided to the seller.[citation needed] Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... In Jersey the Lieutenant-Governor hosts a reception for the public at Government House to mark the Queens Official Birthday, at which he announces the names of recipients of Birthday Honours The Queens Official Birthday (sometimes known as the Queens Birthday) is celebrated as a public holiday... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004...


In the Netherlands, fireworks cannot be sold to anyone under the age of 16.[12]


In Iceland, the Icelandic law state that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. Most places that sell fireworks in Iceland make their own rules about age of buyers, usually it is around 16. The people of Reykjavík spend enormous sums of money on fireworks, most of which are fired as midnight approaches on December 31. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays. Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ...


In Ecuador, and indeed, most of South America, the common sense exists to sell essentially all types of imaginable fireworks.


See also

Look up firework in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ...

References

  1. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science & Civilisation in China, Vol. 5, Part 7: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 131–132. ISBN 0521303583. 
  2. ^ Crosby, Alfred W. (2002), Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521791588. Pages 100–103.
  3. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 489–503.
  4. ^ Walt Disney Company (June 28, 2004). Disney debuts new safer, quieter and more environmentally-friendly fireworks technology. Press Release.
  5. ^ Sydney New Years Eve 2007 | City of Sydney
  6. ^ "Fireworks: safer than candles, tableware." Dave Stoddard, Sacramento Ledger Dispatch, July 14, 2006.
  7. ^ American Fireworks Safety Laboratory
  8. ^ Natural Resources Canada, Explosive Regulatory Division. Display Fireworks Manual (March 2002 Edition)
  9. ^ http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mms/explosif/pdf/bull48_e.pdf Natural Resources Canada Explosive Branch Bulletin #48
  10. ^ AFSL Standards listing (Appendix A) prohibited and permitted chemicals
  11. ^ Statutory Instrument 2004 No. 1836 The Fireworks Regulations 2004, United Kingdom.
  12. ^ Article 2.3.5 of the [Vuurwerkbesluit], dated 22 January, 2002

Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ...

Further reading

Plimpton, George (1984). Fireworks: A History and Celebration. Doubleday. 0385154143. 


External links

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Look up firework in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Fireworks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2737 words)
The discovery of gunpowder and the subsequent invention of true fireworks is owed to the Chinese.
Fireworks cannot be sold to people under the age of 18 and setting them off between 11pm and 7am is only allowed at specific times of the year, including New Year and Bonfire night.
Fireworks are displayed annually on the second day of the first moon in the Chinese calendar since 1982 in the Victoria Harbour.
Fireworks - MSN Encarta (537 words)
Fireworks include substances or devices that produce, when ignited or activated, sound, smoke, motion, or a combination of these; thus military flare and smoke devices are also considered fireworks.
The essential constituents of most fireworks are a substance such as potassium nitrate (saltpeter) that supplies oxygen, and substances such as charcoal and sulfur that combine with the oxygen, producing heat and light.
The most elaborate and spectacular of the fireworks is the skyrocket, a rocket-propelled projectile that explodes high in the air to produce any of several types of display.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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